ADDICTION A DISORDER OF CHOICE

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Theory Of Addiction

Author : Robert West
ISBN : 9781118484913
Genre : Psychology
File Size : 24.98 MB
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The word ‘addiction’ these days is used to refer toa chronic condition where there is an unhealthily powerful motivation to engage in a particularbehaviour. This can be driven by many different factors – physiological, psychological,environmental and social. If we say that it is all about X, we miss V, W, Y and Z. So, some people thinkaddicts are using drugs to escape from unhappy lives, feelings of anxiety and so on; many are. Somepeople think drugs become addictive because they alter the brain chemistry to create powerfulurges; that is often true. Others think that drug taking is about seeking after pleasure;often it is. Some take the view that addiction is a choice – addicts weigh up the pros and cons ofdoing what they do and decide the former outweigh the latter. Yet others believe that addictssuffer from poor impulse control; that is often true… And so it goes on. When you look at the evidence, you see that all these positionscapture important aspects of the problem – but they are not complete explanations.Neuroscience can help us delve more deeply into some of these explanations, while the behavioural andsocial sciences are better at exploring others. We need a model that puts all this together in away that can help us decide what to do in different cases. Should we prescribe a drug, give theperson some ‘tender loving care’, put them in prison or what? Theory of Addictionprovides this synthesis. The first edition was well received: ‘Throughout the book the reader is exposed to a vastnumber of useful observations...The theoretical aims are timely, refreshing, ambitious and above allchallenging. It opens up a new way of looking at addiction and has the potential to move the fieldof addiction a considerable leap forward. Thus we wholeheartedly would like to recommend thebook for students as well as scholars. Read and learn!’ Nordic Studies on Alcoholand Drugs ‘The book provides a comprehensive review of existingtheories - over 30 in all - and this synthesis of theories constitutes an important contribution in andof itself... West is to be commended for his synthesis of addiction theories that spanneurobiology, psychology and social science and for his insights into what remainsunexplained.’ Addiction This new edition of Theory of Addiction builds on the first,including additional theories in the field, a more developed specification of PRIME theory andanalysis of the expanding evidence base. With this important new information, Theory of Addiction willcontinue to be essential reading for all those working in addiction, from student to experiencedpractitioner – as urged above, Read and learn!
Category: Psychology

Drugs In American Society An Encyclopedia Of History Politics Culture And The Law 3 Volumes

Author : Nancy E. Marion
ISBN : 9781610695961
Genre : Political Science
File Size : 86.33 MB
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Containing more than 450 entries, this easy-to-read encyclopedia provides concise information about the history of and recent trends in drug use and drug abuse in the United States—a societal problem with an estimated cost of $559 billion a year. • Contains more than 450 detailed entries on topics ranging from drugs themselves—such as alcohol, codeine, heroin, marijuana, and methamphetamines—to key individuals like Harry Anslinger to organizations such as the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) • Covers the latest developments in U.S. policies and public attitudes toward drugs and drug use • Provides citations with each entry to guide users to other valuable research resources • Features carefully selected primary documents—including excerpts from important laws, policies, and campaigns—that have shaped American drug policy over the decades
Category: Political Science

Addiction

Author : Gene M. Heyman
ISBN : 9780674032989
Genre : Health & Fitness
File Size : 24.70 MB
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Argues that drug addiction is not a disease but a voluntary choice of an individual.
Category: Health & Fitness

Addiction And Choice

Author : Nick Heather
ISBN : 9780191040054
Genre : Medical
File Size : 60.83 MB
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The central problem in the study of addiction is to explain why people repeatedly behave in ways they know are bad for them. For much of the previous century and until the present day, the majority of scientific and medical attempts to solve this problem were couched in terms of involuntary behaviour; if people behave in ways they do not want, then this must be because the behaviour is beyond their control and outside the realm of choice. An opposing tradition, which finds current support among scientists and scholars as well as members of the general public, is that so-called addictive behavior reflects an ordinary choice just like any other and that the concept of addiction is a myth. The editors and authors of this book tend to take neither view. There has been an increasing recognition in recent literature on addiction that restricting possible conceptions of it to either of these extreme positions is unhelpful and is retarding progress on understanding the nature of addiction and what could be done about it. This book contains a range of views from philosophy, neuroscience, psychiatry, psychology and the law on what exactly this middle ground between free choice and no choice consists of and what its implications are for theory, practice and policy on addiction. The result amounts to a profound change in our thinking on addiction and how its devastating consequences can be ameliorated. Addiction and Choice is a thought provoking new volume for all those with an interest in this global issue.
Category: Medical

Willpower

Author : Roy F. Baumeister
ISBN : 9781101543771
Genre : Psychology
File Size : 45.96 MB
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One of the world's most esteemed and influential psychologists, Roy F. Baumeister, teams with New York Times science writer John Tierney to reveal the secrets of self-control and how to master it. Pioneering research psychologist Roy F. Baumeister collaborates with New York Times science writer John Tierney to revolutionize our understanding of the most coveted human virtue: self-control. Drawing on cutting-edge research and the wisdom of real-life experts, Willpower shares lessons on how to focus our strength, resist temptation, and redirect our lives. It shows readers how to be realistic when setting goals, monitor their progress, and how to keep faith when they falter. By blending practical wisdom with the best of recent research science, Willpower makes it clear that whatever we seek—from happiness to good health to financial security—we won’t reach our goals without first learning to harness self-control.
Category: Psychology

