Causality Probability And Time

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Causality Probability And Time

Author : Samantha Kleinberg
ISBN : 9781107026483
Genre : Computers
File Size : 45.68 MB
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"This book presents a new approach to causal inference and explanation, addressing both the timing and complexity of relationships. The method's feasibility and success is demonstrated through theoretical and experimental case studies"--
Category: Computers

Time And Causality Across The Sciences

Author : Samantha Kleinberg
ISBN : 9781108476676
Genre : Computers
File Size : 53.66 MB
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Explores the critical role time plays in our understanding of causality, across psychology, biology, physics and the social sciences.
Category: Computers

Causality Probability And Medicine

Author : Donald Gillies
ISBN : 9781317564287
Genre : Philosophy
File Size : 65.97 MB
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Why is understanding causation so important in philosophy and the sciences? Should causation be defined in terms of probability? Whilst causation plays a major role in theories and concepts of medicine, little attempt has been made to connect causation and probability with medicine itself. Causality, Probability, and Medicine is one of the first books to apply philosophical reasoning about causality to important topics and debates in medicine. Donald Gillies provides a thorough introduction to and assessment of competing theories of causality in philosophy, including action-related theories, causality and mechanisms, and causality and probability. Throughout the book he applies them to important discoveries and theories within medicine, such as germ theory; tuberculosis and cholera; smoking and heart disease; the first ever randomized controlled trial designed to test the treatment of tuberculosis; the growing area of philosophy of evidence-based medicine; and philosophy of epidemiology. This book will be of great interest to students and researchers in philosophy of science and philosophy of medicine, as well as those working in medicine, nursing and related health disciplines where a working knowledge of causality and probability is required.
Category: Philosophy

Probability Dynamics And Causality

Author : D. Costantini
ISBN : 0792343611
Genre : Mathematics
File Size : 31.9 MB
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This book is a collection of essays on various issues in philosophy of science, with special emphasis on the foundations of probability and statistics, and quantum mechanics. The main topics, addressed by some of the most outstanding researchers in the field, are: subjective probability, Bayesian statistics, probability kinematics, causal decision making, probability and realism in quantum mechanics. Various aspects of the problem of collecting new evidence and updating probability judgments are addressed in reference to different applications. The book puts together contributions by philosophers. The readership of the book consists of all those interested in the foundations of probability and physical science.
Category: Mathematics

Causality

Author : Phyllis Illari
ISBN : 9780191639685
Genre : Mathematics
File Size : 60.91 MB
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Head hits cause brain damage - but not always. Should we ban sport to protect athletes? Exposure to electromagnetic fields is strongly associated with cancer development - does that mean exposure causes cancer? Should we encourage old fashioned communication instead of mobile phones to reduce cancer rates? According to popular wisdom, the Mediterranean diet keeps you healthy. Is this belief scientifically sound? Should public health bodies encourage consumption of fresh fruit and vegetables? Severe financial constraints on research and public policy, media pressure, and public anxiety make such questions of immense current concern not just to philosophers but to scientists, governments, public bodies, and the general public. In the last decade there has been an explosion of theorizing about causality in philosophy, and also in the sciences. This literature is both fascinating and important, but it is involved and highly technical. This makes it inaccessible to many who would like to use it, philosophers and scientists alike. This book is an introduction to philosophy of causality - one that is highly accessible: to scientists unacquainted with philosophy, to philosophers unacquainted with science, and to anyone else lost in the labyrinth of philosophical theories of causality. It presents key philosophical accounts, concepts and methods, using examples from the sciences to show how to apply philosophical debates to scientific problems.
Category: Mathematics

Probabilistic Causality

Author : Ellery Eells
ISBN : 0521392446
Genre : Mathematics
File Size : 73.14 MB
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In this important first book in the series Cambridge Studies in Probability, Induction and Decision Theory, Ellery Eells explores and refines current philosophical conceptions of probabilistic causality. In a probabilistic theory of causation, causes increase the probability of their effects rather than necessitate their effects in the ways traditional deterministic theories have specified. Philosophical interest in this subject arises from attempts to understand population sciences as well as indeterminism in physics. Taking into account issues involving spurious correlation, probabilistic causal interaction, disjunctive causal factors, and temporal ideas, Professor Eells advances the analysis of what it is for one factor to be a positive causal factor for another. A salient feature of the book is a new theory of token level probabilistic causation in which the evolution of the probability of a later event from an earlier event is central.
Category: Mathematics

