Civilian Control Of The Military

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Civilian Control Of The Military

Author : Michael C. Desch
ISBN : 0801866391
Genre : History
File Size : 76.26 MB
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"Power and Military Effectiveness is an instructive reassessment of the increasingly popular belief that military success is one of democracy's many virtues. International relations scholars, policy makers, and military minds will be well served by its lessons."--BOOK JACKET.
Category: History

Civilian Control Of The Military

Author : Claude Emerson Welch
ISBN : STANFORD:36105036886559
Genre : Civil supremacy over the military
File Size : 27.97 MB
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Category: Civil supremacy over the military

Civilian Control Of The Military In Tanzania And Zambia

Author : Stefan Lindemann
ISBN : OCLC:693523349
Genre : Civil supremacy over the military
File Size : 57.30 MB
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Tanzania and Zambia are among those exceptional African countries that have so far been able to avoid successful military intervention. In both cases, the continued maintenance of civilian control of the military has been achieved by the deliberate integration of the army into the country's 'elite bargain', a strategy that has relied on three pillars: inclusive recruitment policies, political control through the ruling party and the provision of generous access to state patronage. Inclusive recruitment at all levels has ensured that no single ethno-regional faction can ever monopolize the army, which in turn has made it very difficult for one faction to organize a successful military coup without being detected and contained by other factions. Moreover, political control through the ruling party and the provision of generous access to state patronage have created lasting ideological and material identification effects and given the military leadership a stake in the survival of the civilian regime. Interestingly, the advent of multi-party politics from the early 1990s has not led to fundamental change in the patterns of civilian control. Even though direct political control through the ruling party has become less important, inclusive recruitment and enduring access to state patronage continue to ensure civil-military integration in both countries.
Category: Civil supremacy over the military

Civilian Control Of The Military

Author : Michael Charles Desch
ISBN : UOM:39015043798696
Genre : Political Science
File Size : 74.89 MB
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The end of the Cold War brought widespread optimism about the future of civil-military relations. With a declining need for military preparedness, it seemed, civilian authorities would be better able to exert control over military policies and decision making. But, argues Michael Desch in this volume, the truth is precisely the opposite. In war-time, he explains, civil authorities cannot help paying close attention to military matters. In times of peace, however, the civilian sector is less interested in military affairs - and therefore leaves them to the military.
Category: Political Science

Crafting Civilian Control Of The Military In Venezuela

Author : Harold A. Trinkunas
ISBN : 0807877034
Genre : History
File Size : 64.1 MB
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Unlike most other emerging South American democracies, Venezuela has not succumbed to a successful military coup d'etat during four decades of democratic rule. What drives armed forces to follow the orders of elected leaders? And how do emerging democracies gain that control over their military establishments? Harold Trinkunas answers these questions in an examination of Venezuela's transition to democracy following military rule and its attempts to institutionalize civilian control of the military over the past sixty years, a period that included three regime changes. Trinkunas first focuses on the strategic choices democratizers make about the military and how these affect the internal civil-military balance of power in a new regime. He then analyzes a regime's capacity to institutionalize civilian control, looking specifically at Venezuela's failures and successes in this arena during three periods of intense change: the October revolution (1945-48), the Pact of Punto Fijo period (1958-98), and the Fifth Republic under President Hugo Chavez (1998 to the present). Placing Venezuela in comparative perspective with Argentina, Chile, and Spain, Trinkunas identifies the bureaucratic mechanisms democracies need in order to sustain civilian authority over the armed forces.
Category: History

Civilian Control Versus Military Rule

Author : Robert Previdi
ISBN : UOM:39015014890175
Genre : Political Science
File Size : 33.13 MB
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Argues that the Goldwater-Nichols Defense Department Reorganization act gives too much power to the military and suggests ways to avoid military rule in the U.S
Category: Political Science

