Antibiotics In The Environment

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Antibiotics And Antibiotic Resistance In The Environment

Author : Carlos F. Amabile-Cuevas
ISBN : 9781315679419
Genre : Medical
File Size : 49.36 MB
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The presence of antibiotics, antibiotic resistance genes, and antibiotic resistant bacteria in the environment (i.e., outside of clinical settings, such as antibiotic-treated patients or antibiotic-impregnated locations, such as hospitals) is a cause of growing worldwide concern, as it reveals the extensive impact of antibiotic abuse and other huma
Category: Medical

Pharmaceuticals In The Environment

Author : Klaus Kümmerer
ISBN : 9783662092590
Genre : Science
File Size : 73.63 MB
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Following the success of the first edition, this pioneering study of pharmaceuticals in the environment has been updated and greatly extended. It includes the status of research on pharmaceuticals in soil, with attention to terrestrial and aquatic environments as well as new substance categories such as tetracylines and chinolones and the latest results concerning contamination of the environment and risk reduction.
Category: Science

Antibiotics And Antimicrobial Resistance Genes In The Environment

Author : Muhammad Zaffar Hashmi
ISBN : 9780128188835
Genre : Science
File Size : 28.48 MB
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Antibiotics and Antimicrobial Resistance Genes (AMR) in the Environment summarizes and updates information on antibiotic producing organisms and their resistance and entry routes in soil, air, water and sediment. As antibiotic use continues to rise in healthcare, their fate, bioavailability and biomonitoring, and impacts on environment and public health are becoming increasingly important. The book addresses the impact of antibiotics and AMR to environment and public health and risk assessment. Moreover, it focused on the metagenomics and molecular techniques for the detection of antibiotics and antimicrobial genes. Lastly, it introduces management strategies, such as treatment technologies for managing antibiotics and AMR/ARGs-impacted environment, and bioremediation approaches. Summarizes and updates information on antibiotics and AMR/ARGs production and its fate and transport in the environment Includes phytoremediation and bioremediation technologies for environmental management Provides analysis of risk assessment of antibiotic resistance genes to help understand the environmental and socioeconomic impacts of antibiotics and AMR/ARGs
Category: Science

Environmental Pollution Control Microbiology

Author : Ross E. McKinney
ISBN : 0203025695
Genre : Science
File Size : 35.35 MB
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Compiling knowledge gained through more than 50 years of experience in environmental engineering technology, this book illustrates the application of fundamental concepts in microbiology to provide a sound basis for the design and operation of various biological systems used in solving environmental challenges in the air, water, and soil. Environme
Category: Science

Antimicrobial Resistance In The Environment

Author : Patricia L. Keen
ISBN : 9780470905425
Genre : Science
File Size : 63.18 MB
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Examines effects of the environmental distribution of antimicrobial resistance genes on human health and the ecosystem Resistance genes are everywhere in nature?in pathogens, commensals, and environmental microorganisms. This contributed work shows how the environment plays a pivotal role in the development of antimicrobial resistance traits in bacteria and the distribution of resistant microbial species, resistant genetic material, and antibiotic compounds. Readers will discover the impact of the distribution in the environment of antimicrobial resistance genes and antibiotics on both the ecosystem and human and animal health. Antimicrobial Resistance in the Environment is divided into four parts: Part I, Sources, including ecological and clinical consequences of antibiotic resistance by environmental microbes Part II, Fate, including strategies to assess and minimize the biological risk of antibiotic resistance in the environment Part III, Antimicrobial Substances and Resistance, including antibiotics in the aquatic environment Part IV, Effects and Risks, including the effect of antimicrobials used for non-human purposes on human health Recognizing the intricate links among overlapping complex systems, this book examines antimicrobial resistance using a comprehensive ecosystem approach. Moreover, the book's multidisciplinary framework applies principles of microbiology, environmental toxicology, and chemistry to assess the human and ecological risks associated with exposure to antibiotics or antibiotic resistance genes that are environmental contaminants. Each chapter has been written by one or more leading researchers in such fields as microbiology, environmental science, ecology, and toxicology. Comprehensive reference lists at the end of all chapters serve as a gateway to the primary research in the field. Presenting and analyzing the latest findings in a field of growing importance to human and environmental health, this text offers readers new insights into the role of the environment in antimicrobial resistance development, the dissemination of antimicrobial resistant genetic elements, and the transport of antibiotic resistance genes and antibiotics.
Category: Science

