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The importance of equational axioms emerged initially with the axiomatic approach to Boolean algebras, groups, and rings, and later in lattices. This unique research monograph systematically presents minimal equational axiom-systems for various lattice-related algebras, regardless of whether they are given in terms of ?join and meet? or other types of operations such as ternary operations. Each of the axiom-systems is coded in a handy way so that it is easy to follow the natural connection among the various axioms and to understand how to combine them to form new axiom systems. A new topic in this book is the characterization of Boolean algebras within the class of all uniquely complemented lattices. Here, the celebrated problem of E V Huntington is addressed, which ? according to G Gratzer, a leading expert in modern lattice theory ? is one of the two problems that shaped a century of research in lattice theory. Among other things, it is shown that there are infinitely many non-modular lattice identities that force a uniquely complemented lattice to be Boolean, thus providing several new axiom systems for Boolean algebras within the class of all uniquely complemented lattices. Finally, a few related lines of research are sketched, in the form of appendices, including one by Dr Willian McCune of the University of New Mexico, on applications of modern theorem-proving to the equational theory of lattices.

Author : R. L. Goodstein
ISBN : 9780486154978
Genre : Mathematics
File Size : 49.91 MB
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This elementary treatment by a distinguished mathematician employs Boolean algebra as a simple medium for introducing important concepts of modern algebra. Numerous examples appear throughout the text, plus full solutions.

One of the chief aims of this self-contained monograph is to survey recent developments of Boolean functions and equations, as well as lattice functions and equations in more general classes of lattices. Lattice (Boolean) functions are algebraic functions defined over an arbitrary lattice (Boolean algebra), while lattice (Boolean) equations are equations expressed in terms of lattice (Boolean) functions. Special attention is also paid to consistency conditions and reproductive general solutions. Applications refer to graph theory, automata theory, synthesis of circuits, fault detection, databases, marketing and others. Lattice Functions and Equations updates and extends the author's previous monograph - Boolean Functions and Equations.

Author : Roman Sikorski
ISBN : 9783642858208
Genre : Mathematics
File Size : 57.54 MB
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There are two aspects to the theory of Boolean algebras; the algebraic and the set-theoretical. A Boolean algebra can be considered as a special kind of algebraic ring, or as a generalization of the set-theoretical notion of a field of sets. Fundamental theorems in both of these directions are due to M. H. STONE, whose papers have opened a new era in the develop ment of this theory. This work treats the set-theoretical aspect, with little mention being made of the algebraic one. The book is composed of two chapters and an appendix. Chapter I is devoted to the study of Boolean algebras from the point of view of finite Boolean operations only; a greater part of its contents can be found in the books of BIRKHOFF [2J and HERMES [1]. Chapter II seems to be the first systematic study of Boolean algebras with infinite Boolean operations. To understand Chapters I and II it suffices only to know fundamental notions from general set theory and set-theoretical topology. No know ledge of lattice theory or of abstract algebra is presumed. Less familiar topological theorems are recalled, and only a few examples use more advanced topological means; but these may be omitted. All theorems in both chapters are given with full proofs.

Author : Andrzej Pietruszczak
ISBN : 9783030365332
Genre : Philosophy
File Size : 77.31 MB
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This is the first book to systematically study the weak systems of mereology. In its chapters, the author critically analyzes and explains core topics related to mereology, such as parthood without antisymmetry, non-existence of the zero element, and Leśniewski's notion of class and set. The book also delves into three theories of parthood: two concern the sum existence axioms, and the third contends with transitivity of parthood. This is the first systematic analysis of systems of mereology of its kind and is suitable for students, scholars, logicians, and mathematicians who wish to further their knowledge of mereology. Original polish publication “Podstawy teorii części” by The Nicolaus Copernicus University Press

Author : Steven Givant
ISBN : 9780387402932
Genre : Mathematics
File Size : 53.82 MB
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This book is an informal though systematic series of lectures on Boolean algebras. It contains background chapters on topology and continuous functions and includes hundreds of exercises as well as a solutions manual.

Author : B. A. Davey
ISBN : 9781107717527
Genre : Mathematics
File Size : 85.11 MB
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This new edition of Introduction to Lattices and Order presents a radical reorganization and updating, though its primary aim is unchanged. The explosive development of theoretical computer science in recent years has, in particular, influenced the book's evolution: a fresh treatment of fixpoints testifies to this and Galois connections now feature prominently. An early presentation of concept analysis gives both a concrete foundation for the subsequent theory of complete lattices and a glimpse of a methodology for data analysis that is of commercial value in social science. Classroom experience has led to numerous pedagogical improvements and many new exercises have been added. As before, exposure to elementary abstract algebra and the notation of set theory are the only prerequisites, making the book suitable for advanced undergraduates and beginning graduate students. It will also be a valuable resource for anyone who meets ordered structures.

