AMERICAN GRIPEN

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American Gripen

Author : David Archibald
ISBN : 1941071538
Genre : History
File Size : 33.49 MB
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The F-35 Lightning II Joint Strike Fighter aircraft is an example of the hazards of the Military-Industrial complex Dwight Eisenhower warned the world about in 1961. In his comprehensive and well-researched new book, author David Archibald makes a solid case for scrapping the F-35 program and embracing a superior, cost-effective alternative.
Category: History

The American Heritage Dictionary Of The English Language 3rd Ed Auto Graphic Inc

Author : Anne H. Soukhanov
ISBN :
Genre : Reference
File Size : 72.2 MB
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A lmost a quarter of a century ago a new dictionary bearing the name American Heritage appeared. That book was notable because it did four things and it did them well. It faithfully recorded the language in easily understood definitions. It provided guidance toward accuracy, precision, and grace in the use of English that intelligent people need and seek in a dictionary. It traced, whenever possible, the development of English words to their origins and keyed many to an Appendix of Indo-European Roots. And it presented complex lexical data in a typographically attractive design accented by thousands of photographs and line drawings in spacious margins. The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, Third Edition , builds upon this distinguished, innovative foundation. The pages of the Third Edition, a lexicon of more than 200,000 boldface forms, hundreds of thousands of meanings, and nearly 4,000 pieces of art, reflect the rich and varied texture of American English as it has been used over time by a broad group of educated speakers. This Dictionary is the product of four years of work by 175 contributors. In preparing the Dictionary, our editors have had access to a database containing hundreds of millions of lines of text that could be searched for any word in context. The A-Z vocabulary, containing more than 16,000 words and meanings new to this Edition, is a comprehensive, detailed record of the language. Use of citations allowed the editors to identify new words and new meanings, identify levels of usage, and select more than 4,000 quoted illustrations from nearly 2,000 sources for use in exemplifying entry words in printed context. The quoted illustrations range from the works of Shakespeare, Pope, and Ruskin to the works of contemporary writers such as Joyce Carol Oates, Joan Didion, John Updike, and Tom Wicker. More than 30,000 nonquoted illustrative examples were also derived from study of the citations. Finally, the citations were used to determine the status of variants. For example, 4,000 electronic citations were accrued for the spelling ambiance and about 2,000 were found for the variant ambience . On the basis of this 2:1 ratio the Dictionary gives ambience as an "unequal," or less frequently occurring, variant of the entry word ambiance . If language is a reflection of the ethos of the generation speaking it, then the new entries and meanings in this Edition have much to say about us and our time. The great majority of the new words relate to social and life patterns; to the life sciences with an emphasis on health, medicine, genetics, and ecology; and to the physical sciences with an emphasis on computer technology and electronics, physics, and astronomy. The goal of the Third Edition is to provide the user with comprehension and appreciation of the language in a readable manner. Keeping the needs of the contemporary user in mind, we have presented the central and often the most frequently sought meaning of a word first. The definitions are worded in concise, lucid prose without the specialized terms and abbreviations that make most dictionaries forbidding and confusing. The Third Edition contains more than 500 notes and comments on matters of grammar, diction, pronunciation, and levels and nuances of usage. Citations were used in identifying new and evolving usage problems, attesting and evaluating the currency of certain usages, studying various levels of usage, and evaluating their sociolinguistic implications. The 173-member Usage Panel, with 75 new members and chaired by Geoffrey Nunberg, a linguist associated with Stanford University, has made an important contribution to the content and direction of the Usage Notes through responses to periodic surveys developed by the Chair and the editors. The Usage Panel of the Third Edition consists chiefly of writers, editors, and scholars, 22 of whom are professors of linguistics or English. Other Panelists occupy distinguished positions in law, diplomacy, government, business, science and technology, medicine, and the arts. Eighteen are recipients of the Pulitzer Prize and one is a Nobel Laureate. These men and women, who reside in 28 states across the land and in Canada and England, are a cross section of today's critical, literary, and scholarly community. A list of usage issues—old and new—was prepared by the Chair and the editors, and from it the usage program for the Third Edition was developed. Some of the usage issues are entirely new. An example is the Note at world-class . Other issues discussed in previous editions were resurveyed. An example is the use of contact as a verb. In some instances the Panel's views are more conservative than in the past: only 27 percent of the current Panel accepts hopefully as a sentence adverb, a usage that in 1969 was acceptable to 44 percent of the Panel. Other Notes, such as the one that discusses the use of above as a noun, present guidance and linguistic analysis without Panel opinions. The