Civil Military Relations In Latin America

Author : David Pion-Berlin
ISBN : 9780807875292
Genre : Political Science
File Size : 35.78 MB
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The armed forces may no longer rule nations throughout Latin America, but they continue to influence democratic governments across the region. In nine original, thought-provoking essays, this book offers fresh theoretical insights into the dilemmas facing Latin American politicians as they struggle to gain full control over their military institutions. Latin America has changed in profound ways since the end of the Cold War, the re-emergence of democracy, and the ascendancy of free-market economies and trade blocs. The contributors to this volume recognize the necessity of finding intellectual approaches that speak to these transformations. They utilize a wide range of contemporary models to analyze recent political and economic reform in nations throughout Latin America, presenting case studies on Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Ecuador, El Salvador, Honduras, and Venezuela. Bridging the gap between Latin American studies and political science, these essays not only explore the forces that shape civil-military relations in Latin America but also address larger questions of political development and democratization in the region. The contributors are Felipe Aguero, J. Samuel Fitch, Wendy Hunter, Ernesto Lopez, Brian Loveman, David R. Mares, Deborah L. Norden, David Pion-Berlin, and Harold A. Trinkunas. Latin American Studies/Political Science
Category: Political Science

Who Guards The Guardians And How

Author : Thomas C. Bruneau
ISBN : 029278340X
Genre : Political Science
File Size : 46.38 MB
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The continued spread of democracy into the twenty-first century has seen two-thirds of the almost two hundred independent countries of the world adopting this model. In these newer democracies, one of the biggest challenges has been to establish the proper balance between the civilian and military sectors. A fundamental question of power must be addressed—who guards the guardians and how? In this volume of essays, contributors associated with the Center for Civil-Military Relations in Monterey, California, offer firsthand observations about civil-military relations in a broad range of regions including Latin America, Africa, Asia, and Eastern Europe. Despite diversity among the consolidating democracies of the world, their civil-military problems and solutions are similar—soldiers and statesmen must achieve a deeper understanding of one another, and be motivated to interact in a mutually beneficial way. The unifying theme of this collection is the creation and development of the institutions whereby democratically elected civilians achieve and exercise power over those who hold a monopoly on the use of force within a society, while ensuring that the state has sufficient and qualified armed forces to defend itself against internal and external aggressors. Although these essays address a wide variety of institutions and situations, they each stress a necessity for balance between democratic civilian control and military effectiveness.
Category: Political Science

Guarding The Guardians

Author : Dr Mathurin C Houngnikpo
ISBN : 9781409499831
Genre : Political Science
File Size : 23.9 MB
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The relationship between civil society and the armed forces is an essential part of any polity, democratic or otherwise, because a military force is after all a universal feature of social systems. Despite significant progress moving towards democracy among some African countries in the past decade, all too many African militaries have yet to accept core democratic principles regulating civilian authority over the military. This book explores the theory of civil-military relations and moves on to review the intrusion of the armed forces in African politics by looking first into the organization and role of the army in pre-colonial and colonial eras, before examining contemporary armies and their impact on society. Furthermore it revisits the various explanations of military takeovers in Africa and disentangles the notion of the military as the modernizing force. Whether as a revolutionary force, as a stabilizing force, or as a modernizing force, the military has often been perceived as the only organized and disciplined group with the necessary skills to uplift newly independent nations. The performance of Africa's military governments since independence, however, has soundly disproven this thesis. As such, this study conveys the necessity of new civil-military relations in Africa and calls not just for civilian control of the military but rather a democratic oversight of the security forces in Africa.
Category: Political Science

The Soldier And The State

Author : Samuel P. Huntington
ISBN : 0674817362
Genre : History
File Size : 45.60 MB
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World war II: the alchemy of power; Civil-military relations in the postwar decade; The political roles of the Joints Chiefs; The separation of power and the cold war defense; Departmental structure of civil-military relations; Toward a new equilibrium.
Category: History