Author : Daniel Courgeau
ISBN : 9789400728790
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 68.62 MB
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This work examines in depth the methodological relationships that probability and statistics have maintained with the social sciences from their emergence. It covers both the history of thought and current methods. First it examines in detail the history of the different paradigms and axioms for probability, from their emergence in the seventeenth century up to the most recent developments of the three major concepts: objective, subjective and logicist probability. It shows the statistical inference they permit, different applications to social sciences and the main problems they encounter. On the other side, from social sciences—particularly population sciences—to probability, it shows the different uses they made of probabilistic concepts during their history, from the seventeenth century, according to their paradigms: cross-sectional, longitudinal, hierarchical, contextual and multilevel approaches. While the ties may have seemed loose at times, they have more often been very close: some advances in probability were driven by the search for answers to questions raised by the social sciences; conversely, the latter have made progress thanks to advances in probability. This dual approach sheds new light on the historical development of the social sciences and probability, and on the enduring relevance of their links. It permits also to solve a number of methodological problems encountered all along their history.

Author : A. G. Hamilton
ISBN : 0521287618
Genre : Mathematics
File Size : 71.27 MB
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Following the success of Logic for Mathematicians, Dr Hamilton has written a text for mathematicians and students of mathematics that contains a description and discussion of the fundamental conceptual and formal apparatus upon which modern pure mathematics relies. The author's intention is to remove some of the mystery that surrounds the foundations of mathematics. He emphasises the intuitive basis of mathematics; the basic notions are numbers and sets and they are considered both informally and formally. The role of axiom systems is part of the discussion but their limitations are pointed out. Formal set theory has its place in the book but Dr Hamilton recognises that this is a part of mathematics and not the basis on which it rests. Throughout, the abstract ideas are liberally illustrated by examples so this account should be well-suited, both specifically as a course text and, more broadly, as background reading. The reader is presumed to have some mathematical experience but no knowledge of mathematical logic is required.

Author : Joan Bagaria
ISBN : 9783764376925
Genre : Mathematics
File Size : 80.8 MB
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Contains survey papers on some of the mainstream areas of set theory and research. This book covers topics such as Omega-logic, applications of set theory to lattice theory and Boolean algebras, real-valued measurable cardinals, complexity of sets and relations in continuum theory, weak subsystems of axiomatic set theory, and more.

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Author : Neil White
ISBN : 9780521309370
Genre : Mathematics
File Size : 32.50 MB
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The theory of matroids is unique in the extent to which it connects such disparate branches of combinatorial theory and algebra as graph theory, lattice theory, design theory, combinatorial optimization, linear algebra, group theory, ring theory and field theory. Furthermore, matroid theory is alone among mathematical theories because of the number and variety of its equivalent axiom systems. Indeed, matroids are amazingly versatile and the approaches to the subject are varied and numerous. This book is a primer in the basic axioms and constructions of matroids. The contributions by various leaders in the field include chapters on axiom systems, lattices, basis exchange properties, orthogonality, graphs and networks, constructions, maps, semi-modular functions and an appendix on cryptomorphisms. The authors have concentrated on giving a lucid exposition of the individual topics; explanations of theorems are preferred to complete proofs and original work is thoroughly referenced. In addition, exercises are included for each topic.

Author : Jonathan D. H. Smith
ISBN : 9781118030837
Genre : Mathematics
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Advanced algebra in the service of contemporary mathematicalresearch-- a unique introduction. This volume takes an altogether new approach to advanced algebra.Its intriguing title, inspired by the term postmodernism, denotes adeparture from van der Waerden's Modern Algebra--a book that hasdominated the field for nearly seventy years. Post-Modern Algebraoffers a truly up-to-date alternative to the standard approach,explaining topics from an applications-based perspective ratherthan by abstract principles alone. The book broadens the field ofstudy to include algebraic structures and methods used in currentand emerging mathematical research, and describes the powerful yetsubtle techniques of universal algebra and category theory.Classical algebraic areas of groups, rings, fields, and vectorspaces are bolstered by such topics as ordered sets, monoids,monoid actions, quasigroups, loops, lattices, Boolean algebras,categories, and Heyting algebras. The text features: * A clear and concise treatment at an introductory level, tested inuniversity courses. * A wealth of exercises illustrating concepts and their practicalapplication. * Effective techniques for solving research problems in the realworld. * Flexibility of presentation, making it easy to tailor material tospecific needs. * Help with elementary proofs and algebraic notations for studentsof varying abilities. Post-Modern Algebra is an excellent primary or supplementary textfor graduate-level algebra courses. It is also an extremely usefulresource for professionals and researchers in many areas who musttackle abstract, linear, or universal algebra in the course oftheir work.

The class of uniquely complemented lattices properly contains all Boolean lattices. However, no explicit example of a non-Boolean lattice of this class has been found. In addition, the question of whether this class contains any complete non-Boolean lattices remains unanswered. This book focuses on these classical problems of lattice theory and the various attempts to solve them. Requiring no specialized knowledge, the book is directed at researchers and students interested in general algebra and mathematical logic.