Scalable parallel systems or, more generally, distributed memory systems offer a challenging model of computing and pose fascinating problems regarding compiler optimization, ranging from language design to run time systems. Research in this area is foundational to many challenges from memory hierarchy optimizations to communication optimization. This unique, handbook-like monograph assesses the state of the art in the area in a systematic and comprehensive way. The 21 coherent chapters by leading researchers provide complete and competent coverage of all relevant aspects of compiler optimization for scalable parallel systems. The book is divided into five parts on languages, analysis, communication optimizations, code generation, and run time systems. This book will serve as a landmark source for education, information, and reference to students, practitioners, professionals, and researchers interested in updating their knowledge about or active in parallel computing.
Program restructuring methods, particularly loop transformations, are important optimization techniques used in parallelizing compilers. New developments in loop transformations have emerged recently based on unimodular transformations and general affine transformations. The purpose of this new book is to offer an explanation of how to incorporate these transformations in algorithms, which transformations apply, and how to optimize them. ,IScheduling and Automatic Parallelization offers a detailed and self-contained presentation for studying loop transformations, the detection of parallel loops, and how to use them to detect parallelism in a specific program. It provides careful explanation and exposition for all parallel-loop algorithms that have been designed recently in a framework of scheduling algorithms on cyclic graphs, primarily task graph scheduling and loop nest scheduling perspectives. Features and Topics: Complete state-of-the-art coverage of task graph scheduling Self-contained presentations that use an optimization perspective End-of-chapter exercises for reinforcement and practice Up-to-date results on acyclic scheduling in models with and without communication costs Scheduling cyclic graphs with one-dimensional and multi-dimensional weights Numerous detailed work examples used in text exposition Detailed coverage of parallel-loop detection algorithms Optimization perspective used for presentations High-performance Fortran (HPF) code used for algorithms The book is an essential text/reference for the latest developments in automatic parallelization methods used for scheduling, compilers, and program transformations. Professionals, researchers and graduates in computer science, software engineering, and computer engineering will find it an authoritative resource and reference. It is also suitable for self-study purposes by professionals and practitioners. Contents Preface Introduction I. Unidimensional Problems 1. Scheduling DAGs without Communications 1.1 Introduction 1.2 Where do task graphs come from? 1.3 Scheduling DAGs 1.4 Solving Pb(\infty) 1.5 Solving Pb(p ) 1.5.1 NP-completeness of Pb(p ) 1.5.2 List heuristics 1.5.3 Implementing a list scheduling 1.5.4 Critical path scheduling 1.6 Conclusion 1.7 Bibliographical notes 1.8 Exercises 2. Scheduling DAGs with Communications 2.1 Introduction 2.2 A model with communication costs 2.3 NP-completeness of Pb(\infty) 2.4 A guaranteed heuristic for Pb(\infty) 2.4.1 Favorite successors 2.4.2 Hanen and Munier's heuristic 2.5 List heuristics for Pb(p ) 2.5.1 Naive critical path 2.5.2 Modified critical path 2.5.3 Hints for comparison 2.6 Two-step clustering heuristics 2.6.1 Heuristics for the clustering phase 2.6.2 From clustering to scheduling with limited resources 2.6.3 Clustering epilogue 2.7 Linear clustering 2.8 Conclusion 2.9 Bibliographical Notes 2.10 Exercises 3. Cyclic Scheduling 3.1 Introduction 3.2 Problem formulation 3.2.1 An example 3.2.2 Average cycle time 3.2.3 Playing with the example 3.2.4 Problem formulation: summary 3.2.5 Lower bounds for the average cycle time 3.3 Solving BCS(\infty) 3.3.1 Scheduling potential graphs 3.3.2 The Bellman-Ford algorithm 3.3.3 Optimal schedule for unlimited resources 3.4 Solving BCS(p ) 3.4.1 NP-completeness of BCS(p ) 3.4.2 Loop compaction 3.4.3 Loop shifting 3.4.4 The Leiserson-Saxe retiming algorithm 3.4.5 Minimizing the number of constraints in A(Gr) 3.5 Bibliographical Notes 3.6 Exercises II. Multidimensional problems 4. Systems of Uniform Recurrence Equations 4.1 Introduction 4.2 Computability of a SURE 4.2.1 Definition of a SURE 4.2.2 Computability: definition and properties 4.3 URE and linear scheduling 4.3.1 Introduction 4.3.2 Construction of dependence paths 4.3.3 Computability criterion for a single equation 4.3.4 Optimal linear schedules 4.3.5 Conclusion 4.4 SURE and multidimensional scheduling 4.4.1 Introduction 4.4.2 Detecting zero weight cycles 4.4.3 Construction and properties of G' 4.4.4 Optimal multidimensional schedule for a SURE 4.4.5 Conclusion 4.5 Bibliographical notes 4.6 Exercises 4.6.1 Computability 4.6.2 SURE and linear scheduling 4.6.3 SURE and multidimensional scheduling 5. Parallelism Detection in Nested Loops 5.1 Introduction 5.2 Dependence analysis and abstraction 5.2.1 Nested loops and dependence relations 5.2.2 Dependence analysis 5.2.3 Approximations of distance sets 5.3 Allen and Kennedy's algorithm 5.3.1 Loop distribution 5.3.2 Basic algorithm 5.4 Unimodular transformations 5.4.1 Definition and validity 5.4.2 The hyperplane method (uniform loop nests) 5.4.3 The hyperplane method (direction vectors) 5.4.4 Wolf and Lam's algorithm 5.5 Darte and Vivien's algorithm 5.5.1 Motivation 5.5.2 Uniformization 5.5.3 Computability of a PRDG 5.5.4 Scheduling a PRDG 5.5.5 Extension to medium-grain parallelization 5.5.6 Comparison with ALLEN-KENNEDY and WOLF-LAM 5.6 Feautrier's algorithm 5.6.1 Monodimensional algorithm 5.6.2 Extension to multidimensional scheduling 5.6.3 Extension to other dependence representations 5.6.4 Comparison with DARTE-VIVIEN 5.7 Optimality 5.7.1 The difficulty to define an 'optimality' notion 5.7.2 A formal definition 5.7.3 Optimality of ALLEN-KENNEDY 5.7.4 Optimality of WOLF-LAM 5.7.5 Optimality of DARTE-VIVIEN 5.7.6 Sub-Optimality of Feautrier 5.7.7 Conclusion Bibliography Index
Will Moritz follow the pleas of the wolf and release him from his hopeless situation? Can he overcome his fears and come to trust the wolf? The story of the Wolf highlights the often ruthless way humans regard and treat wild animals. Fears are raised to justify reckless behaviour. Statements are unquestioned and stories alleged to be "truths".