Usage Notes are not confined solely to matters of stylistic excellence. Our concern with usage extends to issues of gender, ethnicity, and sexual preference. Considerable attention is devoted in this Edition to the history of words. The etymologies have been thoroughly revised and expanded by a group of 25 specialists whose work reflects original scholarly research in many fields, including African, Persian, Turkish, and Native American languages. Special symbols, abbreviations, and complex technical vocabulary have been avoided in the etymologies. More than 400 word history paragraphs, most of which contain dates of first occurrence of the words in English, appear at entries with especially interesting etymologies. These word histories, such as the one at nerd , provide a social, historical, and cultural context for the evolution of words and explain the various linguistic processes that contribute to the development of language. A great many Modern English words can be traced to the reconstructed ancestral language called Proto-Indo-European. The etymologies in the Third Edition, like those in the First, trace many words to their earliest ascertainable origins, usually in Proto-Indo-European, by means of cross-references to a new and thoroughly revised Appendix of Indo-European Roots. The Appendix, in a major departure from previous style, gives the root followed by a brief gloss and a list of some of the Modern English words derived from it. The individual roots entry then follows. For example, the Modern English words fierce , and treacle , at first glance strange semantic companions, both derive from the root *ghwer- , "wild." The Third Edition contains hundreds of labeled words and meanings whose occurrence is restricted to certain areas of the United States. An important new feature unique to the Third Edition is the inclusion of more than 100 Regional Notes that explore the various linguistic and historical processes contributing to the development of these terms. These processes are apparent in the Regional Notes at entries such as absquatulate . In an effort to assist the reader in using the language with color, vitality, and freshness, the Third Edition devotes more attention than ever before to synonymy by including more than 900 synonym paragraphs. The fully cross-referenced synonym paragraphs are of two kinds. The first, liberally illustrated with quotations, discriminates shades of meaning. The second kind lists exact synonyms, that is, words sharing a common irreducible element of meaning, and provides antonyms when applicable. The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, Third Edition , like the First, is the product of significant advances in the use of computer technology. The Third Edition is derived from a complex, highly versatile structured database. Every element in the Dictionary was parsed, examined, and coded to reflect its lexical function and position within the base. In combination, these elements form dictionary entries, and on a broader scale they reflect a multitude of relationships across the lexicon. Use of the database in connection with electronically generated citations places the Third Edition a generation ahead of other dictionaries. It is no longer possible for a few general editors working strictly within a publishing house to compile a true and accurate record of the language as it is used today. Semantic, etymological, linguistic, and technical complexities inherent in the language require the counsel of specialists from many disciplines. These specialists' names are listed under Special Contributors and Consultants. We wish to thank all of them for helping us in our pursuit of accuracy and truth. Special thanks go to John Simpson, Co-Editor of the New Oxford English Dictionary , for valuable comments made during the early stages of the project. And to all members of the Editorial Staff who gave unstintingly of their time and expended great effort in the development of the Third Edition, we express our deepest gratitude. Anne H. Soukhanov
Category: Reference

American Exceptionalism The French Exception And Digital Media Law

Author : Lyombe S. Eko
ISBN : 9780739181133
Genre : Language Arts & Disciplines
File Size : 57.17 MB
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This volume explores and explains sameness and difference between the United States and France in the matters of freedom of expression on the Internet, the management of the tensions that arise between freedom of expression and the right of privacy of public figures, the comparative role of interest groups in the regulation of Internet content in both countries, the intellectual property implications of the digitization and transfer of journalistic works from print to searchable electronic databases, how courts in the United States and France managed the copyright issues that were triggered by the Google Book Search project, as well as the clash between intellectual property rights and freedom of expression in the area of parody or “gripe” web sites on the Internet. The volume presents American exceptionalism and the French exception as functionally equivalent logics that lead to different freedom of expression outcomes. This book makes a significant contribution to comparative communication law studies, an area that has not received serious academic interest.
Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Aerospace America

Author :
ISBN : UCSD:31822036929321
Genre : Aeronautics
File Size : 56.85 MB
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Category: Aeronautics

News Brief

Author :
ISBN : UVA:X002764137
Genre : Military art and science
File Size : 48.27 MB
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Category: Military art and science