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Chemical Sensors Vi

Author :
ISBN : 1566774217
Genre : Biosensors
File Size : 51.40 MB
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Category: Biosensors

Nanoparticle Design And Characterization For Catalytic Applications In Sustainable Chemistry

Author : Rafael Luque
ISBN : 9781788018050
Genre : Science
File Size : 56.82 MB
Format : PDF
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Nanoparticles exhibit a range of different properties when compared to bulk materials. Their high surface-area to volume ratio makes them particularly attractive for use as catalysts and recent years have seen an explosion of research in this area. The ability to fine-tune the size and structure of nanoparticles means that it is possible to design catalytic materials for improved activity or specificity. As catalysis is one of the key technologies for more sustainable production of both chemicals and energy, the past few years have seen increasing numbers of nanomaterials reported for these applications. Depending on the application, a number of different catalyst synthesis and optimization protocols can be used. This book provides comprehensive links between the design and fabrication method for nanoparticles and their catalytic performance (activity, selectivity and stability) in various applications. Presenting an introduction to the concept of catalyst design and recent developments in the preparation and characterisation of nanomaterials, followed by several chapters on the design of catalysts for specific applications, this book is a valuable resource for researchers working on catalytic reactions, industrial processes and nanomaterial applications.
Category: Science

Handbook Of Chemical And Biological Sensors

Author : R.F Taylor
ISBN : 1420050486
Genre : Science
File Size : 25.51 MB
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The Handbook of Chemical and Biological Sensors focuses on the development of sensors to recognize substances rather than physical quantities. This fully inclusive book examines devices that use a biological sensing element to detect and measure chemical and biological species as well as those that use a synthetic element to achieve a similar result. A first port of call for anyone with a specific interest, question, or problem relating to this area, this comprehensive source of reference serves as a guide for practicing scientists and as a text for many graduate courses. It presents relevant physics to chemists, chemistry to materials scientists, materials science to electronic engineers, and fabrication technology to all of the above. In addition, the handbook is useful both to newcomers and to experienced researchers who wish to broaden their knowledge of the constituent disciplines of this wide-ranging field.
Category: Science

