CLIMATIC DESIGN

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Climatic Design

Author : Donald Watson
ISBN : UOM:39015006319225
Genre : Science
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Category: Science

Intelligent Design Using Solar Climatic Vision

Author : Samimi, Mojtaba
ISBN : 9783798326750
Genre : Architecture
File Size : 70.76 MB
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Thanks to the availability of energy, materials and technologies, the level of comfort in buildings is increasing around the world. However, today we are also facing buildings and cities that are responsible for a high percentage of global energy consumption. Pollution, heat island effect, climate change and global warming are just a few of the challenges that the human race, as well as other living matter on earth, will have to deal with in future. Moreover, as time goes by, we may not necessarily live in healthier conditions with better life styles. Within a limited period, this global and complex situation will need thorough, integrated and local surgery. This book is designed to draw greater attention to the sun and how a solar-climatic vision can influence and improve architectural design and urban planning. It may not have been discovered yet how small our planet is and how big the effect of a simple decision can be, but it is nevertheless important to be reminded of the sun not only as a powerful and perpetual actor in our dynamic atmosphere but also as a basis for figuring out a variety of adaptive solutions that must be identified and followed. In addition to the changes made by architects, clients and builders as well as planners, municipalities and all other persons who make decisions on plans, the role of those who live inside buildings and cities, not as users, but as producers and maintainers, also bear a certain degree of responsibility. Therefore, the optimization of new constructions, the modification of existing buildings and urban fabric should be considered on a global scale in regard to the sun as well as our future needs. The aim should be to improve energy-efficiency, health, comfort and safety in all living spaces, whether indoors or outdoors. In this respect, the analysis of the current situation, forecasting future scenarios and the development of intelligent alternatives are fundamental steps. In terms of energy efficiency, daylight provision and internal comfort, the use of advanced building materials and technologies as well as simulation tools can improve the building envelope and its performance. However, it is important to understand when, where and how they should best be applied to achieve an intelligent form as well as a responsive layout with a high level of performance for other essential aspects, too (e.g. structure, view, operation). Although today many consider “solar architecture” the attaching of solar thermal collectors and PVs to building roofs and facades, this is only one of the complex tasks which should be integrated in the design. In fact, solar architecture incorporates all the complexities of architecture on different scales. Besides, it has to respond accurately to certain issues resulting from the currently low price of other energy sources in many locations. In addition to the reduction of payments, other valuable improvements associated with solar-climatic considerations in the design should be clarified and compared. During the design process, an optimization (i.e. re-arrangement, re-orientation, re-sizing) of different elements, namely solar surfaces (i.e. transparent/opaque surfaces, shading/reflecting devices, collectors), building volumes and trees, does not necessarily increase the construction costs but can help identify deficient or over-designed elements. Alongside improving the energy efficiency aspects of individual buildings, a solar-climatic vision in planning can lead to other qualities for the benefit of small and large-scale living spaces, whether indoors or outdoors. Around the world, we must be prepared for more shocking news and annual records if many continue to build buildings, whether cheap or expensive, with little attention to the sun. In neighborhoods on an urban scale, the insufficient analysis and inaccurate decisions regarding building volumes and orientation can affect the potentials and performance of both internal and external spaces in terms of energy production, energy demand, daylight, health, comfort and safety for long periods of time. This book includes a decade of SOLARCHVISION practices on how architectural design and urban planning can be adapted by the constant path and variable effects of the sun in each location. Sharing such a vision can help architects, urban planners and clients to make more accurate decisions concerning energy and climate-related matters. After presenting fundamental diagrams in different cities around the world (e.g. the sun paths, solar radiation and temperature models), the role of an intelligent design for the building skin is described and analyzed in terms of finding a good relation between outside and inside as well as the direct and indirect collection