AFFINITY THAT ELUSIVE DREAM A GENEALOGY OF THE CHEMICAL REVOLUTION TRANSFORMATIONS STUDIES IN THE HISTORY OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY

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Affinity That Elusive Dream

Author : Mi Gyung Kim
ISBN : 026225784X
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 84.73 MB
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In the eighteenth century, chemistry was transformed from an art to a public science. Chemical affinity played an important role in this process as a metaphor, a theory domain, and a subject of investigation. Goethe's Elective Affinities, which was based on the current understanding of chemical affinities, attests to chemistry's presence in the public imagination. In Affinity, That Elusive Dream, Mi Gyung Kim restores chemical affinity to its proper place in historiography and in Enlightenment public culture. The Chemical Revolution is usually associated with Antoine-Laurent Lavoisier, who introduced a modern nomenclature and a definitive text. Kim argues that chemical affinity was erased from historical memory by Lavoisier's omission of it from his textbook. She examines the work of many less famous French chemists (including physicians, apothecaries, metallurgists, philosophical chemists, and industrial chemists) to explore the institutional context of chemical instruction and research, the social stratification that shaped theoretical discourse, and the crucial shifts in analytic methods. Apothecaries and metallurgists, she shows, shaped the main theory domains through their innovative approach to analysis. Academicians and philosophical chemists brought about two transformative theoretical moments through their efforts to create a rational discourse of chemistry in tune with the reigning natural philosophy. The topics discussed include the corpuscular (Cartesian) model in French chemistry in the early 1700s, the stabilization of the theory domains of composition and affinity, the reconstruction of French theoretical discourse in the middle of the eighteenth century, the Newtonian languages that plagued the domain of affinity just before the Chemical Revolution, Guyton de Morveau's program of affinity chemistry, Lavoisier's reconstruction of the theory domains of chemistry, and Berthollet's path as an affinity chemist.
Category: Technology & Engineering

Science And Technology In The Global Cold War

Author : Naomi Oreskes
ISBN : 9780262526531
Genre : Science
File Size : 88.3 MB
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The Cold War period saw a dramatic expansion of state-funded science and technology research. Government and military patronage shaped Cold War technoscientific practices, imposing methods that were project oriented, team based, and subject to national-security restrictions. These changes affected not just the arms race and the space race but also research in agriculture, biomedicine, computer science, ecology, meteorology, and other fields. This volume examines science and technology in the context of the Cold War, considering whether the new institutions and institutional arrangements that emerged globally constrained technoscientific inquiry or offered greater opportunities for it. The contributors find that whatever the particular science, and whatever the political system in which that science was operating, the knowledge that was produced bore some relation to the goals of the nation-state. These goals varied from nation to nation; weapons research was emphasized in the United States and the Soviet Union, for example, but in France and China scientific independence and self-reliance dominated. The contributors also consider to what extent the changes to science and technology practices in this era were produced by the specific politics, anxieties, and aspirations of the Cold War.ContributorsElena Aronova, Erik M. Conway, Angela N. H. Creager, David Kaiser, John Krige, Naomi Oreskes, George Reisch, Sigrid Schmalzer, Sonja D. Schmid, Matthew Shindell, Asif A. Siddiqi, Zuoyue Wang, Benjamin Wilson
Category: Science

Heredity Explored

Author : Staffan Müller-Wille
ISBN : 9780262034432
Genre : Science
File Size : 89.34 MB
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Investigations of how the understanding of heredity developed in scientific, medical, agro-industrial, and political contexts of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries.
Category: Science

The Historiography Of The Chemical Revolution

Author : John G McEvoy
ISBN : 9781317324003
Genre : Science
File Size : 29.24 MB
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This study offers a critical survey of past and present interpretations of the Chemical Revolution designed to lend clarity and direction to the current ferment of views.
Category: Science

Chemical Heritage

Author :
ISBN : CHI:82286548
Genre : Chemistry
File Size : 84.75 MB
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Category: Chemistry

H G Bronn Ernst Haeckel And The Origins Of German Darwinism

Author : Sander Gliboff
ISBN : UOM:39015077108036
Genre : Science
File Size : 26.18 MB
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Gliboff traces Bronn's influence on German Darwinism through the early career of Ernst Haeckel, Darwin's most famous nineteenth-century proponent and popularizer in Germany, who learned his Darwinism from the Bronn translation."--BOOK JACKET.
Category: Science

The Tropics Of Empire

Author : Nicolás Wey Gómez
ISBN : UOM:39015077677931
Genre : History
File Size : 61.85 MB
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A radical revision of the geographical history of the discovery of the Americas that links Columbus's southbound route with colonialism, slavery, and today’s divide between the industrialized North and the developing South.
Category: History

Instruments And Experimentation In The History Of Chemistry

Author : Frederic Lawrence Holmes
ISBN : 0262082829
Genre : Science
File Size : 43.76 MB
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From the days of the alchemists through the creation of the modern laboratory, chemistry has been defined by its instruments and experimental techniques. Historians, however, have tended to focus on the course of chemical theory rather than on the tools and experiments that drove the theory. This volume moves chemical instruments and experiments into the foreground of historical concern, in line with the emphasis on practice that characterizes current work on other fields of science and engineering. The principal themes are: change and stability, precision, the construction and transformation of apparatus, the dissemination of instruments, and the bridging of disciplines through instruments.The essays are divided into three chronological sections: The Practice of Alchemy (reviewing the material and iconographic evidence as well as the written record and the issue of reproducibility of alchemical experiments), From Hales to the Chemical Revolution (discussing significant seventeenth- and eighteenth-century innovations as well as smaller innovations that cumulatively extended the reach and improved the quality of chemical experimentation), and The Nineteenth and Early Twentieth Centuries (discussing the increasingly important role of innovative apparatus as chemistry grew into the first large-scale modern scientific discipline).Contributors : R. G. W. Anderson, Bernadette Bensaude-Vincent, Maurice Crosland, Jan Golinski, Frederic L. Holmes, Trevor H. Levere, Seymour H. Mauskopf, William R. Newman, Mary Jo Nye, Lawrence M. Principe, Alan J. Rocke, Colin A. Russell, William A. Smeaton, Melvyn Usselman.
Category: Science

Aestimatio

Author : Alan Bowen
ISBN : CHI:092139251
Genre : Science
File Size : 64.89 MB
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Category: Science

Technology And Culture

Author :
ISBN : UOM:39015081548540
Genre : Technology
File Size : 44.22 MB
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Category: Technology