Holy hand grenades! Edo is flooded, and by flooded, we mean crazy-flooded. Bridges are crumbling, rivers are washing past retaining walls, and everything in Edo is floating away, including our vengeful ronin, his foe, and his little boy. In an ironic show of samurai respect, little Cub Daigoro gets saved by the conniving Retsudo Yagyu. And proving he can lend a hand, too, Lone Wolf Ogami pulls someone to safety as well -- but maybe he should have let him drown. Eventually, the two opposing master swordsmen dry off and go head to head in a sword fight of a thousand stances and couple of days length. This seems like it could be the deciding bout between the two, unless that nasty, Abeno Kaii gets in the way, and he seems to do that a lot lately.
The #1-selling graphic-novel sensation continues! The Lone Wolf and his cub, father and son, are separated by the hatred of the Yagyu -- and the path to togetherness is lined with blood and honor. As Ogami continues his search for little Daigoro, he must battle deadly Yagyu assassins and aspiring, cocky samurai. He prepares to give them a taste of his blade... Meanwhile, Daigoro visits a crazed old woman living under a bridge, and teaches her a valuable lesson. In these and other stories in this volume, Lone Wolf and Cub continue to unlock the mystery of the Yagyu, one step closer to the truth behind his quest for vengeance. Prepare for more legendary action, in a handy size that fits in your back pocket! This volume contains the following stories: Talisman of Hades Ailing Star Thirteen Strings A Poem for the Grave
Author : Annette Smith
ISBN : 0170098451
Genre : Fairy tales
File Size : 82.9 MB
Format : PDF, ePub
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This traditional Russian tale is about Peter's triumphant capture of the Wolf. The retelling is based on the familiar musical version of Peter and the Wolf that introduces children to instruments of the orchestra.
Author : Claudia J. Carr
ISBN : 9783319504698
Genre : Law
File Size : 90.9 MB
Format : PDF, Docs
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This book is open access under a CC BY-NC 2.5 license. This book offers a devastating look at deeply flawed development processes driven by international finance, African governments and the global consulting industry. It examines major river basin development underway in the semi-arid borderlands of Ethiopia, Kenya and South Sudan and its disastrous human rights consequences for a half-million indigenous people. The volume traces the historical origins of Gibe III megadam construction along the Omo River in Ethiopia—in turn, enabling irrigation for commercial-scale agricultural development and causing radical reduction of downstream Omo and (Kenya's) Lake Turkana waters. Presenting case studies of indigenous Dasanech and northernmost Turkana livelihood systems and Gibe III linked impacts on them, the author predicts agropastoral and fishing economic collapse, region-wide hunger with exposure to disease epidemics, irreversible natural resource destruction and cross-border interethnic armed conflict spilling into South Sudan. The book identifies fundamental failings of government and development bank impact assessments, including their distortion or omission of mandated transboundary assessment, cumulative effects of the Gibe III dam and its linked Ethiopia-Kenya energy transmission 'highway' project, key hydrologic and human ecological characteristics, major earthquake threat in the dam region and widespread expropriation and political repression. Violations of internationally recognized human rights, especially by the Ethiopian government but also the Kenyan government, are extensive and on the increase—with collaboration by the development banks, in breach of their own internal operational procedures. A policy crossroads has now emerged. The author presents the alternative to the present looming catastrophe—consideration of development suspension in order to undertake genuinely independent transboundary assessment and a plan for continued development action within a human rights framework—forging a sustainable future for the indigenous peoples now directly threatened and for their respective eastern Africa states. Claudia Carr’s book is a treasure of detailed information gathered over many years concerning river basin development of the Omo River in Ethiopia and its impact on the peoples of the lower Omo Basin and the Lake Turkana region in Kenya. It contains numerous maps, charts, and photographs not previously available to the public. The book is highly critical of the environmental and human rights implications of the Omo River hydropower projects on both the local ethnic communities in Ethiopia and on the downstream Turkana in Kenya. David Shinn Former Ambassador to Ethiopia and to Burkina Faso Adjust Professor of International Affairs, The George Washington University, Washington D.C.
The Shogun himself has given Retsudo a stern warning: do something about Itto Ogami, the Lone Wolf, or the Yagyu clan will fall out of favor. Now Retsudo must turn to the Fire Watchers, a select band of warriors, for help — as well as the last surviving members of the legendary Kurokuwa ninja clan! As death stalks him, Ogami is confronted by desperate, impoverished peasants who want him to share his fortune with the suffering. With Ogami's cub, Daigoro, caught in the middle, what will he decide? Find out what everyone can't stop talking about. This volume contains the following stories: Firewatchers of the Black Gate The Immortal Firewatchers Paper Money Lifeline Twilight of the Kurokuwa