of solar energy on different building surfaces. This research can bring about new appearances and structures for the creation of smart buildings and responsive cities. Aufgrund der Verfügbarkeit von Energie, Materialien und Technologien erhöht sich der Wohnkomfort in Gebäuden weltweit. Jedoch stehen wir auch vor dem Problem, dass Gebäude und Städte für einen hohen Anteil des weltweiten Energieverbrauchs verantwortlich sind. Umweltverschmutzung, Wärmeinseleffekte, Klimawandel und globale Erwärmung sind nur einige der vielen Herausforderungen, mit denen die menschliche Rasse, ebenso sowie alles weitere Leben auf der Erde, in Zukunft umgehen muss. In absehbarer Zeit wird diese komplexe globale Situation gründliche, ganzheitliche und örtliche Eingriffe erfordern. Dieses Buch richtet die Aufmerksamkeit auf die Sonne und dadurch auch darauf, wie ein solarklimatisches Konzept die Architektur und Stadtplanung beeinflussen und verbessern kann. Es ist vielleicht noch nicht entdeckt worden wie klein unser Planet doch eigentlich ist und wie groß der Einfluss einer einfachen Entscheidung sein kann, aber vor allem ist es wichtig, dass die Sonne eine wichtige und immer währende Rolle in unserer dynamischen Atmosphäre spielt und dies als Grundlage bei der Suche von Lösungsansätzen erkannt und angewandt wird. Neben Architekten, Kunden und Bauherren sowie Planern, Kommunen und allen anderen Personen die Entscheidungen über die Planung treffen, spielen die in den Gebäuden und Städten Lebenden auch eine Rolle, nicht als Nutzer, sondern als Erzeuger und Betreuer, und auch sie haben eine gewisse Verantwortung. Daher sollten alle Optimierungen neuer Bauten, Modifikationen von Bestandsgebäuden und Stadtstrukturen auf globaler Ebene Bezug auf die Sonne und auf zukünftige Bedürfnisse nehmen. Das Ziel sollte es sein, die Energieeffizienz, Gesundheit, Komfort und Sicherheit in allen Lebensräumen, ob drinnen oder draußen, zu verbessern. In dieser Hinsicht sind die Analyse der aktuellen Situation, die Prognose zukünftiger Szenarien und die Entwicklung intelligenter Alternativen grundlegende Schritte. Der Einsatz von modernen Baustoffen und Technologien sowie Simulationswerkzeugen kann die Energieeffizienz und Leistungsfähigkeit eines Gebäudes verbessern. Es ist jedoch wichtig zu verstehen wann, wo und wie sie am besten in der architektonischen Gestaltung angewendet werden können, um ein ansprechendes Layout mit einer hohen Leistung für eine Vielzahl von architektonischen Aspekten zu erreichen und in Bezug auf Energieeffizienz, Tageslichtversorgung und internen Komfort ein optimales Ergebnis zu erzielen. Obwohl heute viele schon das Anbringen von Solar-Kollektoren und PV-Modulen auf Gebäudedächern und Fassaden als "Solararchitektur" betrachten, ist dies nur eine der komplexen Aufgaben in diesem Feld der Architektur. Tatsächlich beinhaltet die Solararchitektur die gesamte Komplexität der Architektur auf unterschiedlichen Ebenen. Außerdem hat sie sehr genau auf bestimmte Sachverhalte zu reagieren, welche aus den vielerorts aktuell geringen Energiekosten anderer Energiequellen resultieren. Neben der Reduzierung von Baukosten sollten andere wertvolle Verbesserungen, resultierend aus solar klimatischen Überlegungen, im Entwurf hervorgehoben und verglichen werden. In der Tat kann eine Optimierung verschiedener Elemente während des Design-Prozesses, wie z.B. Solarflächen, Baukörpern und Bäumen, nicht notwendigerweise die Baukosten steigern, jedoch dabei helfen unnütze oder überdimensionierte Elemente zu identifizieren. Neben der Verbesserung der Energieeffizienzaspekte einzelner Gebäude kann eine zuverlässige integrierte solarklimatische Planung zu weiteren Qualitäten der Lebensräume führen. Überall auf der Welt müssen wir uns auf mehr und mehr schockierende Nachrichten und jährliche Rekordwerte vorbereiten, wenn weiterhin viele Gebäude mit wenig Aufmerksamkeit auf die Sonne gebaut werden. In Stadtteilen auf urbaner Städteebene kann die unzureichende Analyse und unklare Entscheidungen über Baukörper und Orientierung die Potenziale und Leistung interner und externer Räume im Bezug auf Energieproduktion, Energiebedarf, Tageslicht, Gesundheit, Komfort und Sicherheit auf lange Zeit beeinflussen. Dieses Buch enthält ein Jahrzehnt SOLARCHVISION Praktiken darüber, wie die Architektur und Stadtplanung mit dem konstanten Weg und den variablen Auswirkungen der Sonne an jedem Standort angepasst werden kann. Das Teilen dieser Vision kann Architekten, Stadtplanern und Kunden helfen, zielgenauere Entscheidungen über energie- und klimarelevante Fragen zu treffen. Nach der Vorstellung grundlegender Diagramme zu verschiedenen Städten auf der ganzen Welt (z.B. die Sonnenwege, Sonneneinstrahlung und Temperaturmodelle), wird die Rolle eines intelligenten Designs für die Gebäudehülle beschrieben und analysiert im Hinblick auf die Suche nach einer guten Verbindung zwischen Außen und Innen, sowie die direkte und indirekte Nutzung von Sonnenenergie auf verschiedenen Gebäudeflächen. Diese Untersuchungen können neue Ansichten und Strukturen für die Erbauung intelligenter Gebäude und anpassungsfähiger Städte hervorbringen.
Category: Architecture

