Cycloadditions In Bioorthogonal Chemistry

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Cycloadditions In Bioorthogonal Chemistry

Author : Milan Vrabel
ISBN : 9783319296869
Genre : Science
File Size : 88.4 MB
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The series Topics in Current Chemistry Collections presents critical reviews from the journal Topics in Current Chemistry organized in topical volumes. The scope of coverage is all areas of chemical science including the interfaces with related disciplines such as biology, medicine and materials science. The goal of each thematic volume is to give the non-specialist reader, whether in academia or industry, a comprehensive insight into an area where new research is emerging which is of interest to a larger scientific audience. Each review within the volume critically surveys one aspect of that topic and places it within the context of the volume as a whole. The most significant developments of the last 5 to 10 years are presented using selected examples to illustrate the principles discussed. The coverage is not intended to be an exhaustive summary of the field or include large quantities of data, but should rather be conceptual, concentrating on the methodological thinking that will allow the non-specialist reader to understand the information presented. Contributions also offer an outlook on potential future developments in the field.
Category: Science

Cycloadditions In Bioorthogonal Chemistry

Author : David Phillips
ISBN : 1979607915
Genre :
File Size : 50.6 MB
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Each review within the volume critically surveys one aspect of that topic and places it within the context of the volume as a whole. The most significant developments of the last 5 to 10 years are presented using selected examples to illustrate the principles discussed. The coverage is not intended to be an exhaustive summary of the field or include large quantities of data, but should rather be conceptual, concentrating on the methodological thinking that will allow the non-specialist reader to understand the information presented. Contributions also offer an outlook on potential future developments in the field.The scope of coverage is all areas of chemical science including the interfaces with related disciplines such as biology, medicine and materials science. The goal of each thematic volume is to give the non-specialist reader, whether in academia or industry, a comprehensive insight into an area where new research is emerging which is of interest to a larger scientific audience.
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Modern Applications Of Cycloaddition Chemistry

Author : Paolo Quadrelli
ISBN : 9780128152744
Genre : Science
File Size : 68.25 MB
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Modern Applications of Cycloaddition Chemistry examines this area of organic chemistry, with special attention paid to cycloadditions in synthetic and mechanistic applications in modern organic chemistry. While many books dedicated to cycloaddition reactions deal with the synthesis of heterocycles, general applications, specific applications in natural product synthesis, and the use of a class of organic compounds, this work sheds new light on pericyclic reactions by demonstrating how these valuable tools elegantly solve synthetic and mechanistic problems. The work examines how pericyclic reactions have been extensively applied to different chemistry areas, such as chemical biology, biological processes, catalyzed cycloaddition reactions, and more. This work will be useful for organic chemists who deal with organic chemistry, medicinal chemistry, agrochemistry and material chemistry. Provides details on the synthesis of antiviral and anticancer compounds, marking the key role of unconventional catalyzed cycloaddition reactions for preparing new derivatives in a unique reaction pathway that is scalable in industrial processes Contains the most up-to-date review of the use of pericyclic reactions in drug delivery Includes the enzyme-catalyzed processes involving cycloaddition reactions for different targets, demonstrating that cycloaddition is more common in nature than expected Features new applications for cycloadditions in material chemistry and provides a general view of the most recent results in the area
Category: Science

Radionanomedicine

Author : Dong Soo Lee
ISBN : 9783319677200
Genre : Science
File Size : 25.83 MB
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This book describes radionanomedicine as an integrated medicine using exogenous and endogenous This book describes radionanomedicine as an integrated approach that uses exogenous and endogenous nanomaterials for in vivo and human applications. It comprehensively explains radionanomedicine comprising nuclear and nanomedicine, demonstrating that it is more than radionanodrugs and that radionanomedicine also takes advantage of nuclear medicine using trace technology, in which miniscule amounts of materials and tracer kinetic elucidate in vivo biodistribution. It also discusses exogenous nanomaterials such as inorganic silica, iron oxide, upconversion nanoparticles and quantum dots or organic liposomes labelled with radioisotopes, and radionanomaterials used for targeted delivery and imaging for theranostic purposes. Further, it examines endogenous nanomaterials i.e. extracellular vesicles labelled with radioisotopes, known as radiolabelled extracellular vesicles, as well as positron emission tomography (PET) and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), which elucidate the biodistribution and potential for therapeutic success.
Category: Science

