Crispr Technology

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Crispr Technology

Author : Paul F. Kisak
ISBN : 1548451517
Genre :
File Size : 88.27 MB
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CRISPR is an acronym for Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats which are segments of prokaryotic DNA containing short, repetitive base sequences. These play a key role in a bacterial defense system and form the basis of a genome editing technology known as CRISPR/Cas9 that allows permanent modification of genes within organisms. In a palindromic repeat, the sequence of nucleotides is the same in both directions. Each repetition is followed by short segments of spacer DNA from previous exposures to foreign DNA (e.g., a virus or plasmid). Small clusters of cas (CRISPR-associated system) genes are located next to CRISPR sequences. The CRISPR/Cas system is a prokaryotic immune system that confers resistance to foreign genetic elements such as those present within plasmids and phages that provides a form of acquired immunity. RNA harboring the spacer sequence helps Cas proteins recognize and cut exogenous DNA. Other RNA-guided Cas proteins cut foreign RNA. CRISPRs are found in approximately 40% of sequenced bacterial genomes and 90% of sequenced archaea. A simple version of the CRISPR/Cas system, CRISPR/Cas9, has been modified to edit genomes. By delivering the Cas9 nuclease complexed with a synthetic guide RNA (gRNA) into a cell, the cell's genome can be cut at a desired location, allowing existing genes to be removed and/or new ones added. The Cas9-gRNA complex corresponds with the CAS III crRNA complex in the above diagram. CRISPR/Cas genome editing techniques have many potential applications, including medicine and crop seed enhancement. The use of CRISPR/Cas9-gRNA complex for genome editing was the AAAS's choice for breakthrough of the year in 2015. Bioethical concerns have been raised about the prospect of using CRISPR for germline editing. This book is designed to be a state of the art, superb academic reference work and provide an overview of the topic and give the reader a structured knowledge to familiarize yourself with the topic at the most affordable price possible. The accuracy and knowledge is of an international viewpoint as the edited articles represent the inputs of many knowledgeable individuals and some of the most current knowledge on the topic, based on the date of publication.

University Technology Transfer

Author : Tom Hockaday
ISBN : 9781421437057
Genre : Education
File Size : 76.74 MB
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Tackling a complex topic in clear language, the book reveals the impressive scale of patenting, licensing, and spin-out company creation while demonstrating that university technology transfer is a commercial activity with benefits that go well beyond the opportunity to make money.
Category: Education

Genetics In Medicine

Author : Barbara Jennings
ISBN : 9780198841555
Genre : Gene therapy
File Size : 29.52 MB
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Written primarily for students embarking on an undergraduate bioscience degree, this primer will review the essential biological concepts that underpin any programme of more advanced study and give early-stage undergraduates the opportunity to review topics about which they may feelunder-prepared or less confident.Genetic medicine has entered an era of rapid expansion. It is no longer just relevant to families affected by rare congenital disorders, but has the potential to affect the diagnosis and treatment of most common complex diseases.The successful application of new genetic science in the decades ahead will depend on the next generation of undergraduates or university applicants, who are now planning their careers as Biologists and Clinicians.This primer explores core concepts about heredity and genome analysis, illustratescurrent clinical practice with case-histories, and discusses the potentials and pitfalls of personalised medicine.
Category: Gene therapy

The Human Gene Editing Debate

Author : John H. Evans
ISBN : 9780197519561
Genre : Medical
File Size : 71.40 MB
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For decades, the debate on human gene-editing has identified and agreed upon certain limits that draw the line between ethical and unethical territory: for example, applications for diseases are accepted, but not for enhancements. However, society keeps pushing the limits, as seen with the advent of CRISPR technology and the birth of the first genetically modified babies in China. John H. Evans rethinks how we discuss and debate these collective limits, which havelong been characterized as a slippery slope. He examines past, present, and future arguments, and argues which limits can hold and which cannot, before we reach the dystopian bottom.
Category: Medical