Calibration And Validation Of The Enhanced Integrated Climatic Model For Pavement Design

Author : C. E. Zapata
ISBN : 9780309099295
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 65.85 MB
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"This report summarizes the results of research to evaluate, calibrate, and validate the Enhanced Integrated Climatic Model (EICM) incorporated in the original Version 0.7 (July 2004 release) of the Mechanistic-Empirical Pavement Design Guide (MEPDG) software with measured materials data from the Long-Term Pavement Performance Seasonal Monitoring Program (LTPP SMP) pavement sections. The report further describes subsequent changes made to the EICM to improve its prediction of moisture equilibrium for granular bases. The report will be of particular interest to pavement design engineers in state highway agencies and industry ..."--Foreword.
Category: Technology & Engineering

Climate Responsive Architecture

Author : Arvind Krishan
ISBN : 0074632183
Genre : Dwellings
File Size : 83.44 MB
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The architect community is not far behind in this endeavour. Climate Responsive Architecture has become a prime issue for architects. Since most of the literature in this area is physics oriented, it is somewhat difficult for architects to apply these principles to practice. The book has been written with a view to make data, such as climatic zones, temperature zones, and other climatic parameters more comprehensible. The book is the outcome of a long drawn research in the area of CRA and boasts of international names such as Dr Nick Baker, Prof Szokolay, Prof Simos Yannas and Dr Jeffrey Cook among others.
Category: Dwellings

Caad Futures 1997

Author : Richard Junge
ISBN : 9789401155762
Genre : Technology & Engineering
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Since the establishment of the CAAD futures Foundation in 1985 CAAD experts from all over the world meet every two years to present and at the same time document the state of art of research in Computer Aided Architectural Design. The history of CAAD futures started in the Netherlands at the Technical Universities of Eindhoven and Delft, where the CAAD futures Foundation came into being. Then CAAD futures crossed the oceans for the first time, the third CAAD futures in 1989 was held at Harvard University. Next stations in the evolution were in 1991 Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, the ETC, Zürich. In 1993 the conference was organized by Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh and in 1995 by National University, Singapore, CAAD futures 1995 marked the world wide nature by organizing it for the first time in Asia. Proceedings of CAAD futures held biannually provide a complete review of the state of research in Computer Aided Architectural Design.
Category: Technology & Engineering

Climate Responsive Design

Author : Richard Hyde
ISBN : 9781136743320
Genre : Architecture
File Size : 78.15 MB
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Climate Responsive Design provides a unique source for students and practising architects requiring guidance on climatic design. Covering theory and application it provides examples of innovative and best practice in 'responsive architecture' through case studies. The book also covers the broader topic of technology as a generator in design which will be of interest to all those involved in design and building. The book focuses on tropical climate but some of the theory can be applied to other climates; the difference in application is clearly delineated.
Category: Architecture

Understanding Meaningful Environments

Author : Karina Moraes Zarzar
ISBN : 9781586039134
Genre : Architecture
File Size : 41.19 MB
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The real power for security applications will come from the synergy of academic and commercial research focusing on the specific issue of security. Special constraints apply to this domain, which are not always taken into consideration by academic research, but are critical for successful security applications: large volumes: techniques must be able to handle huge amounts of data and perform 'on-line' computation; scalability: algorithms must have processing times that scale well with ever growing volumes; automation: the analysis process must be automated so that information extraction can 'run on its own'; ease of use: everyday citizens should be able to extract and assess the necessary information; and robustness: systems must be able to cope with data of poor quality (missing or erroneous data). The NATO Advanced Study Institute (ASI) on Mining Massive Data Sets for Security, held in Italy, September 2007, brought together around ninety participants to discuss these issues. This publication includes the most important contributions, but can of course not entirely reflect the lively interactions which allowed the participants to exchange their views and share their experience. The bridge between academic methods and industrial constraints is systematically discussed throughout. This volume will thus serve as a reference book for anyone interested in understanding the techniques for handling very large data sets and how to apply them in conjunction for solving security issues.
Category: Architecture