Causation Chance And Credence

Author : B. Skyrms
ISBN : 9789400928633
Genre : Science
File Size : 71.55 MB
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The papers collected here are, with three exceptions, those presented at a conference on probability and causation held at the University of California at Irvine on July 15-19, 1985. The exceptions are that David Freedman and Abner Shimony were not able to contribute the papers that they presented to this volume, and that Clark Glymour who was not able to attend the conference did contribute a paper. We would like to thank the National Science Foundation and the School of Humanities of the University of California at Irvine for generous support. WILLIAM HARPER University of Western Ontario BRIAN SKYRMS University of California at Irvine VII INTRODUCTION TO CAUSATION, CHANCE, AND CREDENCE The search for causes is so central to science that it has sometimes been taken as the defining attribute of the scientific enterprise. Yet even after twenty-five centuries of philosophical analysis the meaning of "cause" is still a matter of controversy, among scientists as well as philosophers. Part of the problem is that the servicable concepts of causation built out of Necessity, Sufficiency, Locality, and Temporal Precedence were constructed for a deterministic world-view which has been obsolete since the advent of quantum theory. A physically credible theory of causation must be, at basis, statistical. And statistical analyses of caus ation may be of interest even when an underlying deterministic theory is assumed, as in classical statistical mechanics.
Category: Science

Causality In Sociological Research

Author : Jakub Karpinski
ISBN : 9789400904958
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 36.92 MB
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The general treatment of problems connected with the causal conditioning of phenomena has traditionally been the domain of philosophy, but when one examines the relationships taking place in the various fields, the study of such conditionings belongs to the empirical sciences. Sociology is no exception in that respect. In that discipline we note a certain paradox. Many problems connected with the causal conditioning of phenomena have been raised in sociology in relatively recent times, and that process marked its empirical or even so-called empiricist trend. That trend, labelled positivist, seems in this case to be in contradiction with a certain type of positivism. Those authors who describe positivism usually include the Humean tradition in its genealogy and, remembering Hume's criticism of the concept of cause, speak about positivism as about a trend which is inclined to treat lightly the study of causes and confines itself to the statements on co-occurrence of phenomena.
Category: Social Science

Probabilistic Causality In Longitudinal Studies

Author : Mervi Eerola
ISBN : 9781461226840
Genre : Mathematics
File Size : 80.50 MB
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In many applied fields of statistics the concept of causality is central to a scientific investigation. The author's aim in this book is to extend the classical theories of probabilistic causality to longitudinal settings and to propose that interesting causal questions can be related to causal effects which can change in time. The proposed prediction method in this study provides a framework to study the dynamics and the magnitudes of causal effects in a series of dependent events. Its usefulness is demonstrated by the analysis of two examples both drawn from biomedicine, one on bone marrow transplants and one on mental hospitalization. Consequently, statistical researchers and other scientists concerned with identifying causal relationships will find this an interesting and new approach to this problem.
Category: Mathematics

A Collection Of Polish Works On Philosophical Problems Of Time And Spacetime

Author : Helena Eilstein
ISBN : 9789401700979
Genre : Science
File Size : 28.31 MB
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This is a collection of some works of Polish philosophers and physicists on philosophical problems of time and spacetime. Without restricting the thematic scope of the papers, the issue conceming objectivity of time flow runs as a uniting thread through most of them. Partly it is discussed directIy, and partly the authors focus on themes which are of paramount importance for one's attitude to that question. In the first six papers the authors deal with their topics against the background of contemporary physics, its theories, its difficulties and discussed conjectures. For the paper of S. Snihur that background is provided by everyday worId-outlook, and the author discusses the problem of existence and character of the future in the light of basic principles of cIassical logic. The paper of A. P61tawski, about the views of the outstanding polish philosopher Roman Ingarden, enriches the thematic scope of the coIIection introducing into it some questions from philosophical anthropology and ethics. JERZY GOLOSZ MOTION, SPACE, TIME*. Abstract. The paper discusses the properties of spacetime we study by analyzing the phenomenon of motion. Of special interest are the spacetime symmetries. the spacetime structures and the ontological status of spacetime. These problems are considered on the grounds of the c1assical theories of motion contained in Newtonian physics, special and general theory of relativity. The controversy between an absolute and a relational conception of motion and its ontological implications are also analyzed.
Category: Science