Chemoselective And Bioorthogonal Ligation Reactions

Author : W. Russ Algar
ISBN : 9783527334360
Genre : Science
File Size : 35.47 MB
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This timely, one-stop reference is the first on an emerging and interdisciplinary topic. Covering both established and recently developed ligation chemistries, the book is divided into two didactic parts: a section that focuses on the details of bioorthogonal and chemoselective ligation reactions at the level of fundamental organic chemistry, and a section that focuses on applications, particularly in the areas of chemical biology, biomaterials, and bioanalysis, highlighting the capabilities and benefits of the ligation reactions. With chapters authored by outstanding scientists who range from trailblazers in the field to young and emerging leaders, this book on a highly interdisciplinary topic will be of great interest for biochemists, biologists, materials scientists, pharmaceutical chemists, organic chemists, and many others.
Category: Science

Chemical Tools For Imaging Manipulating And Tracking Biological Systems Diverse Chemical Optical And Bioorthogonal Methods

Author :
ISBN : 9780128211557
Genre : Science
File Size : 77.78 MB
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Chemical Tools for Imaging, Manipulating, and Tracking Biological Systems: Diverse Chemical, Optical and Bioorthogonal Methods, Volume 641 in the Methods in Enzymology series, continues the legacy of this premier serial with quality chapters authored by leaders in the field. Chapters in this new release include caged cyclopropanes with improved tetrazine ligation kinetics, an analysis of metabolically labeled inositol phosphate messengers by NMR, cell-permeant caged inositol pyrophosphates for probing β-cells, imaging phospholipase D activity with clickable alcohols via transphosphatidylation, fluorescent biorthogonal labeling of class B GPCRs in live cells, near-infrared photoactivatable nitric oxide donors with integrated photoacoustic monitoring, and much more. Provides the authority and expertise of leading contributors from an international board of authors Presents the latest release in the Methods in Enzymology series Includes the latest information on retinoid signaling pathways
Category: Science

Rna Structure And Folding

Author : Dagmar Klostermeier
ISBN : 9783110284959
Genre : Science
File Size : 81.75 MB
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While structure-function relationships of proteins have been studied for a long time, structural studies of RNA face additional challenges. Nevertheless, with the continuous discovery of novel RNA molecules with key cellular functions and of novel pathways and interaction networks, the need for structural information of RNA is still increasing. This volume provides an introduction into techniques to assess structure and folding of RNA. Each chapter explains the theoretical background of one technique, and illustrates possibilities and limitations in selected application examples.
Category: Science

Chemistry And Industry

Author :
ISBN : UCSD:31822041000209
Genre : Chemistry, Technical
File Size : 89.54 MB
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Category: Chemistry, Technical

Acyclic Hydrocarbons Advances In Research And Application 2012 Edition

Author :
ISBN : 9781464995750
Genre : Science
File Size : 89.66 MB
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Acyclic Hydrocarbons—Advances in Research and Application: 2012 Edition is a ScholarlyEditions™ eBook that delivers timely, authoritative, and comprehensive information about Acyclic Hydrocarbons. The editors have built Acyclic Hydrocarbons—Advances in Research and Application: 2012 Edition on the vast information databases of ScholarlyNews.™ You can expect the information about Acyclic Hydrocarbons in this eBook to be deeper than what you can access anywhere else, as well as consistently reliable, authoritative, informed, and relevant. The content of Acyclic Hydrocarbons—Advances in Research and Application: 2012 Edition has been produced by the world’s leading scientists, engineers, analysts, research institutions, and companies. All of the content is from peer-reviewed sources, and all of it is written, assembled, and edited by the editors at ScholarlyEditions™ and available exclusively from us. You now have a source you can cite with authority, confidence, and credibility. More information is available at http://www.ScholarlyEditions.com/.
Category: Science

Heterocycles From Carbohydrate Precursors

Author : El Sayed H. El Ashry
ISBN : 9783540729570
Genre : Science
File Size : 47.92 MB
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This book is a volume in the series Topics in Heterocyclic Chemistry.Itc- ers the key methods used for designing synthetic approaches to heterocycles from carbohydrates and the value and scope of these methods. Carbohydrates are widely distributed in nature and constitute the largest part of renewable biomasses. Moreover, many carbohydrates and their derivatives are comm- cially available at relatively cheap prices. Consequently their utilization is highly encouraged and economically they are of great signi?cance. Moreover, carbohydrates are highly functionalized compounds that can be readily deri- tized and/or cyclized to provide heterocyclic compounds. This book provides a modern account and an up-to-date description of the advancement in the synthesis of diverse heterocycles from carbohydrates. Carbohydrates can be considered as a source of chiral centers in addition to the variable modi?cation thereof. Herein the elaboration of the carbohydrate molecules for providing different heterocycles is the main objective and team efforts from leaders of the topics has been gathered in this volume. This book is designed to be suitable for students and researchers. It is highly recommended as a reference book and for teaching the fascinating topics related to carbohydrates, heterocycles and organic synthesis. In addition to its importance in academia, it is also an excellent source for information about the variety of methods used in the synthesis of heterocycles important to industry.
Category: Science