Time Saver Standards For Architectural Design Data The Reference Of Architectural Fundamentals Wendy Lochner 1997

Author : The McGraw-Hill Professional Book Group
ISBN :
Genre : Photography
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With this the Seventh edition, a 60-year publishing tradition continues for Time-Saver Standards. Conceived in the mid- 1930s as a compilation of reference articles, Time-Saver Standards features first appeared in American Architect, which subsequently merged with and continued the series in Architectural Record. The first hardbound edition of Time-Saver Standards was published in 1946, with the purpose then stated as [to assist in] “the greatest possible efficiency in drafting, design and specification writing.” In the Second Edition in 1950, the editorial intent was described as “[a volume of] carefully edited reference data in condensed graphic style.” One contribution from this edition, authored by Sterling M. Palm, appears as a reprint in the present Volume’s Appendix. In the Third Edition of 1954, the Preface offered the commentary, “the underlying formula of these pages was established in 1935. Since 1937, Architectural Record has been presenting each month, articles, graphs, tables and charts, with a minimum of verbiage...its compilation in Time-Saver Standards was a ‘workbook’ of material of this kind.” The Fourth edition of Time-Saver Standards, published in 1966, was the first edited by John Hancock Callender, who continued as Editor-in-Chief for the subsequent Fifth and Sixth editions. In his 1966 Preface, he wrote that the volume was “intended primarily to meet the needs of those who design buildings [and]—almost equally useful to draftsmen, contractors, superintendents, maintenance engineers, and students—to all in fact who design, construct and maintain buildings.” The Preface to each ensuing edition carried short statements by the Editor-in-Chief. In the Fifth edition (1974), perhaps in relief of many months of editing, John Hancock Calendar offered that, Now and again we hear it said that building has not changed significantly since the age of the pyramids. Anyone who subscribes to this view should be given the task of trying to keep Time-Saver Standards up to date. Society’s needs and aspirations are constantly changing, making new demands on buildings; functional requirements change and new building types appear; building materials proliferate and new building techniques come into use, without displacing the old. The result is a constant increase in the amount of technical data needed by building designers. In his Preface to Sixth edition (1982), John Hancock Callender used the occasion to comment upon the need to adopt metrication in the U. S. building industry. The present edition carries metric equivalents throughout the text wherever practical. The Appendix to the present Volume carries the most recent update of the ASTM standard on metrication, along with an introduction written for architects. In preparing this the Seventh edition, the first revision in more than a dozen years, the editors were challenged in many respects. This is evident in the fact that the volume has been almost entirely rewritten, with new articles by over eighty authors. It is also evident in its new format and contents, expanded to include “Architectural Fundamentals.” Such dramatic changes respond to the substantial renewal of architectural knowledge and practice in the past decade. New materiasl and construction methods have replaced standard practices of even a dozen years ago. There is since then new information and recommended practices in architecture and new ways of communicating information throughout the architectural and building professions. Some of the topics in the present volume were not even identified much less considered as critical issues when the last edition of this volume was published. Updated design data and product details are increasingly available in electronic form from manufacturers, assisted by yearly updates in McGraw-Hill’s Sweet’s Catalog File. At the same time, the design fundamentals and selection guidelines by which to locate and evaluate such data become all the more critical. All of the articles in the present edition are written to assist the architect in the general principles of understanding, selecting and evaluating the professional information and knowledge needed for practice. Each article lists key references within each topic. Thus, at the beginning of its second half-century of publication, the purpose of the Seventh Edition of Time-Saver Standards can be summarized as a “knowledge guide”—a comprehensive overview of the fundamental knowledge and technology required for exemplary architectural practice. “Knowledge building” itself is an act of creation. How one understands and thinks about architecture and its process of construction is part of the creative design process. Understanding the knowledge base of architecture is a process that itself can “be built” upon a solid framework, constructed of understandable parts and in a manner that reveals insights and connections. The editors and authors of Time-Saver Standards hope to inform, and also to inspire, the reader in pursuit of that endeavor. Preface xiv Time-Saver Standards for Architectural Design Data Comments and submissions are welcomed Because the knowledge base of architecture is changing constantly as building practices change