Causality Probability And Medicine

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Causality Probability And Medicine

Author : Donald Gillies
ISBN : 9781317564287
Genre : Philosophy
File Size : 47.2 MB
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Why is understanding causation so important in philosophy and the sciences? Should causation be defined in terms of probability? Whilst causation plays a major role in theories and concepts of medicine, little attempt has been made to connect causation and probability with medicine itself. Causality, Probability, and Medicine is one of the first books to apply philosophical reasoning about causality to important topics and debates in medicine. Donald Gillies provides a thorough introduction to and assessment of competing theories of causality in philosophy, including action-related theories, causality and mechanisms, and causality and probability. Throughout the book he applies them to important discoveries and theories within medicine, such as germ theory; tuberculosis and cholera; smoking and heart disease; the first ever randomized controlled trial designed to test the treatment of tuberculosis; the growing area of philosophy of evidence-based medicine; and philosophy of epidemiology. This book will be of great interest to students and researchers in philosophy of science and philosophy of medicine, as well as those working in medicine, nursing and related health disciplines where a working knowledge of causality and probability is required.
Category: Philosophy

Health Disease And Causal Explanations In Medicine

Author : L.Y Nordenfelt
ISBN : 9789400962835
Genre : Medical
File Size : 23.7 MB
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On May 13-15, 1982, some 50 scientists and scholars - physicians, philos ophers and social scientists - convened at Hasselby Castle in Stockholm for the first Nordic Symposium on the Philosophy of Medicine. The topics for the symposium included (1) the concepts of health and disease, (2) classification in medicine, and (3) causality and causal explanations in medicine. The majority of the participants were Scandinavian but the symposium was also able to welcome four distinguished guests from other parts of the world, Professors Stuart F. Spicker and H. Tristram Engelhardt, Jr., U.S.A., Dr Anne M. Fagot, France, and Dr Werner Morbach, West Germany. The latter represented Professor Kazem Sadegh-zadeh, who unfortunately was prevented from attending. One of the main purposes of this symposium was to bring together people in Scandinavia who at present work within the field of Philosophy of Medi cine. This group is still relatively small but is growing rapidly, and the scholarly activity has recently been notable. This fact is clearly demonstrated by the presentation of 'Philosophy of Medicine in Scandinavia' in the Appendix of this volume.
Category: Medical

The Routledge Companion To Philosophy Of Medicine

Author : Miriam Solomon
ISBN : 9781317519843
Genre : Philosophy
File Size : 85.15 MB
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The Routledge Companion to Philosophy of Medicine is a comprehensive guide to topics in the fields of epistemology and metaphysics of medicine. It examines traditional topics such as the concept of disease, causality in medicine, the epistemology of the randomized controlled trial, the biopsychosocial model, explanation, clinical judgment and phenomenology of medicine and emerging topics, such as philosophy of epidemiology, measuring harms, the concept of disability, nursing perspectives, race and gender, the metaphysics of Chinese medicine, and narrative medicine. Each of the 48 chapters is written especially for this volume and with a student audience in mind. For pedagogy and clarity, each chapter contains an extended example illustrating the ideas discussed. This text is intended for use as a reference for students in courses in philosophy of medicine and philosophy of science, and pairs well with The Routledge Companion to Bioethics for use in medical humanities and social science courses.
Category: Philosophy

Uncertain Causation In Medical Liability

Author : Lara Khoury
ISBN : 9781847312730
Genre : Law
File Size : 58.25 MB
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'Proving' the cause of the plaintiff's injury in personal injury litigation often entails significant challenges, particularly when science cannot identify the cause of a biological phenomenon or when the nature of this cause is debatable. This problem is frequently encountered in medical malpractice cases, where the limitations of scientific knowledge are still extensive. Yet judges must decide cases, however uncertain the evidence with regard to proof of causation. Reluctant to leave patients without compensation, courts have in some cases challenged their traditional approach to causation through recourse to such techniques as reliance on factual presumptions and inferences, the concept of loss of chance, and reversal of the burden of proof. This book analyses and criticises the use of these various techniques by the courts of England, Australia, Canada, France, and the civilian Canadian province of Quebec in confronting evidentiary causal difficulties caused by the uncertainties of medical science.
Category: Law