Antibiotics As Environmental Pollutants

Author : Hansa Yi-Yun Done
ISBN : OCLC:931083187
Genre : Animal culture
File Size : 45.10 MB
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This dissertation studies the larger issue of antibiotic resistance with respect to how antibiotics are being introduced into the environment, focusing on two major anthropogenic pathways: animal husbandry for human consumption, and the recycling of wastewater and municipal sludge generated during conventional biological sewage treatment. For animal production on land (agriculture) antibiotics are often used for growth enhancement and increased feed efficiency. For animal production in water (aquaculture) antibiotics are often used as a prophylactic. I found that the same antibiotics are being used in both industries and that the same strains of human pathogens have also been isolated from both sources, expressing identical resistance mechanisms. In U.S. seafood, five out of 47 antibiotics screened for were detected at levels of 0.3 to 7.7 ng/g fresh weight. Although compliant with FDA regulations, the risk for resistance still exists, as even low antibiotic concentrations have been shown to exert selective pressure on bacteria. Similarly low concentrations of antibiotics were found in U.S. biosolids at levels of 0.6 to 19.1 ng/g dry weight. Of the five antibiotics detected, two have never been reported before in biosolids. Three have never been reported before in U.S. biosolids. Using the raw numbers obtained from antibiotic screenings in biosolids, I assessed the impact of employing four different LC-MS/MS methods, concluding that analysts should experimentally determine the most appropriate quantitation method based on the analyte targeted, matrix investigated, and research goals pursued. Preferred quantitation approaches included the isotope dilution method with use of an analogous standard and, although time and resource demanding, the method of standard addition. In conclusion, antibiotics introduced into the environment via agriculture, aquaculture, and wastewater recycling pose a combination of chemical and biological threats. Aside from exerting outright chemical toxicity to non-target organisms, antibiotic residues can promote the development of multi-drug resistance in human pathogens. Public health protection approaches to stem the risks posed by animal husbandry may include reserving drugs for exclusive, human use, decreasing their usage altogether, improving reporting efforts, reevaluating existing regulations on agricultural and aquacultural antibiotic usage, and improved risk assessment for biosolids application on land.
Category: Animal culture

Antimicrobial Resistance In Environmental Waters

Author : Karina Yew-Hoong Gin
ISBN : 9783038976080
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 54.15 MB
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This Special Issue on Antimicrobial Resistance in Environmental Waters features 11 articles on the monitoring and surveillance of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in natural aquatic systems (i.e., reservoirs, rivers), and effluent discharge from water treatment plants to assess the effectiveness of AMR removal and resulting loads in treated waters. Some of the key elements of AMR studies presented in this Special Issue highlight the underlying drivers of AMR contamination in the environment and the evaluation of the hazard imposed on aquatic organisms in receiving environments through ecological risk assessments. As described in this Issue, screening antimicrobial peptide (AMP) libraries for biofilm disruption and antimicrobial candidates are promising avenues for the development of new treatment options to eradicate resistance.
Category: Technology & Engineering

Regulation Of Secondary Metabolism In Actinomycetes

Author : Stuart Shapiro
ISBN : 0849369274
Genre : Science
File Size : 89.67 MB
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This book provides a comprehensive examination of biochemical and genetic regulatory phenomena as they relate to the activity of actinomycete secondary metabolic pathways and the functioning of secondary metabolites as endogenous effectors of cytodifferentiation. Approximately 50 illustrations accompany the text.
Category: Science

Water And Sanitation Related Diseases And The Environment

Author : Janine M. H. Selendy
ISBN : 1118148606
Genre : Science
File Size : 81.43 MB
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Written by authorities from various related specialties, this bookpresents the most complete treatment possible of the conditionsresponsible for water- and sanitation-related diseases, thepathogens and their biology, morbidity and mortality resulting fromlack of safe water and sanitation, distribution of these diseases,and the conditions that must be met to reduce or eradicate them.Preventive measures and solutions are presented throughout. Thisbook is an essential resource for all graduate students,postdoctoral scholars, and professionals in infectious disease,public health and medicine, chemical and environmental engineering,and international affairs. Key features: Provides a comprehensive understanding of the interconnectionamong many factors related to water-related diseases, sanitationand hygiene Brings together experts from various specialties to addresseach area covered and to assist in bringing about the understandingof those interconnections Provides examples of successful interventions with knowledgeabout how they were brought about so that information can be use toreplicate the initiative in full or in part Provides an appreciation of the concerns and solutionsaddressed from an international perspective with high and lowtechnological solutions Provides insight into the international dimension of theseconcerns and how they can be best addressed Four hours of accompanying multimedia DVD on two discs Learn more about this title and share information with colleaguesand friends using this three-pageflier:
Category: Science