in response to new materials, processes and project types, the succeeding volumes of Time-Saver Standards Series will build upon both electronic access and a regular revision print schedule. For this reason, reader responses to the contents of the present Volume and proposals for the Eighth Edition are solicited in the note below and the Reader Response Form found at the end of this Volume. Any and all corrections, comments, critiques and suggestions regarding the contents and topics covered in this book are invited and will be gratefully received and acknowledged. A Reader Response Form is appended at the end of this volume, for your evaluation and comment. These and/or errors or omissions should be brought to the attention of the Editor-in-Chief. Submissions of manuscripts or proposals for articles are invited on any topics related to the contents of Time-Saver Standards for Architectural Design Data, Eighth edition, now in preparation. Two print copies of proposed manuscripts and illustrations should be addressed to the Editor-in-Chief. Receipt of manuscripts will be acknowledged and, for those selected for consideration, author guidelines will be issued for final submission format. Donald Watson, FAIA, Editor-in-Chief Time-Saver Standards 54 Larkspur Drive Trumbull, CT 06611 USA [email protected] Editors of the Seventh Edition Donald Watson, FAIA is former Dean and currently Professor of Architecture at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York. He served as a U. S. Peace Corps Architect in Tunisia, North Africa from 1962-1965, becoming involved at the time in the research in indigenous architecture and its application to bioclimatic design. From 1970 to 1990, he was Visiting Professor at Yale School of Architecture and Chair of Yale’s Master of Environmental Design Program. His architectural work has received design awards from AIA New England Region, Owens Corning Prize, U. S. DoE Energy Innovations, New England Governor’s/Canadian Premiers, Energy Efficient Building Association, Compact House competition and Connecticut Society of Architects. He was founding principal and managing partner of ABODE, a design/ build firm from 1982-1990. His major books include Designing and Building a Solar House (Garden Way) 1977, Energy Conservation through Building Design (McGraw-Hill) 1979, and Climatic Building Design, co-authored with Kenneth Labs, (McGraw-Hill) 1983, recipient of the 1984 Best Book in Architecture and Planning Award from the American Publishers Association. Michael J. Crosbie, Ph.D., is active in architectural journalism, research, teaching, and practice. He received his doctorate in architecture from Catholic University. He has previously served as technical editor for Architecture and Progressive Architecture, magazines and is contributing editor to Construction Specifier. He is a senior architect at Steven Winter Associates, a building systems research and consulting firm in Norwalk, CT. Dr. Crosbie has won several journalism awards. He is the author of ten books on architectural subjects, and several hundred articles which have appeared in publications such as Architectural Record, Architecture, Collier’s Encyclopedia Yearbook, Construction Specifier, Fine Homebuilding, Historic Preservation, Landscape Architecture, Progressive Architecture, and Wiley’s Encyclopedia of Architecture, Design, Engineering & Construction. He has been a visiting lecturer/critic at University of Pennsylvania, Columbia University, University of California, Berkeley, University of Wisconsin/Milwaukee, Yale School of Architecture, and the Moscow Architectural Institute and is adjunct professor of architecture at the Roger Williams University School of Architecture. In memorium John Hancock Callender was responsible for the editorial direction of Time-Saver Standards from 1966 to 1984. The present edition carries the name of John Hancock Callender in recognition of his lifelong editorial contributions to the knowledge and practice of architecture. John Hancock Callender, AIA (1908-1995) graduated from Yale College in 1928 and New York University School of Architecture 1939. He was researcher in low-cost housing materials at John B. Pierce Foundation from 1931 to 1943 and served with the Army Engineers 1943-45. He was consultant for the Revere Quality House Institute from 1948-1953, which became the Housing Research Foundation of Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio, Texas, pioneering in research in low cost housing innovations in the United States. He was a member of the faculties of Columbia University, Princeton University and Professor of Architecture at Pratt Institute, Brooklyn, New York, 1954 uņ1973. He authored Before You Buy a House (Crown Publishers) 1953. John Hancock Callender served as Editor-in-Chief of the Fourth, Fifth and Sixth editions of Time-Saver Standards and was founding editor of Time-Saver Standards for Building Types. Preface Time-Saver Standards for Architectural Design Data xv Time-Saver Standards Editors’ Selections Exemplary professional and technical reference books First juried selection. 1997. Time Saver Standards Editors’ Exemplary Book selections is a newly created award program to recognize outstanding professional and technical books in architecture and construction. Professional and technical reference books for architecture are not easily composed. Information must be useful, authoritative and understandable, with a balance of visual representation and explanation for its integration in design. In the following selections, the jury lauds the accomplishments of the authors, editors and publishers of books that are technically relevant and also inspirational in promoting technical and professional excellence in architecture. 