Integrated Analytical Systems

Author : Salvador Alegret
ISBN : 0444510370
Genre : Medical
File Size : 81.13 MB
Format : PDF
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Lntegration, a new paradigm in analytical chemistry; Integration in science and technology; Integration in analytical chemistry; Partsand components; Supportedreagents; Separation membranes; Systems; Total analysis systems; Miniaturised systems; Networked systems; Sensors; Electrochemical sensors; Optochemical sensors; Arraysystems; Redundant-sensor array systems; Selective-sensor array systems; Cross-selective sensor array systems; Microsystems; Microsensors; Analytical microsystems; Array microsystems; Nanosystems; Conclusions and perspectives; lntegrated separation systems; General principIes ofbi-phase separation; Thermodynamics ofbi-phase equilibrium; Integration concepts in bi-phase separation; Integration of uptake and stripping steps; Multiplication of single separation effect; Frontal íon exchange chromatography; Reverse frontal íon exchange chromatography; Displacement chromatography; Tandem íon exchange fractionation; Combined separation techniques; Solvent extraction-ion exchange. Aqua impregnated resins; Ion exchange-crystallisation. Ion exchange isothermal supersaturation; Ion exchange supersaturation of zwitterlites; Ion exchange supersaturation of electrolytes; Solid-phase spectrometric assays; Integration of processes in solid-phase spectrometric assays; Types of solid-phase spectrometric assays; Features of solid-phase spectrometric assays; Particulated solid-phase spectrometric assays; Fixation process; Operational aspects; Analytical characteristics; Mixtures resolution; Analytical applications; Membrane solid-phase spectrometric assays; Membrane filtration systems; Membrane 'problem' equilibration systems; Membrane 'problem' deposit systems; Continuous flow analytical systems; Reverse flow injection; Integrating effect of conventional flow injection units; Confluencepoints; Exchangedunits; Modifiedunits; Duplicateunits; Derivatisation reactions in flow injection systems; Redox reactions involving solid reagents; Micellar media; Photoinduced reactions; Electrogenerated reagents; Catalytic reactions; External energy sources integrated with flow injection; Conventional heat sources; illtrasound energy sources; Use of electrical energy; Microwave energy assistance; In-line coupling of simple non-chromatographic continuous separation units and flow injection manifolds; Couplings with techniques involving gas-separation: gas-diffusers, pervaporators and others; Couplings with liquid-liquid separators: dialysers and liquid-liquid extractors; Couplingswith liquid-solid separators and solid phase formation; On-line separation equipment and flow injection manifolds; On-line coupling of robotics and flow injection manifolds; Detection in flow injection; Flow injection-detector interfaces; Automatic calibration; Special uses of conventional detectors coupled to FI; Three-dimensional and complex detectors coupled to FI; Screening and flow injection Integration and flow injection; Distributed analytical instrumentation systems; Theremoteconcept; Elements in a measurement system; Distributed systems topologies; Theremoteplace; The benefits of distributed intelligence; The computer-controlling function; Virtual instruments; Smart/intelligent sensors; The link; Industrial networks; Ethernet; Wireless links; The local place; Remote analytical instruments/systems: application examples; Laboratory information management systems; The analytical laboratory; Role of an analytical laboratory; Need to increase productivity; The aims oflaboratory automation; Problems with laboratory automation; Solutions for laboratory automation; What is laboratory automation?; A definition oflaboratory automation; Laboratory automation constituent groups; Instrument automation; Communications; Data to information conversion; Information management; A laboratory automation strategy in practice; Laboratory Information Management Systems; What is a LIMS?; A LIMS has two targets; Construction of the LIMS matrix; LIMS matrix views; Organisational integration and LIMS; LIMS and the system development life cycle; System development life cycle; Project proposal; The LIMS project team; User requirements specification and system selection; Functional specification; Qualification of the system; User training and roll-out strategies; Project close-out; Post-implementation review; Enhancement ofthe system and controlling change; Chemically modified electrodes with integrated biomolecules and molecular wires; Enzyme redox catalysis; Redox hydrogels; Self-assembled polyelectrolyte and protein films; Self-assembled enzyme films; Electrocatalysis; Electronhopping; Different molecular architectures; Structure ofself-assembled enzyme films; Atomic force microscopy; Ellipsometry; Combination