Probabilistic Modeling In Bioinformatics And Medical Informatics

Author : Dirk Husmeier
ISBN : 1852337788
Genre : Computers
File Size : 69.63 MB
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Written for researchers and students in statistics, machine learning, and the biological sciences. This book provides a self-contained introduction to the methodology of Bayesian networks. It offers both elementary tutorials as well as more advanced applications and case studies.
Category: Computers

Causality Probability And Time

Author : Samantha Kleinberg
ISBN : 9781107026483
Genre : Computers
File Size : 43.86 MB
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"This book presents a new approach to causal inference and explanation, addressing both the timing and complexity of relationships. The method's feasibility and success is demonstrated through theoretical and experimental case studies"--
Category: Computers

Philosophy Of Medicine

Author : Fred Gifford
ISBN : 9780444517876
Genre : Mathematics
File Size : 33.98 MB
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This volume covers a wide range of conceptual, epistemological and methodological issues in the philosophy of science raised by reflection upon medical science and practice. Several chapters examine such general meta-scientific concepts as discovery, reduction, theories and models, causal inference and scientific realism as they apply to medicine or medical science in particular. Some discuss important concepts specific to medicine (diagnosis, health, disease, brain death). A topic such as evidence, for instance, is examined at a variety of levels, from social mechanisms for guiding evidence-based reasoning such as evidence-based medicine, consensus conferences, and clinical trials, to the more abstract analysis of experimentation, inference and uncertainty. Some chapters reflect on particular domains of medicine, including psychiatry, public health, and nursing. The contributions span a broad range of detailed cases from the science and practice of medicine, as well as a broad range of intellectual approaches, from conceptual analysis to detailed examinations of particular scientific papers or historical episodes. Chapters view philosophy of medicine from quite different angles Considers substantive cases from both medical science and practice Chapters from a distinguished array of contributors
Category: Mathematics

The Role Of Complementary And Alternative Medicine

Author : Daniel Callahan
ISBN : UOM:39015054166825
Genre : Medical
File Size : 26.22 MB
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A striking new study of alternative medicine traces the relationship between orthodox and unorthodox medicine, exploring acupuncture, chiropractic treatment, homeopathy, and nutritional supplements, among other treatments and approaches.
Category: Medical

Causality

Author : Phyllis Illari
ISBN : 9780191639685
Genre : Mathematics
File Size : 71.98 MB
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Head hits cause brain damage - but not always. Should we ban sport to protect athletes? Exposure to electromagnetic fields is strongly associated with cancer development - does that mean exposure causes cancer? Should we encourage old fashioned communication instead of mobile phones to reduce cancer rates? According to popular wisdom, the Mediterranean diet keeps you healthy. Is this belief scientifically sound? Should public health bodies encourage consumption of fresh fruit and vegetables? Severe financial constraints on research and public policy, media pressure, and public anxiety make such questions of immense current concern not just to philosophers but to scientists, governments, public bodies, and the general public. In the last decade there has been an explosion of theorizing about causality in philosophy, and also in the sciences. This literature is both fascinating and important, but it is involved and highly technical. This makes it inaccessible to many who would like to use it, philosophers and scientists alike. This book is an introduction to philosophy of causality - one that is highly accessible: to scientists unacquainted with philosophy, to philosophers unacquainted with science, and to anyone else lost in the labyrinth of philosophical theories of causality. It presents key philosophical accounts, concepts and methods, using examples from the sciences to show how to apply philosophical debates to scientific problems.
Category: Mathematics

Causal Relationships In Medicine

Author : J. Mark Elwood
ISBN : 0192622870
Genre : Causation
File Size : 51.63 MB
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This book shows that in most controversial questions in medicine the essential argument concerns whether the available evidence supports a particular cause-and-effect relationship. Making this evaluation, however, requires a degree of critical thinking that is not emphasized in medical education. In redressing this imbalance, the author demonstrates that by defining the postulated causal relationship, the possible causal and non-causal explanations can be considered in a logical and constructive manner. Elwood assumes no preliminary knowledge, but starts from a simple logical base to lead the reader through types of studies which are relevant, including the issue of selection in subjects, bias in observations, influences of other factors, and statistical analysis. This yields a question and answer approach that can be applied to a wide range of clinical and epidemiological issues.
Category: Causation