The Direction Of Time

Author : Hans Reichenbach
ISBN : 0520018397
Genre : Science
File Size : 26.27 MB
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Category: Science

Causality

Author : Carlo Berzuini
ISBN : 9781119941736
Genre : Mathematics
File Size : 65.49 MB
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A state of the art volume on statistical causality Causality: Statistical Perspectives and Applications presents a wide-ranging collection of seminal contributions by renowned experts in the field, providing a thorough treatment of all aspects of statistical causality. It covers the various formalisms in current use, methods for applying them to specific problems, and the special requirements of a range of examples from medicine, biology and economics to political science. This book: Provides a clear account and comparison of formal languages, concepts and models for statistical causality. Addresses examples from medicine, biology, economics and political science to aid the reader's understanding. Is authored by leading experts in their field. Is written in an accessible style. Postgraduates, professional statisticians and researchers in academia and industry will benefit from this book.
Category: Mathematics

Causality Ii A Theory Of Energy Time And Space

Author : Ilija Baruk?i?
ISBN : 9781409229544
Genre :
File Size : 58.59 MB
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---------- Volume 2 (August 21th, 2010) ---------- : This highly original book gives an exact insight into the philosophical, logical, mathematical and physical foundations of causality.Causality is designed to provide both, the new methodology for making causal inferences on the basis of (non-) experimental data and the underlying theory. The new mathematical tools for evaluating causal relationships from (non-) experimental data are presented in the simplest and most intelligible form.Causality is thus an excellent book for self study and a pragmatic help for researchers. Anyone who wishes to elucidate cause effect relationships from (non-) experimental data will find this book invaluable. The reader will enjoy to read and use this book. Finally, a unified mathematical and statistical model of causation is available.
Category:

Probability And Causality

Author : J.H. Fetzer
ISBN : 9789400939974
Genre : Science
File Size : 34.24 MB
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The contributions to this special collection concern issues and problems discussed in or related to the work of Wesley C. Salmon. Salmon has long been noted for his important work in the philosophy of science, which has included research on the interpretation of probability, the nature of explanation, the character of reasoning, the justification of induction, the structure of space/time and the paradoxes of Zeno, to mention only some of the most prominent. During a time of increasing preoccupation with historical and sociological approaches to under standing science (which characterize scientific developments as though they could be adequately analysed from the perspective of political movements, even mistaking the phenomena of conversion for the rational appraisal of scientific theories), Salmon has remained stead fastly devoted to isolating and justifying those normative standards distinguishing science from non-science - especially through the vindi cation of general principles of scientific procedure and the validation of specific examples of scientific theories - without which science itself cannot be (even remotely) adequately understood. In this respect, Salmon exemplifies and strengthens a splendid tradi tion whose most remarkable representatives include Hans Reichenbach, Rudolf Carnap and Carl G. Hempel, all of whom exerted a profound influence upon his own development.
Category: Science

Evidence Decision And Causality

Author : Arif Ahmed
ISBN : 9781107020894
Genre : Mathematics
File Size : 52.78 MB
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An explanation and defence of evidential decision theory, which emphasises the symptomatic value of options over their causal role.
Category: Mathematics

Micha Kalecki An Intellectual Biography

Author : J. Toporowski
ISBN : 9781137315397
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 24.55 MB
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This volume of intellectual biography takes the Polish economist Micha Kalecki (1899-1970) from the shattering of his prosperous childhood, in Tsarist Łódź in the 1905 Revolution, to Cambridge and the failure of his co-operative research with John Maynard Keynes's supporters in Cambridge.
Category: Business & Economics