of QCM and ellipsometric measurements; Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR); Composite and biocomposite materiais forelectrochemicalsensing; Composite electrode materiaIs; Conducting composite; Conducting biocomposites; Composite- and biocomposite-based electrochemical sensors; Conductometric sensors; Potentiometric sensors; Amperometric sensors; Thick-film sensors; Sensors for voltammetric stripping techniques; Optical chemical sensors and biosensor; Sensor structure; Optical fibers; Optoelectronic instrumentation; Molecular recognition element; Sensor designs; Modes of optical signal measurements; Absorbance measurement; Reflectance measurement; Fluorescence measurement; Chemiluminescence measurement; Electronic tongues: new analytical perspective of chemical sensors; General approach to the application of sensor arrays; Why use sensor systems?; Inspirations from chemometrics and biology; Advantages of sensor systems in comparlson with discrete sensors; Specific features of the sensors for the electronictongue; Electronic tongue systems; Sensors; System designs; Hybrid systems; Data processing; Selected applications ofthe electronic tongue; Application areas and analytes; Quantitative analysis; Qualitative analysis, recognition, identification andclassification; Comparison with human perception offlavours; Taste quantification; Application ofhybrid systems; Problems and perspective; A Taste sensor; Structure of the taste sensor; Response characteristics; Aminoacids; Classification oftaste ofamino acids; Discrimination of D-amino acids from L-aminoacids; Quantification ofthe taste of foods; Interaction between taste qualities; Suppression ofbitterness due to phospholipids; Scale ofbitterness; Suppression of bitterness due to taste substances; Detection of wine flavor using taste sensor and electronic nose; Perspective; Application of electronic nose technology for monitoring water and wastewater; Electronic nose technology; Sensor types; Analysis ofelectronic nose data; Electronic nose instrumentation; Sensor array components; Commercial systems; Application to water and wastewater monitoring; Laboratory-based systems; On-line monitoring systems; lntegrated optical transducers for (bio)chemical sensing; Basic concepts; Fundamentals of optical waveguides; Detection principIes: Types of devices; Technologies for integrated optical transducer fabrication; Substrate materiaIs and specific processes; Basic technological processes; Integrated optical sensors; Absorbancesensor; Gratingcoupler; Resonantmirror; Mach-Zehnder interferometer; Towards a total integrated system; High arder hybrid FET module for (bio)chemical andphysicalsensing; Design concepts of(bio)chemical sensor arrays; High arder sensor module based on an identical transducer principIe; Hybrid module design; ISFET fabrication; Measuring system and sensor configurations; Multi-parameter detection of both (bio)chemical and physical quantities using the same transducer principIe; ISFET-based pH sensor; ISFET-based penicillin sensor; ISFET-based temperature sensor; ISFET-based flow-velocity sensor; ISFET-based flow-direction sensor;ISFET-based diffusion-coefficient sensor; ISFET-based bioelectronic sensor; Applications of the hybrid sensor module; pH determination in human urine; pH measurement in rain droplets; Summary and conclusion; Microdialysis based lab-on-a-chip, applying a generic MEM Stechnology; The need for in vivo monitoring; Microdialysis; The microdialysis lab-on-a-chip; The micromachined double lumen microdialysis probe connector; The conventional microdialysis probe; Experimental; Results and discussion; The passive and the active calibration system; Passive contraI of a calibration plug; Active contraI of a calibration plug; Closed-loop controlled electrochemically actuated microdosing system; The flow-through potentiometric and amperometric sensor array; The flow-through potentiometric sensorarray; The flow-through reference electrode; The flow-through amperometric sensor; The integrated microdialysis-based lab-on-a-chip; The complete integrated microdialysis lab-on-a-chip; Measurements; Design methodology for a lab-on-a-chip for chemical analysis: the MAFIAS chip; The design path; The design; Chemistry; System schematics; Channel geometry; Specifications for the components; Thecomponents; Nanosensor and nanoprobe systems for in vivo bioanalysis; Background on biosensors and bioreceptors; Biosensing systems; Bioreceptor probes; Fiberoptics nanosensor system; Fabrication of the fiberoptic nanoprobe; Immobilization of receptors onto fiber nanoprobes; Experimental system and protocol for nanoprobe investigation of single cells; Optical measurement system; Applications in bioanalysis; Optical nanofiber probes for fluorescence measurements; Single-cell measurements using antibody-based nanoprobes.
Category: Medical