Nanomaterials For Air Remediation

Author : Abdeltif Amrane
ISBN : 9780128188217
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 31.91 MB
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Nanomaterials for Air Remediation provides a comprehensive description of basic knowledge and current research progress in the field of air treatment using nanomaterials. The book explores how nanomaterials are used in various air remediation techniques, including advanced oxidation processes, biological processes, and filtration. It also covers their combined use as nanocatalysts, nanoantibiotics, nanoadsorbents, nanocontainers, nanofiltrations and nanosensors. Major challenges to using nanomaterials for improving air quality on a mass scale, both practical and regulatory, are also presented. This is an important resource for materials scientists and environmental engineers who are looking to understand how nanotechnology is used to enhance air quality. Includes coverage of a wide range of nanomaterials, from biochemical to chemical materials, and nanomaterials supported photocatalysts Discusses how the properties of nanomaterials are being used to make more efficient air purification systems and products Assesses the practical and regulatory challenges of using different types of nanomaterials for air remediation
Category: Technology & Engineering

Bioethics And Public Health Law

Author : Mary Anne Bobinski
ISBN : 9781454890416
Genre : Law
File Size : 28.55 MB
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Financial and ethical issues are integrated into this concise and engaging treatment of Bioethics and Public Health Law. The complex relationship between patients, providers, the state, and public health institutions are explored through high-interest cases, informative notes, and compelling problems. The updated Fourth Edition includes recent cases and developments in biotechnology, including stem cell research and gene patents, and updates to HIPPA coverage, DNA research, and bio-banks. Discussions of confidentiality and informed consent include new legislative and judicial responses to posthumous reproduction and the challenges arising from international reproductive tourism.
Category: Law

Seven Diseases Could Be Cured By Crispr Cas9 A Revolutionary Technology Of Gene Editing

Author : Dr.Hakim. Saboowala
Genre : Medical
File Size : 38.6 MB
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Seven Diseases could be Cured by CRISPR-Cas9: A Revolutionary Technology of Gene editing. CRISPR technology offers the promise to cure any human genetic disease. Which are the candidates to be the first one? CRISPR-Cas9 was first used as a gene editing tool in 2012. In just a few years, the technology has exploded in popularity thanks to its promise of making gene editing much faster, cheaper and easier than ever before. CRISPR has already changed the way scientists do research. But what everyone is expecting, either with excitement or fear, is its use in humans specially off target effects! In theory, CRISPR technology could let us edit any genetic mutation at will, curing the disease it causes. In practice, it is just the beginning of the development of CRISPR as a therapy and there are still many unknowns. Thus an attempt has been made in this E-Booklet to include the seven diseases that scientists are already tackling with the help of CRISPR-Cas9, and which could eventually become the first conditions to ever be treated with this revolutionary technology. 1. Blood Disorders 2. Cancer 3. Blindness 4. AIDS 5. Muscular dystrophy 6. Huntington’s disease 7. Cystic fibrosis Dr. H. K. Saboowala. M.B.(Bom)M.R.S.H.(London)
Category: Medical

Programmed Cell Fate Changes In Embryonic Stem Cells Using Crispr Technology

Author : Marie La Russa
ISBN : 0355142805
Genre :
File Size : 58.41 MB
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The directed differentiation of stem cells has a wide range of applications in fields such as regenerative medicine, in vitro cell biology, and disease modeling. Here, I present a CRISPR-based strategy to modulate target gene expression and direct cell fate. My system employs orthogonal nuclease-deactivated dCas9s derived from distinct bacterial species that when fused to transcriptional activator or repressor domains, enable the simultaneous activation and repression of specific target genes. By stably integrating these activating and repressing dCas9s into mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs) to regulate the expression of specific transcription factors, I demonstrate an optimized strategy for the production of neurons. I show that this system increases the efficiency of neuronal induction relative to activation alone when genes that promote non-neuronal fates are simultaneously repressed. Additionally, using a different set of sgRNAs, I show that this system can be used to direct ESCs to a muscle cell fate. Altogether, my results establish a unique platform to program cell fate through the introduction of sgRNA cocktails to drive activation and repression of target genes.