Civil Military Relations In Post Communist Europe

Author : Timothy Edmunds
ISBN : 9781317970439
Genre : History
File Size : 46.67 MB
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Fifteen years after the fall of communism, we are able to appraise the results of the multi-faceted postcommunist transition in Central and Eastern Europe with authority. This volume specifically addresses the fascinating area of Civil-Military relations throughout this transitional period. The countries of the region inherited a onerous legacy in this area: their armed forces were part of the communist party-state system and most were oriented towards Cold War missions; they were large in size and supported by high levels of defence spending; and they were based on universal male conscription. Central and eastern European states have thus faced a three fold civil-military reform challenge: establishing democratic and civilian control over their armed forces; implementing organisational reform to meet the security and foreign policy demands of the new era; and redefining military bases for legitimacy in society. This volume assesses the experiences of Poland, Hungary, Latvia, Romania, Croatia, Serbia-Montenegro, Ukraine and Russia in these areas. Collectively these countries illustrate the way in which the interaction of broadly similar postcommunist challenges and distinct national contexts have combined to produce a wide variety of different patterns of civil-military relations. This book was previously published as a special issue of European Security.
Category: History

The Routledge Handbook Of Civil Military Relations

Author : Thomas C. Bruneau
ISBN : 9781136253201
Genre : History
File Size : 63.67 MB
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This new Handbook offers a wide-ranging, internationally focused overview of the field of civil–military relations. The armed forces are central actors in most societies and are involved in many different roles. Amongst other activities, they engage in peace operations, support the police in fighting crime, support civilian authorities in dealing with natural disasters, and fight against terrorists and in internal conflicts. The existing literature on this subject is limited in its discussion of war-fighting and thus does not do justice to this variety of roles. The Routledge Handbook of Civil–Military Relations not only fills this important lacuna, but offers an up-to-date comparative analysis which identifies three essential components in civil–military relations: (1) democratic civilian control; (2) operational effectiveness; and (3) the efficiency of the security institutions. Amalgamating ideas from key thinkers in the field, the book is organized into three main parts: Part I: Development of the Field of Study; Part II: Civil–Military Relations in Non-Democratic or Nominally Democratic Countries; Part III: Civil–Military Relations in Democratic and Democratizing States: Issues and Institutions. This new Handbook will be essential reading for students and practitioners in the fields of civil–military relations, defense studies, war and conflict studies, international security and IR in general.
Category: History

Civil Military Relations In Israel

Author : Yehuda Ben-Meir
ISBN : 0231096844
Genre : Political Science
File Size : 21.48 MB
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In Civil-Military Relations in Israel, Yehuda Ben Meir examines the reasons preventing Israel from becoming a "garrison state." A former deputy minister for foreign affairs and longtime member and analyst of the Israeli political scene, Ben Meir is uniquely qualified to give a behind-the-scenes picture of the intimate relationship between Israel's civilian and military leaders. Civil-Military Relations in Israel examines the changing face of the military over the years from an idealistic defense force to a professional army. Ben Meir also views the great divisiveness in Israeli politics as a threat to the unified strength of purpose that in the past characterized the nation's civil authority, and he examines present and future threats to continued civilian control of the military. The book also delves into the legal and constitutional foundations of Israel's civil-military relations, providing a valuable perspective on the organization and role of the current defense establishment, as well as the informal relationship between the key players in the system. In addition, Ben Meir pinpoints the areas in which the military is involved in key political decision making. Despite continuing efforts to resolve the pattern of violence and conflict in the Middle East, the long-standing hostility between Arab and Jew in the region is unlikely to disappear in the near future. And as long as such animosity lingers, Israel's military will remain a strong force in Israeli politics.
Category: Political Science

State And Soldier In Latin America

Author : Wendy Hunter
ISBN : 9780788142437
Genre : History
File Size : 82.6 MB
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Recent years have given rise to an intense debate about the boundaries and appropriate missions of Latin America's armed forces. This report examines the efforts of civilian leaders in Latin America to identify missions for their militaries appropriate to both the security environment of the post-Cold War era and to civil-military relations in a democracy, and to provide ways militaries will effectively adopt these missions. It also analyses the implications for democracy and civilian control of specific roles for the armed forces that are either under consideration or already underway in Argentina, Brazil, and Chile.
Category: History