A History And Theory Of Informed Consent

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A History And Theory Of Informed Consent

Author : Ruth R. Faden
ISBN : 9780199748655
Genre : Medical
File Size : 75.4 MB
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Clearly argued and written in nontechnical language, this book provides a definitive account of informed consent. It begins by presenting the analytic framework for reasoning about informed consent found in moral philosophy and law. The authors then review and interpret the history of informed consent in clinical medicine, research, and the courts. They argue that respect for autonomy has had a central role in the justification and function of informed consent requirements. Then they present a theory of the nature of informed consent that is based on an appreciation of its historical roots. An important contribution to a topic of current legal and ethical debate, this study is accessible to everyone with a serious interest in biomedical ethics, including physicians, philosophers, policy makers, religious ethicists, lawyers, and psychologists. This timely analysis makes a significant contribution to the debate about the rights of patients and subjects.
Category: Medical

Informed Consent

Author : Stephen Wear
ISBN : 0792320298
Genre : Philosophy
File Size : 48.79 MB
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Substantial efforts have recently been made to reform the physician-patient relationship, particularly toward replacing the `silent world of doctor and patient' with informed patient participation in medical decision-making. This 'new ethos of patient autonomy' has especially insisted on the routine provision of informed consent for all medical interventions. Stronly supported by most bioethicists and the law, as well as more popular writings and expectations, it still seems clear that informed consent has, at best, been received in a lukewarm fashion by most clinicians, many simply rejecting what they commonly refer to as the `myth of informed consent'. The purpose of this book is to defuse this seemingly intractable controversy by offering an efficient and effective operational model of informed consent. This goal is pursued first by reviewing and evaluating, in detail, the agendas, arguments, and supporting materials of its proponents and detractors. A comprehensive review of empirical studies of informed consent is provided, as well as a detailed reflection on the common clinician experience with attempts at informed consent and the exercise of autonomy by patients. In the end, informed consent is recast as a management tool for pursuing clinically and ethically important goods and values that any clinician should see as meriting pursuit. Concurrently, the model incorporates a flexible, anticipatory approach that recognizes that no static, generic ritual can legitimately pursue the quite variable goods and values that may be at stake with different patients in different situations. Finally, efficiency of provision is addressed by not pursuing the unattainable and ancillary. Throughout, the traditional principle of beneficence is appealed to toward articulating an operational model of informed consent as an intervention that is likely to change outcomes at the bedside for the better.
Category: Philosophy

Risk Management In Social Work Oxford Bibliographies Online Research Guide

Author : Oxford University Press
ISBN : 0199802629
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 57.21 MB
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This ebook is a selective guide designed to help scholars and students of social work find reliable sources of information by directing them to the best available scholarly materials in whatever form or format they appear from books, chapters, and journal articles to online archives, electronic data sets, and blogs. Written by a leading international authority on the subject, the ebook provides bibliographic information supported by direct recommendations about which sources to consult and editorial commentary to make it clear how the cited sources are interrelated related. A reader will discover, for instance, the most reliable introductions and overviews to the topic, and the most important publications on various areas of scholarly interest within this topic. In social work, as in other disciplines, researchers at all levels are drowning in potentially useful scholarly information, and this guide has been created as a tool for cutting through that material to find the exact source you need. This ebook is a static version of an article from Oxford Bibliographies Online: Social Work, a dynamic, continuously updated, online resource designed to provide authoritative guidance through scholarship and other materials relevant to the study and practice of social work. Oxford Bibliographies Online covers most subject disciplines within the social science and humanities, for more information visit www.aboutobo.com.
Category: Social Science

Family Oriented Informed Consent

Author : Ruiping Fan
ISBN : 9783319121208
Genre : Philosophy
File Size : 63.89 MB
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This volume addresses the proper character of patient informed consent to medical treatment and clinical research. The goal is critically to explore the current individually oriented approach to informed consent which grew out of the dominant bioethics movement that arose in the United States in the 1970s. In contrast to that individually oriented approach, this volume explores the importance of family-oriented approaches to informed consent for medical treatment and clinical research. It draws on both East Asian moral resources as well as a critical response to the ways in which the practice of informed consent has developed in the United States
Category: Philosophy

Informed Consent

Author : Winston Hammond
ISBN : 1634841956
Genre :
File Size : 30.8 MB
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Informed consent is in an unsettled state in both bioethics and the law. The central problem in both fields is the absence of a clear, general formulation that supports the kind of information a patient needs in order to make an informed decision. In this book, the absence of a clear, general formulation is the problem chapter one seeks to solve by presenting a theory of informed consent. The following chapter provides a history of translation and interpretation of informed consent in Japan. Chapter three examines a trend in high court decision making in the United States, Canada, Australia, and the United Kingdom away from a professional standard of disclosure in consent and informed consent to a standard based on what a reasonable person in the patients position would want in consent and informed consent. Chapter four focuses on the lack of data about safety and effectiveness, and the research, logistical and legal goals of obtaining consent often conflict with the public health goals of evidence-based shared decision-making. Chapter five examines informed consent issues in the context of a community collaborative model of service delivery that uses a public health approach. Chapter six provides insight into a novel way to overcome some of these risks when seeking and obtaining informed consent in clinical trials and research. The final chapter evaluates the effect of informed consent format on preoperative anxiety of patients.