A Glance At 10 Unusual Applications Of Crispr Gene Editing Technology

Author : Dr. Hakim. Saboowala.
Genre : Medical
File Size : 63.19 MB
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CRISPR has been all over the news in the past couple of years, and with reason. · This gene editing tool is making gene editing easier and faster than ever, and the possibilities it has opened up go well beyond human health. One might have heard of the tremendous potential CRISPR could have in treating disease. The technology is already accelerating the research on the underlying causes of all sorts of human conditions. Furthermore, clinical trials using the gene editing tool to treat diseases ranging from cancer to blindness and AIDS are underway. The medical applications of CRISPR have taken the spotlight, especially after the intense criticism that surged after a Chinese scientist revealed to the world the birth of ‘CRISPR twins’, the first humans to be born from a gene-edited embryo. But the technology offers endless (and less morally questionable) possibilities beyond its applications in human health. Looking at these possibilities of CRISPR technology, an attempt is made in this Booklet to include a list of 10 unusual applications of CRISPR that clearly show the potential that the gene editing technology has to impact many different kinds of industries besides its application in Human health along with relevant illustrations. …Dr. H. K. Saboowala. M.B.(Bom) .M.R.S.H.(London)
Category: Medical

Modulating Gene Expression

Author : Aditi Singh
ISBN : 9781838806965
Genre : Medical
File Size : 56.41 MB
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RNA interference (RNAi) is a widely used technology for gene silencing and has become a key tool in a myriad of research and lead discoveries. In recent years, the mechanism of RNAi agents has been well investigated, and the technique has been optimized for better effectiveness and safety. On the other hand, the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-associated Cas9/gRNA system is a recent, novel, targeted genome-editing technique derived from the bacterial immune system. Recent advances in gene-editing research and technologies have enabled the CRISPR Cas9 system to become a popular tool for sequence-specific gene editing to correct and modify eukaryotic systems. In this book, we will focus on the mechanisms, applications, regulations (their pros and cons), and various ways in which RNAi-based methods and CRIPSR-Cas9 technology have stimulated the modulation of gene expression, thereby making them a promising therapeutic tool to treat and prevent complex diseases and disorders.
Category: Medical

The Crispr Cas System

Author : Muhammad Jamal
ISBN : 1910190632
Genre : Science
File Size : 66.55 MB
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The use of CRISPR/Cas technology for genome editing suggests many potential applications, including the alteration of the germline of humans, animals and food crops. The speed and efficiency of the CRISPR/Cas system make it a potentially useful system for gene therapy. In this volume expert international authors provide a useful and timely review of the applications of the CRISPR/Cas system across diverse fields and explore further avenues and research directions of this novel and powerful editing technology. The technology and its application are reviewed with respect to reproduction and development, immunity and genetic diseases, system structure and system specificity. Some of the potential problems of the CRISPR/Cas system are also discussed, in particular the specificity of the system: this remains an important topic as improvement could lead to the more direct and efficient use of the CRISPR/Cas system in clinical settings. The authors also debate ethical concerns associated with this powerful new technology. This volume is a rigorous review of the applications and new opportunities for the CRISPR/Cas system and provides a stimulus for current and future research. An invaluable guide for all scientists working in the fields of genome editing and gene therapy the book is also recommended for all life sciences libraries.
Category: Science

A Crack In Creation

Author : Jennifer Doudna
ISBN : 9781473524194
Genre : Science
File Size : 66.39 MB
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Jennifer Doudna, the world-famous scientist behind CRISPR, ‘one of the most monumental discoveries in biology’ (New York Times), explains its discovery, describes its power to reshape the future of all life and warns of its use. 'Urgent, riveting and endlessly fascinating, this book is destined to become an instant classic. Read it if you want to understand our biological future' Siddhartha Mukherjee 'In this wonderful book ... Doudna’s and Sternberg’s simple but compelling exploration of this hugely important subject offers and excellent overview of this startling and unprecedented discovery' Literary Review A handful of discoveries have changed the course of human history. This book is about the most recent and potentially the most powerful and dangerous of them all. It is an invention that allows us to rewrite the genetic code that shapes and controls all living beings with astonishing accuracy and ease. Thanks to it, the dreams of genetic manipulation have become a stark reality: the power to cure disease and alleviate suffering, to create new sources of food and energy, as well as to re-design any species, including humans, for our own ends. Jennifer Doudna is the co-inventor of this technology - known as CRISPR - and a scientist of worldwide renown. Writing with fellow researcher Samuel Sternberg, here she provides the definitive account of her discovery, explaining how this wondrous invention works and what it is capable of. She also asks us to consider what our new-found power means: how do we enjoy its unprecedented benefits while avoiding its equally unprecedented dangers? The future of humankind – and of all life on Earth – is at stake. This book is an essential guide to the path that now lies ahead. 'A scientific thriller and a gripping read by a brilliant scientist' Venki Ramakrishnan
Category: Science

