CLAY-MINERALS-AND-THE-ORIGIN-OF-LIFE

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Practical Aspects Of Computational Chemistry I

Author : Jerzy Leszczynski
ISBN : 9789400709195
Genre : Science
File Size : 46.74 MB
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Practical Aspects of Computational Chemistry I: An Overview of the Last Two Decades and Current Trends gathers the advances made within the last 20 years by well-known experts in the area of theoretical and computational chemistry and physics. The title itself reflects the celebration of the twentieth anniversary of the “Conference on Current Trends in Computational Chemistry (CCTCC)” to which all authors have participated and contributed to its success. This volume poses (and answers) important questions of interest to the computational chemistry community and beyond. What is the historical background of the “Structural Chemistry”? Is there any way to avoid the problem of intruder state in the multi-reference formulation? What is the recent progress on multi-reference coupled cluster theory? Starting with a historical account of structural chemistry, the book focuses on the recent advances made in promising theories such as many body Brillouin-Wigner theory, multireference state-specific coupled cluster theory, relativistic effect in chemistry, linear and nonlinear optical properties of molecules, solution to Kohn-Sham problem, electronic structure of solid state materials, development of model core potential, quantum Monte Carlo method, nano and molecular electronics, dynamics of photodimerization and excited states, intermolecular interactions, hydrogen bonding and non-hydrogen bonding interactions, conformational flexibility, metal cations in zeolite catalyst and interaction of nucleic acid bases with minerals. Practical Aspects of Computational Chemistry I: An Overview of the Last Two Decades and Current Trends is aimed at theoretical and computational chemists, physical chemists, materials scientists, and particularly those who are eager to apply computational chemistry methods to problem of chemical and physical importance. This book will provide valuable information to undergraduate, graduate, and PhD students as well as to established researchers.
Category: Science

Lectures In Astrobiology

Author : Bernard Barbier
ISBN : 3540290044
Genre : Science
File Size : 43.91 MB
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This is the second of a divided two-part softcover edition of the "Lectures in Astrobiology Volume I" containing the sections "General Introduction", "From Prebiotic Chemistry to the Origin of Life on Earth" and "Appendices" including an extensive glossary on Astrobiology. "Lectures in Astrobiology" is the first comprehensive textbook at graduate level encompassing all aspects of the emerging field of astrobiology. Volume I of the Lectures in Astrobiology gathers a first set of extensive lectures that cover a broad range of topics, from the formation of solar systems to the quest for the most primitive life forms that emerged on the Early Earth.
Category: Science

The Study Of Time Iv

Author : International Society for the Study of Time
ISBN : 0387905944
Genre : Time
File Size : 35.28 MB
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Zeit / Musik.
Category: Time

Weird Life The Search For Life That Is Very Very Different From Our Own

Author : David Toomey
ISBN : 9780393089943
Genre : Science
File Size : 41.33 MB
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“Weird indeed, and not a little wonderful.”—Nature In the 1980s and 1990s, in places where no one thought it possible, scientists found organisms they called extremophiles: lovers of extremes. There were bacteria in volcanic hydrothermal vents on the ocean floor, single-celled algae in Antarctic ice floes, and fungi in the cooling pools of nuclear reactors. But might there be life stranger than the most extreme extremophile? Might there be, somewhere, another kind of life entirely? In fact, scientists have hypothesized life that uses ammonia instead of water, life based not in carbon but in silicon, life driven by nuclear chemistry, and life whose very atoms are unlike those in life we know. In recent years some scientists have begun to look for the tamer versions of such life on rock surfaces in the American Southwest, in a “shadow biosphere” that might impinge on the known biosphere, and even deep within human tissue. They have also hypothesized more radical versions that might survive in Martian permafrost, in the cold ethylene lakes on Saturn’s moon Titan, and in the hydrogen-rich atmospheres of giant planets in other solar systems. And they have imagined it in places off those worlds: the exotic ices in comets, the vast spaces between the stars, and—strangest of all—parallel universes. Distilling complex science in clear and lively prose, David Toomey illuminates the research of the biological avant-garde and describes the workings of weird organisms in riveting detail. His chapters feature an unforgettable cast of brilliant scientists and cover everything from problems with our definitions of life to the possibility of intelligent weird life. With wit and understanding that will delight scientists and lay readers alike, Toomey reveals how our current knowledge of life forms may account for only a tiny fraction of what’s really out there.
Category: Science