Resolving Ethical Dilemmas

Author : Bernard Lo
ISBN : 9781451178753
Genre : Medical
File Size : 82.59 MB
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This timely Fourth Edition offers clinicians expert guidance in approaching a wide range of ethical dilemmas and developing an action plan. Most chapters include real-life sample cases that the author walks through, discussing the salient issues and how to approach them. This edition includes a new chapter on ethical issues in cross-cultural medicine and new material on conscientious objection by physicians in reproductive health and other areas. Other topics addressed include disclosure of errors to patients, gifts to physicians from drug companies, involuntary psychiatric treatment, genomic medicine, and ethical issues during public health emergencies such as pandemics. The updated discussion of organ transplantation includes increasing the donor pool and non-heart beating donors.
Category: Medical

The Different Faces Of Autonomy

Author : Maartje Schermer
ISBN : 1402009844
Genre : Medical
File Size : 68.12 MB
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Patient autonomy is a much discussed and debated subject in medical ethics, as well as in healthcare practice, medical law, and healthcare policy. This book provides a detailed and nuanced analysis of both the concept of autonomy and the principle of respect for autonomy, in an accessible style. The unique feature of this book is that it combines empirical research into hospital practice with thorough philosophical analyses. As such, it is an example of a new movement in applied ethics, that of 'empirical ethics'. The key themes are informed consent and medical decision making, personal well-being, competence, paternalism and decision making for incompetent patients. Much attention is also devoted to autonomy in non-decision making situations - patient control over small everyday aspects of care, authenticity and existential aspects of illness, autonomy and the 'ethics of care', and the relationship between autonomy and trust in the physician-patient relationship. This book will be of interest to those working or studying in the field of medical ethics and applied ethics but also to healthcare professionals and health policy makers.
Category: Medical

Soft Shepherd Or Almighty Pastor

Author : Annemie Dillen
ISBN : 9781630875565
Genre : Religion
File Size : 84.86 MB
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In Soft Shepherd or Almighty Pastor? contributors seek to go beyond the taboo on "power" within pastoral contexts. They not only discuss fundamental theological and philosophical questions about power but also develop ways to prevent power abuse in pastoral context. Power is considered as omnipresent and is analyzed in its positive and negative aspects. Not only the classical associations of "power over" or "domination" are discussed in relation to ecclesial and pastoral situations, but also forms of power linked to "service" and "care." A sacrificial spirituality might also be dangerous. Soft Shepherd or Almighty Pastor? gathers ten contributions, all of which reflect on the complexity of power issues, also in relation to sexual abuse. The authors argue that dealing adequately with power requires renewed forms of theological thinking, especially about ministry.
Category: Religion

Standing On Principles

Author : Tom L. Beauchamp
ISBN : 0199774366
Genre : Medical
File Size : 54.7 MB
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Tom L. Beauchamp of Georgetown is one of the founding fathers of contemporary bioethics, and is particularly influential as one of the co-authors (with James Childress) of PRINCIPLES OF BIOMEDICAL ETHICS, first published by OUP over 25 years ago and a true cornerstone of contemporary bioethics. This volume is both an introductory textbook as well as a definitive expression of what is known as the dominant "principlist" approach which views bioethical reasoning developing out of four key principles: respect for autonomy, nonmaleficence, beneficence, and justice. This view has been highly influential over the last two decades and has set the agenda for the field. This volume will collect Tom Beauchamp's 15 most important published articles in bioethics, most of which were published over the last 25 years, and most of which have a strong connection to the principlist approach. Most of the essays included here augment, develop, or defend various themes, positions and arguments in that earlier book, both adding depth as well as taking off in new directions. Among the topic discussed are the historical origins of modern research ethics, to moral principles and methodological concerns. Beauchamp will include a new introduction to explain the history of the essays and their relationship to the principlist theory.
Category: Medical