Click Chemistry For Biotechnology And Materials Science

Author : Joerg Lahann
ISBN : 0470748850
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 73.68 MB
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Mimicking natural biochemical processes, click chemistry is a modular approach to organic synthesis, joining together small chemical units quickly, efficiently and predictably. In contrast to complex traditional synthesis, click reactions offer high selectivity and yields, near-perfect reliability and exceptional tolerance towards a wide range of functional groups and reaction conditions. These ‘spring loaded’ reactions are achieved by using a high thermodynamic driving force, and are attracting tremendous attention throughout the chemical community. Originally introduced with the focus on drug discovery, the concept has been successfully applied to materials science, polymer chemistry and biotechnology. The first book to consider this topic, Click Chemistry for Biotechnology and Materials Science examines the fundamentals of click chemistry, its application to the precise design and synthesis of macromolecules, and its numerous applications in materials science and biotechnology. The book surveys the current research, discusses emerging trends and future applications, and provides an important nucleation point for research. Edited by one of the top 100 young innovators with the greatest potential to have an impact on technology in the 21st century according to Technology Review and with contributions from pioneers in the field, Click Chemistry for Biotechnology and Materials Science provides an ideal reference for anyone wanting to learn more about click reactions.
Category: Technology & Engineering

Chemical Glycobiology

Author : Chen, Xi
ISBN : UOM:39015075633399
Genre : Language Arts & Disciplines
File Size : 41.22 MB
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Although the process of understanding the biological functions of carbohydrates has developed slowly due to the lack of efficient approaches in obtaining and studying these structures, in the past two decades, remarkable advances have been made in chemical and chemoenzymatic synthesis of carbohydrates and glycoconjugates. The material presented in this volume shows how a better understanding of the structure and the function of carbohydrate-containing bacterial cell wall has revealed that carbohydrate-containing molecules and carbohydrate-like structures are useful as carbohydrate-based anti-microbial vaccines, anti-viral drugs, anti-coagulants, anti-cancer drugs, and potential anti-cancer vaccines. In addition, the text explores the important roles that novel glycolipids have been found to play in the immune system. Metabolic engineering has demonstrated itself as an efficient approach to probe and manipulate biological functions of carbohydrates both in vitro and in vivo. Automated glycan analysis, carbohydrate microarrays, and novel high-throughput screening methods have hastened the analysis and the understanding of carbohydrate-containing structures. Polypeptide-based glycopolymers have been developed for the study of multivalent binding events of carbohydrates and proteins. This text presents examples of these recent developments in using chemical techniques and tools to study glycobiology. This is an excellent reference book for upper-division undergraduate students, graduate students, and researchers who are interested in carbohydrate-related medicinal chemistry, organic chemistry, biology, and chemical biology.
Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Far Field Optical Nanoscopy

Author : Philip Tinnefeld
ISBN : 9783662455470
Genre : Science
File Size : 28.54 MB
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This book describes developments in the field of super-resolution fluorescence microscopy or nanoscopy. In 11 chapters, distinguished scientists and leaders in their respective fields describe different nanoscopy approaches, various labeling technologies, and concrete applications. The topics covered include the principles and applications of the most popular nanoscopy techniques STED and (f)PALM/STORM, along with advances brought about by fluorescent proteins and organic dyes optimized for fluorescence nanoscopy. Furthermore, the photophysics of fluorescent labels is addressed, specifically for improving their photoswitching capabilities. Important applications are also discussed, such as the tracking and counting of molecules to determine acting forces in cells, and quantitative cellular imaging, respectively, as well as the mapping of chemical reaction centers at the nano-scale. The 2014 Chemistry Nobel Prize® was awarded for the ground-breaking developments of super-resolved fluorescence microscopy. In this book, which was co-edited by one of the prize winners, readers will find the most recent developments in this field.
Category: Science

Journal

Author : American Chemical Society
ISBN : NYPL:33433068514623
Genre : Chemistry
File Size : 87.4 MB
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Category: Chemistry

Computational Investigations Of New Bioorthogonal Cycloadditions And Organic Semiconducting Materials