Crime And Public Policy

Author : James Q. Wilson
ISBN : 9780199315048
Genre : Law
File Size : 61.11 MB
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Crime in the United States has fluctuated considerably over the past thirty years, as have the policy approaches to deal with it. During this time criminologists and other scholars have helped to shed light on the role of incarceration, prevention, drugs, guns, policing, and numerous other aspects to crime control. Yet the latest research is rarely heard in public discussions and is often missing from the desks of policymakers. This book accessibly summarizes the latest scientific information on the causes of crime and evidence about what does and does not work to control it. Thoroughly revised and updated, this new version of Crime and Public Policy will include twenty chapters and five new substantial entries. As with previous editions, each essay reviews the existing literature, discusses the methodological rigor of the studies, identifies what policies and programs the studies suggest, and then points to policies now implemented that fail to reflect the evidence. The chapters cover the principle institutions of the criminal justice system (juvenile justice, police, prisons, probation and parole, sentencing), how broader aspects of social life inhibit or encourage crime (biology, schools, families, communities), and topics currently generating a great deal of attention (criminal activities of gangs, sex offenders, prisoner reentry, changing crime rates). With contributions from trusted, leading scholars, Crime and Public Policy offers the most comprehensive and balanced guide to how the latest and best social science research informs the understanding of crime and its control for policymakers, community leaders, and students of crime and criminal justice.
Category: Law

Drugs And Drug Policy

Author : Mark A.R. Kleiman
ISBN : 9780199831388
Genre : Political Science
File Size : 62.2 MB
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While there have always been norms and customs around the use of drugs, explicit public policies--regulations, taxes, and prohibitions--designed to control drug abuse are a more recent phenomenon. Those policies sometimes have terrible side-effects: most prominently the development of criminal enterprises dealing in forbidden (or untaxed) drugs and the use of the profits of drug-dealing to finance insurgency and terrorism. Neither a drug-free world nor a world of free drugs seems to be on offer, leaving citizens and officials to face the age-old problem: What are we going to do about drugs? In Drugs and Drug Policy, three noted authorities survey the subject with exceptional clarity, in this addition to the acclaimed series, What Everyone Needs to Know®. They begin, by defining "drugs," examining how they work in the brain, discussing the nature of addiction, and exploring the damage they do to users. The book moves on to policy, answering questions about legalization, the role of criminal prohibitions, and the relative legal tolerance for alcohol and tobacco. The authors then dissect the illicit trade, from street dealers to the flow of money to the effect of catching kingpins, and show the precise nature of the relationship between drugs and crime. They examine treatment, both its effectiveness and the role of public policy, and discuss the beneficial effects of some abusable substances. Finally they move outward to look at the role of drugs in our foreign policy, their relationship to terrorism, and the ugly politics that surround the issue. Crisp, clear, and comprehensive, this is a handy and up-to-date overview of one of the most pressing topics in today's world. What Everyone Needs to Know® is a registered trademark of Oxford University Press.
Category: Political Science

Addiction Is A Choice

Author : Jeffrey A. Schaler
ISBN : 9780812697681
Genre : Psychology
File Size : 81.89 MB
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Politicians and the media tell us that people who take drugs, including alcohol or nicotine, cannot help themselves. They are supposedly victims of the disease of 'addiciton', and they need 'treatment'. The same goes for sex addicts, shopping addicts, food addicts, gambling addicts, or even addicts to abusive relationships. This theory, which grew out of the Temperance movement and was developed and disseminated by the religious cult known as Alcoholics Anonymous, has not been confirmed by any factual research. Numerous scientific studies show that 'addicts' are in control of their behavior. Contrary to the shrill, mindless propaganda of the 'war on drugs', very few of the people who use alcohol, marijuana, heroin, or cocaine will ever become 'addicted', and of those who do become heavy drug users, most will matrue out of it in time, without treatment. Research indicates that 'treatment' is completely ineffective, an absolute waste of time and money. Instead of looking at drub addiction as a disease, Dr. Schaler proposes that we view it as willful commitment or dedication, akin to joining a religion or pursuing a romantic involvement. While heavy consumption of drugs is often foolish and self-destructive, it is a matter of personal choice.
Category: Psychology

Choice Behavioural Economics And Addiction

Author : Nick Heather
ISBN : 0080501109
Genre : Psychology
File Size : 34.66 MB
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Choice, Behavioural Economics and Addiction is about the theory, data, and applied implications of choice-based models of substance use and addiction. The distinction between substance use and addiction is important, because many individuals use substances but are not also addicted to them. The behavioural economic perspective has made contributions to the analysis of both of these phenomena and, while the major focus of the book is on theories of addiction, it is necessary also to consider the behavioural economic account of substance use in order to place the theories in their proper context and provide full coverage of the contribution of behavioural economics to this field of study. The book discusses the four major theories of addiction that have been developed in the area of economic science/behavioural economics. They are: • hyperbolic discounting • melioration • relative addiction • rational addiction The main objective of the book is to popularise these ideas among addiction researchers, academics and practitioners. The specific aims are to articulate the shared and distinctive elements of these four theories, to present and discuss the latest empirical work on substance abuse and addiction that is being conducted in this area, and to articulate a range of applied implications of this body of work for clinical, public health and public policy initiatives. The book is based on an invitation-only conference entitled, Choice, Behavioural Economics and Addiction: Theory, Evidence and Applications held at the University of Alabama at Birmingham, March 30 - April 1, 2001. The conference was attended by prominent scientists and scholars, representing a range of disciplines concerned with theories of addiction and their consequences for policy and practice. The papers in the book are based on the papers given at the above conference, together with commentaries by distinguished experts and, in many cases, replies to these comments by the presenters.
Category: Psychology

Addiction As An Attachment Disorder

Author : Philip J. Flores
ISBN : 0765703378
Genre : Psychology
File Size : 73.56 MB
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This work shows how to give substance abusers an attachment experience and a sense of community where they feel they are accepted and belong. Therapy, directed along the lines described, allows the person to get close to others who are accepting of him without a cost to his identity and autonomy.
Category: Psychology