Intensive Care

Author : Robert Zussman
ISBN : 0226996352
Genre : Medical
File Size : 71.77 MB
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Filled with critically ill patients, equipped with the sophisticated and expensive technologies that are the miracles of modern medicine, American intensive care units are testing grounds for the most fundamental issues of contemporary medical ethics. The doctors and nurses who staff ICUs daily confront these difficult questions: Under what circumstances, if any, is it acceptable to withhold treatment? Who should get the last bed when there are too few? How should these decisions be made and by what criteria? In riveting case studies collected between 1985 and 1989, Robert Zussman describes how medical decisions in ICUs are considered and reconsidered, made and remade, negotiated and renegotiated. He concentrates on the practice of medical ethics, on the ways in which right and wrong are interpreted and used in the ward--how definitions of right and wrong emerge from the social situations of patients, families, doctors, and nurses and from the workings of hospitals and the courts. From this superb fieldwork--observing medical staff on their rounds; interviewing staff, patients, and families; and systematically reviewing hospital records--Zussman reveals the existence of deep conflicts of opinion on how to allocate treatment and resources. He shows that these perspectives depart from the formal principles of medical ethics. He argues that courts and hospital administrators, with their new insistence on taking the rights of patients seriously, have reshaped the way life and death decisions are made. At the same time, Zussman examines doctors' frequent resistance to the precepts of medical ethics: doctors, he shows, often override patients' wishes, justifying their decisions in the name ofthe patients' best interests while maintaining control over the decision-making process. In Zussman's hands, the study of medical ethics becomes a means of examining the logic and limits of professional discretion and a source of insights into the social and economic forces empowering patients and administrators at the expense of physicians. His book is a strong, often moving portrait of the way careful planning is undermined by the unpredictability of illness and the persistence of self-interest, by high principle and curious compromise.
Category: Medical

Ethical Issues In Cancer Patient Care

Author : Peter Angelos
ISBN : 9781475730449
Genre : Medical
File Size : 50.80 MB
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This book addresses a variety of ethical issues that arise in the care of oncology patients. Many volumes have been written on medical ethics in the past 30 years. However, few have focused on ethical issues specific to the care of cancer patients. This book brings together such a focused examination. The contributors are experienced clinicians, ethicists, medical humanists, and medical educators. The issues raised have direct relevance to the care of oncology patients in treatment as well as research settings. The chapters address issues that are central to contemporary medical practice and medical ethics inquiry. Any practicing clinician will be well aware of the problems of communication and how uncertainty, cross-cultural issues, and religious influences can impact patient care. The limits of care and the role of advance directives and palliative care are common issues that must be addressed in treating patients at the end of life. For oncologists and oncology patients, participation in clinical trials may be a thomy topic, especially when phase I clinical trials are being considered. The impact of managed care and reimbursement issues cannot be avoided in the contemporary patient care and similarly cannot be neglected when considering the ethical ramifications raised. No discussion of ethics in oncology can be complete without attention to the specific challenges raised by the pediatric patient with cancer. All of these topics are explored by the contributors to this book.
Category: Medical

Ophthalmic Surgery Principles And Practice E Book

Author : George L. Spaeth
ISBN : 9781455712335
Genre : Medical
File Size : 61.2 MB
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Ophthalmic Surgery, edited by Drs. George Spaeth, Helen Danesh-Meyer, Ivan Goldberg, and Anselm Kampik, provides the detailed, full-color, step-by-step guidance you need to master essential ophthalmic surgery procedures. The international team of expert editors and contributors present coverage of the latest surgical developments and video demonstrations of key techniques across subspecialties, including cataract, cornea, refractive, glaucoma, oculoplastic, extra-ocular muscle, vitreoretinal, and ocular tumor procedures. What’s more, the fully searchable text, procedural videos, and a downloadable image gallery are all online at www.expertconsult.com, making this multimedia resource the key to performing confidently in the operating room. Refer to the most important steps in each procedure quickly and easily with an appendix of step-by-step hand notes. Perform a wide variety of procedures with confidence using the focused coverage that pinpoints essential information and avoids extraneous details. Get comprehensive coverage across key subspecialties—oculoplastic, strabismus, cornea, refractive, cataract, glaucoma, ocular tumors, and vitreoretinal—and master the basics for every common procedure. Access the fully searchable contents online at www.expertconsult.com, along with procedural videos and a downloadable image gallery. Apply the latest advances in laser surgery that have become standard practice with the new section on refractive surgery. Master key techniques thanks to more than four hours of narrated online videos that demonstrate procedures across eight subspecialties. Gain a more nuanced visual understanding through a new full-color art program with over 800 illustrations, updated and revised drawings, color images, and step-by-step illustrated procedures. Tap into the expertise of leading authorities in the field with a brand new editorial team from North America, Europe, and Australasia, as well as international contributors who provide global perspectives across all subspecialties in ophthalmic surgery.
Category: Medical