Medical Informatics Europe 96

Author : Jytte Brender
ISBN : 9051992785
Genre : Medical
File Size : 43.59 MB
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MIE 96 is the main medical informatics and telematics event in 1996. MIE 96 is the place where users meet industry, where decision makers are presented with the available informatics and telematics solutions to major challenges in modern medicine and its delivery. An awareness is raising within the healthcare sector of the huge potential in applying IT-based solutions as means for quality assurance and cost-containment.
Category: Medical

Advanced Medical Statistics

Author : Ying Lu
ISBN : 9810248008
Genre : Medical
File Size : 39.95 MB
Format : PDF
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This book presents new and powerful advanced statistical methods that have been used in modern medicine, drug development, and epidemiology. Some of these methods were initially developed for tackling medical problems. All 29 chapters are self-contained. Each chapter represents the new development and future research topics for a medical or statistical branch. For the benefit of readers with different statistical background, each chapter follows a similar style: the explanation of medical challenges, statistical ideas and strategies, statistical methods and techniques, mathematical remarks and background and reference. All chapters are written by experts of the respective topics.
Category: Medical

Handbook Of Probability

Author : Tamás Rudas
ISBN : 9781483303659
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 89.17 MB
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"This is a valuable reference guide for readers interested in gaining a basic understanding of probability theory or its applications in problem solving in the other disciplines." —CHOICE Providing cutting-edge perspectives and real-world insights into the greater utility of probability and its applications, the Handbook of Probability offers an equal balance of theory and direct applications in a non-technical, yet comprehensive, format. Editor Tamás Rudas and the internationally-known contributors present the material in a manner so that researchers of various backgrounds can use the reference either as a primer for understanding basic probability theory or as a more advanced research tool for specific projects requiring a deeper understanding. The wide-ranging applications of probability presented make it useful for scholars who need to make interdisciplinary connections in their work. Key Features Contains contributions from the international who's-who of probability across several disciplines Offers an equal balance of theory and applications Explains the most important concepts of probability theory in a non-technical yet comprehensive way Provides in-depth examples of recent applications in the social and behavioral sciences as well as education, business, and law Intended Audience This Handbook makes an ideal library purchase. In addition, this volume should also be of interest to individual scholars in the social and behavioral sciences.
Category: Social Science

Artificial Intelligence In Medicine

Author : Silvana Quaglini
ISBN : 9783540422945
Genre : Computers
File Size : 24.55 MB
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This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 8th Conference on Artificial Intelligence in Medicine in Europe, AIME 2001, held in Cascais, Portugal in July 2001. The 31 revised full papers presented together with 30 posters and two invited papers were carefully reviewed and selected from 79 submissions. Among the topics addressed in their context on medical information processing are knowledge management, machine learning, data mining, decision support systems, temporal reasoning, case-based reasoning, planning and scheduling, natural language processing, computer vision, image and signal interpretation, intelligent agents, telemedicine, careflow systems, and cognitive modeling.
Category: Computers

Computational Medicine In Data Mining And Modeling

Author : Goran Rakocevic
ISBN : 9781461487852
Genre : Computers
File Size : 58.53 MB
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This book presents an overview of a variety of contemporary statistical, mathematical and computer science techniques which are used to further the knowledge in the medical domain. The authors focus on applying data mining to the medical domain, including mining the sets of clinical data typically found in patient’s medical records, image mining, medical mining, data mining and machine learning applied to generic genomic data and more. This work also introduces modeling behavior of cancer cells, multi-scale computational models and simulations of blood flow through vessels by using patient-specific models. The authors cover different imaging techniques used to generate patient-specific models. This is used in computational fluid dynamics software to analyze fluid flow. Case studies are provided at the end of each chapter. Professionals and researchers with quantitative backgrounds will find Computational Medicine in Data Mining and Modeling useful as a reference. Advanced-level students studying computer science, mathematics, statistics and biomedicine will also find this book valuable as a reference or secondary text book.
Category: Computers