Soil Clays

Author : G. Jock Churchman
ISBN : 9781498770071
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 51.9 MB
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As the human population grows from seven billion toward an inevitable nine or 10 billion, the demands on the limited supply of soils will grow and intensify. Soils are essential for the sustenance of almost all plants and animals, including humans, but soils are virtually infinitely variable. Clays are the most reactive and interactive inorganic compounds in soils. Clays in soils often differ from pure clay minerals of geological origin. They provide a template for most of the reactive organic matter in soils. They directly affect plant nutrients, soil temperature and pH, aggregate sizes and strength, porosity and water-holding capacities. This book aims to help improve predictions of important properties of soils through a modern understanding of their highly reactive clay minerals as they are formed and occur in soils worldwide. It examines how clays occur in soils and the role of soil clays in disparate applications including plant nutrition, soil structure, and water-holding capacity, soil quality, soil shrinkage and swelling, carbon sequestration, pollution control and remediation, medicine, forensic investigation, and deciphering human and environmental histories. Features: Provides information on the conditions that lead to the formation of clay minerals in soils Distinguishes soil clays and types of clay minerals Describes clay mineral structures and their origins Describes occurrences and associations of clays in soil Details roles of clays in applications of soils Heavily illustrated with photos, diagrams, and electron micrographs Includes user-friendly description of a new method of identification To know soil clays is to enable their use toward achieving improvements in the management of soils for enhancing their performance in one or more of their three main functions of enabling plant growth, regulating water flow to plants, and buffering environmental changes. This book provides an easily-read and extensively-illustrated description of the nature, formation, identification, occurrence and associations, measurement, reactivities, and applications of clays in soils.
Category: Technology & Engineering

Earliest Life On Earth Habitats Environments And Methods Of Detection

Author : Suzanne D. Golding
ISBN : 904818794X
Genre : Science
File Size : 22.39 MB
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This volume integrates the latest findings on earliest life forms, identified and characterised in some of the oldest rocks on Earth. New material from prominent researchers in the field is presented and evaluated in the context of previous work. Emphasis is placed on the integration of analytical methods with observational techniques and experimental simulations. The opening section focuses on submarine hot springs that the majority of researchers postulates served as the cradle of life on Earth. In subsequent sections, evidence for life in strongly metamorphosed rocks such as those in Greenland is evaluated and early ecosystems identified in the well preserved Barberton and Pilbara successions in Southern Africa and Western Australia. The final section includes a number of contributions from authors with alternate perspectives on the evidence and record of early life on Earth. Audience This volume will be valuable to researchers and graduate students in biogeosciences, geochemistry, paleontology and geology interested in the origin of life on earth.
Category: Science

Evolutionary Biology Exobiology And Evolutionary Mechanisms

Author : Pierre Pontarotti
ISBN : 9783642382123
Genre : Science
File Size : 87.33 MB
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This book presents 19 selected contributions to the 16th Evolutionary Biology Meeting, which took place in September 2012 in Marseilles. The aims of these annual meetings, which gather together leading evolutionary biologists and other scientists, are to promote the exchange of ideas and to encourage interdisciplinary collaborations. The first chapter deals with the history of a great discovery: The first experiments on ascidian and sea urchin egg fertilization. The remaining contributions are grouped under the following categories: · Evolutionary biology concepts · Exobiology and the origin of life · Evolutionary mechanisms Offering an up-to-date overview of recent findings in the field of evolutionary biology, this book is an invaluable source of information for scientists, teachers and advanced students.
Category: Science

Life And Letters From The Roman Frontier

Author : Alan Bowman
ISBN : 9781136773921
Genre : History
File Size : 37.63 MB
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Greetings, I ask that you send the things which I need for the use of my boys . . . which you well know I cannot properly get hold of here . . . --A Roman solider on the frontier of England around AD 100 Over three hundred letters and documents were recently discovered at the fort of Vindolanda, in Northern England, written on wooden tablets which have survived nearly 2,000 years. Painstakingly deciphered by Alan Bowman, the materials contribute a wealth of evidence for daily life in the Roman Empire. Military documents testify to the lifestyle of officers and soldiers stationed at Vindolanda, and portraits of domestic life are included in letters between the officers' wives and a letter from home promising a solider a package of socks. The engaging texts from thirty-four tablets provide insight into the similarities of daily existence in the Roman Empire and the present.
Category: History