Control Engineering

Author :
ISBN : UIUC:30112007886457
Genre : Automatic control
File Size : 41.11 MB
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Instrumentation and automatic control systems.
Category: Automatic control

A Novel Crispr Cas9 Platform With Divergent Targeting Capabilities

Author : Pranam Chatterjee
ISBN : OCLC:1057896797
Genre :
File Size : 57.52 MB
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RNA-guided DNA endonucleases of the CRISPR-Cas system are widely used for genome engineering and thus have numerous applications in a wide variety of fields. The range of sequences that CRISPR endonucleases can recognize, however, is constrained by the need for a specific protospacer adjacent motif (PAM) flanking the target site. In this thesis, we demonstrate the natural PAM plasticity of a highly-similar, yet previously uncharacterized, Cas9 from Streptococcus canis (ScCas9) through rational manipulation of distinguishing motif insertions. To this end, we report a divergent affinity to 5'-NNGT-3' PAM sequences, as well as preferences for expanded 5'-NNG- 3' motifs, and demonstrate the editing capabilities of the ortholog in both bacterial and human cells. We subsequently build an automated bioinformatics pipeline, the Search for PAMs by ALignment Of Targets (SPAMALOT), which further explores the microbial PAM diversity of otherwise-overlooked Streptococcus Cas9 orthologs. Our results establish that ScCas9 can be utilized both as an alternative genome editing tool and as a functional platform to discover novel Streptococcus PAM specificities. Finally, we develop original machine learning-based tools to both predict the efficacy of single guide RNA (sgRNA) sequences targeting specific loci, as well as to classify and characterize the recently-discovered anti-CRISPR proteins.

The Use Of Crispr Cas9 Zfns Talens In Generating Site Specific Genome Alterations

Author :
ISBN : 9780128013342
Genre : Science
File Size : 29.1 MB
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This new volume of Methods in Enzymology continues the legacy of this premier serial with quality chapters authored by leaders in the field. This volume covers recent research and methods development for changing the DNA sequence within the genomes of cells and organisms. Focusing on enzymes that generate double-strand breaks in DNA, the chapters describe use of molecular tools to introduce or delete genetic information at specific sites in the genomes of animal, plant and bacterial cells. Continues the legacy of this premier serial with quality chapters authored by leaders in the field Covers research methods in biomineralization science Contains sections on such topics as genome editing, genome engineering, CRISPR, Cas9, TALEN and zinc finger nuclease
Category: Science

Advances In Crispr Cas And Related Technologies

Author : Dipanjan Ghosh
ISBN : 0128215909
Genre : Science
File Size : 77.67 MB
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Advances in CRISPR/Cas and related technologies, Volume 179, the latest release in this ongoing series, deals with a wide variety of research topics related to recent advancement in the genome editing techniques. Associated chapters in this new release include Challenges for Therapeutic application of CRISPR Cas techniques, Mitochondrial DNA modification by CRISPR Cas System: Challenges and future direction, Trends in CRISPR Cas technology application in cancer, Modified CRISPR-Cas for next generation application, Application of CRISPR Cas in Synthetic Biology: Challenges and Scopes, History of CRISPR Cas system from bacterial Adaptive Immune System to research application, and more. Covers the Cas9 protein modification for reduced off-target effect Includes discussions on Cas9 utilization for Metabolic Engineering Provides information on the use of Cas9 for targeted delivery in therapeutic application
Category: Science