Medical Informatics

Author : Hsinchun Chen
ISBN : 038724381X
Genre : Medical
File Size : 59.13 MB
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Comprehensively presents the foundations and leading application research in medical informatics/biomedicine. The concepts and techniques are illustrated with detailed case studies. Authors are widely recognized professors and researchers in Schools of Medicine and Information Systems from the University of Arizona, University of Washington, Columbia University, and Oregon Health & Science University. Related Springer title, Shortliffe: Medical Informatics, has sold over 8000 copies The title will be positioned at the upper division and graduate level Medical Informatics course and a reference work for practitioners in the field.
Category: Medical

Essential Community Medicine

Author : R.J. Donaldson
ISBN : 9789401162494
Genre : Medical
File Size : 62.37 MB
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This basic textbook of Community Medicine, which includes descriptions of the related social ~ervices, is intended for a wide range of readers who require knowledge and understanding of the essential aspects of the subject. These include undergraduate medical students and qualified doctors who are engaged in postgraduate courses of study or training schemes, particularly those in community medicine and general practice. When writing this book we also had in mi nd the needs of students of nursing at all levels at a time when an increasing emphasis on the community is being reflected in the content of curricula and the composition of examination papers. It is our view that this account of community medicine will also be of value to established practitioners -community physicians, community health doctors, senior nurses and health visitors - who wish to con solidate or update their knowledge. The growing involvement of the professions in the management and planning of health services means that many general practitioners, hospital doctors and nurses are being called upon to take a population perspective and to become acquainted with many of the concepts and issues discussed in this book. In addition, there are those professionals who work closely with medicine and nursing and have a common concern in providing care and promoting prevention -groups such as social workers and health education personnel. For all these reasons we would ho pe that many groups might read the book and find it useful.
Category: Medical

Artificial Intelligence In Medicine

Author : Silvia Miksch
ISBN : 9783540278313
Genre : Computers
File Size : 23.10 MB
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This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 10th Conference on Artificial Intelligence in Medicine in Europe, AIME 2005, held in Aberdeen, UK in July 2005. The 35 revised full papers and 34 revised short papers presented together with 2 invited contributions were carefully reviewed and selected from 148 submissions. The papers are organized in topical sections on temporal representation and reasoning, decision support systems, clinical guidelines and protocols, ontology and terminology, case-based reasoning, signal interpretation, visual mining, computer vision and imaging, knowledge management, machine learning, knowledge discovery, and data mining.
Category: Computers

Causation And Disease

Author : EVANS
ISBN : 9781461530244
Genre : Medical
File Size : 43.60 MB
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In the front material of this book both a foreword and a preface appear. What the content of a preface should be is well understood. It is the author's retrospective account of intent, of the labors to accomplish that intent, and of the content of the book that resulted. What a foreword should be is less obvious. Most properly, it is perhaps the brief testimony of one who knows the accomplishments of the author and the scope of the field and who may direct readers to the book. On some basis, the writer is assumed to have earned the right to undertake such a task. To undertake the writing of a foreword for so considerable a researcher, teacher, and scholar as Alfred Evans can be seen not only as an honor but also as a daunting one. My first thought, in truth, is that this wine needs no blush and that no foreword is needed. As John Rodman Paul Professor of Epidemiology at Yale, Alfred Evans has an established reputation in the field of causality. We have learned from his insights about the evolution of causal thinking as epidemiology passed from the era of the germ theory into that of the search for causes of chronic noncontagious diseases. It was he who drew attention to the effect of specific context in that evolution.
Category: Medical

Causal Inference In Statistics Social And Biomedical Sciences

Author : Guido W. Imbens
ISBN : 9780521885881
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 76.71 MB
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This text presents statistical methods for studying causal effects and discusses how readers can assess such effects in simple randomized experiments.
Category: Business & Economics