Chemical Sensors And Biosensors

Author : Florinel-Gabriel Banica
ISBN : 9781118354230
Genre : Science
File Size : 84.20 MB
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Key features include: Self-assessment questions and exercises Chapters start with essential principles, then go on to addressmore advanced topics More than 1300 references to direct the reader to keyliterature and further reading Highly illustrated with 450 figures, including chemicalstructures and reactions, functioning principles, constructivedetails and response characteristics Chemical sensors are self-contained analytical devices thatprovide real-time information on chemical composition. A chemicalsensor integrates two distinct functions: recognition andtransduction. Such devices are widely used for a variety ofapplications, including clinical analysis, environment monitoringand monitoring of industrial processes. This text provides anup-to-date survey of chemical sensor science and technology, with agood balance between classical aspects and contemporary trends.Topics covered include: Structure and properties of recognition materials and reagents,including synthetic, biological and biomimetic materials,microorganisms and whole-cells Physicochemical basis of various transduction methods(electrical, thermal, electrochemical, optical, mechanical andacoustic wave-based) Auxiliary materials used e.g. synthetic and natural polymers,inorganic materials, semiconductors, carbon and metallicmaterials properties and applications of advanced materials (particularlynanomaterials) in the production of chemical sensors andbiosensors Advanced manufacturing methods Sensors obtained by combining particular transduction andrecognition methods Mathematical modeling of chemical sensor processes Suitable as a textbook for graduate and final year undergraduatestudents, and also for researchers in chemistry, biology, physics,physiology, pharmacology and electronic engineering, this bookisvaluable to anyone interested in the field of chemical sensors andbiosensors.
Category: Science

Combinatorial Methods For Chemical And Biological Sensors

Author : Radislav A. Potyrailo
ISBN : 0387737138
Genre : Science
File Size : 28.92 MB
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Chemical sensors are in high demand for applications as varied as water pollution detection, medical diagnostics, and battlefield air analysis. Designing the next generation of sensors requires an interdisciplinary approach. The book provides a critical analysis of new opportunities in sensor materials research that have been opened up with the use of combinatorial and high-throughput technologies, with emphasis on experimental techniques. For a view of component selection with a more computational perspective, readers may refer to the complementary volume of Integrated Analytical Systems edited by M. Ryan et al., entitled “Computational Methods for Sensor Material Selection”.
Category: Science

Analytical Electrochemistry

Author : Joseph Wang
ISBN : 9780471790297
Genre : Science
File Size : 63.42 MB
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Third Edition covers the latest advances in methodologies, sensors,detectors, and mIcrochips The greatly expanded Third Edition of this internationallyrespected text continues to provide readers with a completepanorama of electroanalytical techniques and devices, offering abalancebetween voltammetric and potentiometric techniques.Emphasizing electroanalysis rather than physical electrochemistry,readers gain a deep understanding of the fundamentals ofelectrodereactions and electrochemical methods. Moreover, readerslearn to apply their newfoundknowledge and skills to solvereal-world analytical problems. The text consists of six expertly crafted chapters: * Chapter 1 introduces fundamental aspects of electrode reactionsand the structure of the interfacial region * Chapter 2 studies electrode reactions and high-resolution surfacecharacterization, using techniques ranging from cyclic voltammetryto scanning probe microscopies * Chapter 3 features an overview of modern finite-currentcontrolled potential techniques * Chapter 4 presents electrochemical instrumentation and electrodematerials, including modified electrodes andultramicroelectrodes * Chapter 5 details the principles of potentiometric measurementsand various classes of ion selective electrodes * Chapter 6 explores the growing field of chemical sensors,including biosensors, gas sensors, microchip devices, and sensorarrays Among the new topics covered, readers discover DNA biosensors,impedance spectroscopy, detection of capillary electrophoresis,diamond electrodes, carbon-nanotube and nanoparticle-based arraysand devices, large-amplitude AC voltammetry, solid-stateion-selective electrodes, ion selective electrodes for traceanalysis, and lab-on-a-chip devices. New figures, worked examples,and end-of-chapter questions have also been added to thisedition. Given the rapid pace of discovery and growth of new applications inthe field, this text is essential for an up-to-date presentation ofthe latest advances in methodologies, sensors, detectors, andmicrochips. It is recommended for graduate-level courses inelectroanalytical chemistry and as a supplement for upper-levelundergraduate courses in instrumental analysis. The text also meetsthe reference needs for any industry, government, or academiclaboratory engaged in electroanalysis and biosensors.
Category: Science

Solid State Ionic Devices

Author : E. D. Wachsman
ISBN : UOM:39015058889539
Genre : Semiconductors
File Size : 41.97 MB
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Category: Semiconductors