Analyzing Possible Intersections In The Resistome Among Human Animal And Environment Matrices

Author : Stefania Stefani
ISBN : 9782889191215
Genre :
File Size : 65.23 MB
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The astonishing development of resistance is one of the most worrisome problems of the last 20 years. In particular, the accumulation of resistance determinants that are able to destroy different antibiotic families at the same time bringing about multi-drug resistant (MDR) or pan-drug resistant (PDR) phenotypes, is a phenomenon almost exclusively known in clinical practice, in which resistance is maintained even under a strong selective pressure. Mutations, acquisition of resistance genes by lateral gene transfer (LTG), and selection of intrinsically resistant species are at the basis of this diffused problem. Many studies have characterized resistant bacteria, genes, mechanisms of resistance and transfer in clinical settings, as well as clarifying the role of antibiotics (both naturally produced by microorganisms and by completely synthetic processes) in driving the resistant selection, the evolution of new mechanisms and the emergence new resistant species. However, other data, until now reported in a rather sporadic way, are emerging on the possible role of animals and some specific environmental hot-spots (ground water, soil, etc) in which resistance can develop thanks to an efficient organization in clusters of genes that are then able to be selected and spread, ultimately functioning as a reservoir for further transmission to humans. Origin of resistance genes that we now know to belong to the so-called mobilome, and their mechanism of transferability among species and in different microbiota, has to be considered a real challenge for the future evolution and antibiotic resistance in both pathogenic and opportunistic bacteria. This Research Topic has the aim of collecting contributions from different experts in the antibiotic resistance field, covering aspects of resistance in specific microorganisms and in diverse environments.

Advances In Agronomy

Author : Donald L. Sparks
ISBN : 0120007851
Genre : Science
File Size : 56.47 MB
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Volume 87 contains five excellent reviews dealing with environmental sustainability/quality and plant improvement that will be of great interest to plant and soil scientists as well as professional in related fields. Topics discussed in this volume include: Factors affecting antibiotic persistence in the terrestrial environment, antibiotic resistant bacteria and human health concerns, soil amendments and amelioration, human aspects of irrigation management, nitrogen use efficiency in cereal-based agricultural systems on a worldwide basis, and much more. * Includes over 35 figures and 50 tables with the most advanced data * Offers 5 full detailed chapters dedicated to the most up-to-date issues and discoveries in agronomy science * Maintains the highest impact factor among serial publications in Agriculture * Presents an analysis of the efficiency of fertilizer nitrogen in cereal production * Includes over 35 figures and 50 tables with the most advanced data * Offers 5 full detailed chapters dedicated to the most up-to-date issues and discoveries in agronomy science * Maintains the highest impact factor among serial publications in Agriculture * Presents an analysis of the efficiency of fertilizer nitrogen in cereal production
Category: Science

Hormones And Pharmaceuticals Generated By Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations

Author : Laurence S. Shore
ISBN : 0387928340
Genre : Science
File Size : 53.29 MB
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Hormones and Pharmaceuticals Generated by Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations: Transport in Water and Soil examines how hormones, antibiotics and pharmaceuticals generated from concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) of cattle, poultry, swine and aquaculture are transported in water and soil. Little is known of the environmental fate of the tons of physiologically active steroid hormones released each year. In their own regard, in the last 20 years considerable attention has been given to a wide variety of natural and anthropomorphic agents known as endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs). Until the contribution of steroid hormones to the environment are better defined, it will be difficult to quantify the exact impact of EDCs. While some advances in the understanding of the fate of these compounds in water has been made, little is known about the processes that govern their transport in soil or how they eventually reach groundwater. As this book discusses extensively, it is somewhat of a mystery how steroids, with their lipophilic nature, strong binding to humic acids and extensive metabolism by soil bacteria, can be transported through even a few centimeters of soil, let alone 20 to 40 meters to the groundwater. With respect to antibiotics, the emphasis is on their fate and transport in the environment and on the emergence of antibiotic resistant bacteria. Impacts on soil ecology, including the impact of antibiotics on the metabolism of other active agents, is also discussed. Similarly, the acaricides and insecticides used in animal husbandry are widely used and their environmental pathways have been studied and have significant impacts on soil and dung ecology. Active compounds with potential environmental impacts, such as growth promoters generated from CAFOs, are described. However, because little is known of their environmental fate, emphasis is placed on defining the gaps in our knowledge and defining their possible effects.
Category: Science