1997 Jury: Donald Baerman, Michael J. Crosbie, Martin Gehner, Richard Rittelmann, and Donald Watson. Allen, Edward and Joseph Iano. 1995. The Architect’s Studio Companion: Rules of Thumb for Preliminary Design Second Edition New York: John Wiley & Sons. Design data organized for preliminary design, especially helpful for students of architecture and construction. American Institute of Architects. 1996. Architect’s Handbook of Professional Practice Student Edition. David Haviland, Hon. AIA, Editor. Washington, DC: AIA Press. A comprehensive summary of information essential for professional practice. The student edition is in one volume and is especially helpful for both student and professional reference. American Institute of Architects. 1994. Architectural Graphic Standards. Ninth Edition John Ray Hoke, FAIA, Editor-in-Chief New York: John Wiley & Sons. A digest of design data and details organized for easy reference, on all topics related to architecture and construction, with emphasis on graphic and visual information. American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers. 1993. ASHRAE Handbook of Fundamentals. Atlanta: GA: American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air- Conditioning Engineers. An essential reference for designers of mechanical systems for buildings, the standard professional reference for the HVAC and building design community. Berger, Horst. 1996. Light Structures Structures of Light: The Art and Engineering of Tensile Structures. Basel-Boston-Berlin: Birkhauser Verlag. A record of the author’s career in development of inspired tensile structures integrating engineering and architecture. Brantley, L. Reed and Ruth T. Brantley. 1996. Building Materials Technology: Structural Performance and Environmental Impact. New York: McGraw-Hill. An authoritative review of building materials, explained in terms of their chemical and physical properties and the environmental implications of their use in buildings. Canadian Wood Council. 1991. Wood Reference Book. Ottawa: Canadian Wood Council. An excellent compilation of data for wood products, manufacturing processes, wood structural systems, connections and finishes, with excellent details and applications. Elliott, Cecil D. 1991. Technics and Architecture: The Development of Materials and Systems for Buildings. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. An insightful and well documented history of the development of architectural and building technologies. Givoni, Baruch. 1987. Man, Climate and Architecture. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold. First Edition (1969) published by Applied Science Publishers, Ltd., London. A classic work in the experimental tradition of building science, summarizing extensive monitoring and principles of building bioclimatology. Illuminating Engineering Society of North America. 1993. Lighting Handbook: Reference & Application. 8th edition Mark S. Rea, Editor-in-Chief. The authoritative and comprehensive reference for lighting applications in architecture. Millet, Marietta S. 1996. Light Revealing Architecture. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold. Lighting for architecture, with an emphasis upon daylighting, presented as a design inspiration for architects as a way to understand technique, from historical and contemporary exemplars. Orton, Andrew. 1988. The Way We Build Now: form, scale and technique. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold. An introduction to materials, structures, building physics and fire safety with excellent illustrations and examples. Schodek, Daniel L. 1992. Structures. Second Edition. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice Hall. A basic text on structures, clearly written for the architect student and professional reference, with comprehensive illustrations and metric equivalency. Stein, Benjamin and John S. Reynolds. 1992. Mechanical and Electrical Equipment for Buildings. New York: John Wiley & Sons. The long established classic reference on the topic, with complete technical description of building service systems for architects. Tilley, Alvin R. and Henry Dreyfuss Associates. 1993 The Measure of Man and Woman: Human Factors in Design New York: The Whitney Library of Design. A documentation of human proportion and stature, including safety and accommodation for children and for differently abled. An essential reference for ergonomic design, by the founders of the field. Templer, John. 1994. The Staircase: History and Theory and Studies of Hazards, Falls and Safer Design. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. A comprehensive treatment of precedents in stair design and contemporary design criteria, equally diligent in both its historical and technical analysis, including extensive research related to stair use and safety. U. S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service. 1987. Wood Handbook. Forest Products Laboratory Agricultural Handbook No. 72. Springfield, VA: National Technical Information Service. Comprehensive reference for use of wood in construction. xvi Time
Category: Photography