Author : Steven Alexander Lopez
ISBN : OCLC:1078237637
Genre :
File Size : 61.39 MB
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The first part of this thesis describes how quantum mechanical calculations using density functional theory (DFT) have been used to understand mechanisms, reactivities, and stereoselectivities of cycloadditions for applications in organic synthesis. Cycloadditions are among the most important tools to synthetic organic chemists, because complex natural products can be constructed efficiently and with high atom economy. These reactions have emerged as tools by which chemical biologists can label biomolecules (i.e. lipids, sugars, nucleic acids) with fluorophores rapidly and selectively. The second part of the thesis describes my contributions to morphology (molecular dynamics) and hole mobility simulations of organic semiconducting materials. Chapter 1 describes the origin of the exo-stereoselectivities of a series of norbornenes towards phenyl azide. The exo-stereoselectivities arise from alkene pyramidalization, which causes the alkene to more closely resembles the exo transition state than the endo transition state. Chapter 2 builds upon the previous studies of predistorted alkenes to include concave-stereoselective cycloadditions to an oxabicyclo[3.3.0]octene in collaboration with Gais et al. The alkene moiety of the oxabicyclo[3.3.0]octene is pre-distorted in the convex direction, resulting in a preference for concave addition. Calculations on a Pd-catalyzed (3+2) cycloaddition mechanism reveal that the rate- and stereodetermining step is the addition of the -complex to the oxabicyclo[3.3.0]octene. Chapter 3 illustrates the concept of mutually orthogonal bioorthogonal reactions; the origin of this extraordinary selectivity is determined with DFT calculations. The azide-dibenzocyclooctyne and trans-cyclooctene-tetrazine cycloadditions are both inert to biological media and mutually orthogonal: trans-cyclooctene derivatives greatly prefer to react with tetrazines rather than azides, while dibenzocyclooctyne derivatives react with azides but not with tetrazines. Dibenzocyclooctyne chemoselectivity is controlled by distortion energy, and trans-cyclooctene chemoselectivity is controlled by interaction energy. Chapter 4 describes a mutually orthogonal bioorthogonal pair of isomeric 1,3-disubstituted and 3,3-disubstituted cyclopropenes that are chemoselective for reactions with tetrazines (Diels-Alder cycloaddition) and nitrile imines (1,3-dipolar cycloaddition), respectively. Prescher et al. discovered that 3,3-disubstituted cyclopropenes react exclusively with nitrile imines over tetrazines because of unfavorable steric clashes in the alkene-tetrazine transition state (distortion energy control), whereas and 1,3-disubstituted cyclopropenes react exclusively with tetrazines because of more favorable orbital interactions in the transition state (interaction energy control). Chapter 5 describes calculations on enamine-azide cycloadditions. The reactions are concerted, and the high regioselectivities are controlled by interaction energy. Chapter 6 extends our understanding of enamine-azide cycloadditions for a wide scope of perfluoroarylazides (PFAAs) towards acetophenone- and phenylacetaldehyde-derived enamines in collaboration with Yan et al. Enamines undergo cycloadditions several orders of magnitude faster with perfluoroarylazides than with phenyl azide, because PFAAs have relatively low-lying LUMOs. The 1,3-dipolar cycloadditions of norbornene and DIBAC also show increased reactivity towards PFAAs over phenyl azide, but are slower than enamine-azide cycloaddition. Chapter 7 is a theoretical study of 4 -electrocyclic ring-opening reactions of N-substituted-2-azetines, for a wide range of substituents from acceptors (e.g., CHO, CN) to donors (NMe2, OMe). Reactivity is controlled by a reactant state effect; acceptor substituents delocalize the nitrogen lone pair and stabilize the reactant state of 2-azetines. Torquoselectivities are controlled by a favorable nN- *CC orbital interaction upon inward rotation of the N -substituent. The torquoselectivities and reactivities of 4-fluoroalkyl-oxetenes are considered in Chapter 8 in collaboration with Mikami et al. The torquoselectivities are controlled by the interplay of closed-shell repulsions and a favorable through-space orbital interaction between the breaking CO orbital and the *CF orbital of the fluoroalkyl substitutent. The electronic character of the substituent of 4-substituted oxetenes controls oxetene electrocyclic ring opening rates. The last two chapters of the thesis focus on studies of the factors that control the performance of extended -conjugated materials in organic field-effect transistors (OFETs). Chapter 9 outlines how a multiscale method is used to extract hole mobilities for 2,5-bis(3-tetradecylthiophen-2-yl)thieno[3,2-b]-thiophene (BTTT) semiconducting materials. Brisen o et al. report that BTTT monomers and dimers bearing alkyl side chains have hole mobilities of ~10-3 cm2/Vs, while the unsubstituted BTTT monomer has undetectable hole mobilities. Molecular dynamics simulations suggest that alkyl side chains improve crystal packing because of inter alkyl chain dispersive interactions. Chapter 10 explores the photooxidation rubrene to the corresponding endo-peroxide. DFT calculations of the cycloaddition and subsequent acid-catalyzed rearrangement mechanism are included.
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