Nanomaterials For Environmental Applications And Their Fascinating Attributes

Author : S. B. Khan
ISBN : 9781681086453
Genre : Science
File Size : 37.93 MB
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Nanotechnology is a diverse science that has brought about new applications in fields such as colloidal science, device physics and supra molecular chemistry. Environmental pollution treatment by nanomaterials is an emerging application of nanotechnology. It is gaining importance because of the increased environmental challenges due to the impact of modern industrial activities. Industrial activity involves the production and use of various toxic organic and inorganic chemicals which pollute nearby water streams, indirectly influencing aquatic and human life. Thus, there is a need to protect the environment through the development of new technologies and by enacting awareness drives for environmental sustainability. This volume summarizes cutting-edge research on nanomaterial utilization for environmental challenges. Chapters introduce readers to the concepts of environmental protection, sustainability and monitoring. Readers will also learn about technologies used for keeping the environment safer, including ion exchangers, metallic oxide complexes, nanocomposite materials, porous membranes and nanocatalysts. This volume is intended to be an introductory reference for students and researchers undertaking advanced courses in materials science, environmental science and engineering, giving readers a glimpse into the fascinating world of nanotechnology.
Category: Science

Science Environment Health

Author : Albert Zeyer
ISBN : 9789048139491
Genre : Science
File Size : 80.31 MB
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Health and the environment are important learning areas in science education and their significance is growing. Not only do they have high social relevance, but they are also close to students’ interests and needs. They provide many opportunities to unlock science with questions that are personally relevant to boys and girls and that inspire them to engage in science. This book contains a selection of papers from prominent professionals in science, health and environmental education, who reflect on science education, each from their specific point of view. The core idea is to present well-founded perspectives on how science education may benefit from challenges stemming from both health and environmental education. Specific reasons are discussed as to why these two areas are particularly legitimized to challenge science education, and their potential impact on a revision of science education is evaluated. A new pedagogy for science¦environment¦health that yields interesting and relevant science education for students and teachers, and addresses the grand challenges of this century: what an attractive and rewarding project! The book will motivate teachers, teacher educators and science education researchers to take part in this on-going project.
Category: Science

The Rff Reader In Environmental And Resource Policy

Author : Wallace Oates
ISBN : 9781136523670
Genre : Nature
File Size : 23.76 MB
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Many articles in the Reader were originally published in RFF's quarterly magazine, Resources. Wally Oates has supplemented that with material drawn from other RFF works, including issue briefs and special reports. The readings provide concise, insightful background and perspectives on a broad range of environmental issues including benefit-cost analysis, environmental regulation, hazardous and toxic waste, environmental equity, and the environmental challenges in developing nations and transitional economies. Natural-resource topics include resource management, biodiversity, and sustainable agriculture. The articles address many of today's most difficult public policy questions, such as environmental policy and economic growth, and 'When is a Life Too Costly to Save?' New to the second edition is an expanded set of readings on global climate change and sustainability, plus cutting-edge policy applications on topics like the environment and public health and the growing problem of antibiotic and pesticide resistance. For general readers, the RFF Reader has been an accessible, nontechnical, authoritative introduction to key issues in environmental and natural resources policy. It has been especially effective in demonstrating the contribution that economics and other social science research can make toward improving public debate and decisionmaking. Organized to follow the contents of popular textbooks in environmental economics and politics, it has also found wide use in beginning environmental policy courses.
Category: Nature

Animal Farming And Environmental Interactions In The Mediterranean Region

Author : Isabel Casasús
ISBN : 9789086867417
Genre : Science
File Size : 33.46 MB
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Livestock production systems are the result of an interaction between domestic animals and the environment, modulated by man, that dates back to Neolithic times. As a consequence of this interaction among the wide diversity of animal resources, natural habitats and population needs, very different farming systems have developed across the Mediterranean Basin. Understanding the mechanisms and effects of these relationships is key to design the farming systems best adapted to each condition, guaranteeing an adequate balance between target animal production and environmental outcomes provided by these systems. This is indeed a multidimensional topic, influenced by animal genetics, feeding resources, flock management, and economic and social aspects inside and outside the household. Therefore, this book focuses on the basis of the animal-environment interactions and the impact of human activities on the type and magnitude of these interactions. In this context, the issue of sustainability of livestock production is evaluated considering economic, social and environmental aspects. This book contributes to upgrade the state of the art in Mediterranean conditions, providing indicators and procedures of application across a wide range of systems, and hence of interest for researchers, students and professionals concerned with livestock production and the environment.
Category: Science