Useful Bodies

Author : Jordan Goodman
ISBN : 9780801881572
Genre : Medical
File Size : 81.5 MB
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Though notoriously associated with Germany, human experimentation in the name of science has been practiced in other countries, as well, both before and after the Nazi era. The use of unwitting or unwilling subjects in experiments designed to test the effects of radiation and disease on the human body emerged at the turn of the twentieth century, when the rise of the modern, coercive state and the professionalization of medical science converged. Useful Bodies explores the intersection of government power and medical knowledge in revealing studies of human experimentation—germ warfare and jaundice tests in Great Britain; radiation, malaria, and hepatitis experiments in the U.S.; and nuclear fallout trials in Australia. These examples of medical abuse illustrate the extent to which living human bodies have been "useful" to democratic states and emphasize the need for intense scrutiny and regulation to prevent future violations. Contributors: Brian Balmer, University College London; Miriam Boleyn-Fitzgerald, University of Wisconsin; Rodney A. Hayward, University of Michigan; Joel D. Howell, University of Michigan; Margaret Humphreys, Duke University; David S. Jones, Massachusetts General Hospital; Robert L. Martensen, Tulane University School of Medicine; Glenn Mitchell, University of Wollongong; Jenny Stanton, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine; Gilbert Whittemore, independent scholar/attorney, Boston
Category: Medical

Japanese And Western Bioethics

Author : K. Hoshino
ISBN : 9789401588959
Genre : Science
File Size : 29.77 MB
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The editors of the Philosophy and Medicine series recognize with grat itude the foresight, understanding, hard labor, and patience of Prof. Kazumasa Hoshino. It is his perseverance that has made this volume a reality. It was his faith in ideas that brought together a cluster of scholars in Tokyo on September 2-4, 1994, at Sophia University for a U. S. -J apan Bioethics Congress. With the support of the Foundation for Advance ment of International Science, the Japan Foundation Center for Global Partnership, the Foundation of Thanatology, the Japanese Center for Quality of Life Studies, and Sophia University, scholars from Canada, Germany, Japan, and the United States were able to explore the differ ences and similarities in their approaches to bioethics and health care policy. That conference first produced a volume through Shibunkaku Publishers of Kyoto that appeared in 1995 in J apanese: The Dignity of Death, edited by Kazumasa Hoshino. Selections from those materials have been reworked for an English audience and now appear, along with new essays, in this volume. The field of comparative bioethics is only in its infancy. We are deeply grateful to Prof. Kazumasa Hoshino, one of the fathers of J apanese bioethics, for having made this volume possible. H. Tristram Engelhardt, Jr. Stuart F. Spicker Vll ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS This volume's editors and Kluwer Academic Publishers wish to thank Shibunkaku Press, Kyoto, Japan, for permission to publish, without charge, essays derived from the U. S.
Category: Science

Forschungsfreiheit Und Forschungskontrolle In Der Medizin Freedom And Control Of Biomedical Research

Author : Erwin Deutsch
ISBN : 9783642573262
Genre : Medical
File Size : 60.93 MB
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Die Deklaration von Helsinki des Weltärztebundes gilt als wichtigstes Dokument ärztlicher Standesauffassung zur medizinischen Forschung am Menschen. Ihr Einfluß auf die ärztliche Ethik und auf nationale Regelungen zur biomedizinischen Forschung ist unbestritten. Seit einiger Zeit wird innerhalb des Weltärztebundes über eine Änderung der Deklaration von Helsinki beraten, die zu einer grundlegenden Umgestaltung der Deklaration und zur Aufhebung wichtiger Prinzipien führen könnte. Dies war Anlaß eines internationalen Symposions in Göttingen vom 7. bis zum 11. April. Der vorliegende Band enthält die für das Symposion erstellten Landesberichte und Generalberichte aus 14 europäischen und außereuropäischen Ländern sowie die Zusammenfassung der Beratungsergebnisse, die als "Göttinger Papier" erfolgreich in die laufenden Beratungen des Weltärztebundes eingebracht wurden.
Category: Medical

Consent In European Data Protection Law

Author : Eleni Kosta
ISBN : 9789004232365
Genre : Law
File Size : 43.17 MB
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Against the background of European legal framework, this book offers a comprehensive analysis of the concept of consent in data protection, with a special focus on the field of electronic communications.
Category: Law

The Antibiotic Era

Author : Scott H. Podolsky
ISBN : 9781421415949
Genre : Medical
File Size : 80.33 MB
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In The Antibiotic Era, physician-historian Scott H. Podolsky narrates the far-reaching history of antibiotics, focusing particularly on reform efforts that attempted to fundamentally change how antibiotics are developed and prescribed. This sweeping chronicle reveals the struggles faced by crusading reformers from the 1940s onward as they advocated for a rational therapeutics at the crowded intersection of bugs and drugs, patients and doctors, industry and medical academia, and government and the media. During the post–World War II "wonder drug" revolution, antibiotics were viewed as a panacea for mastering infectious disease. But from the beginning, critics raised concerns about irrational usage and overprescription. The first generation of antibiotic reformers focused on regulating the drug industry. The reforms they set in motion included the adoption of controlled clinical trials as the ultimate arbiters of therapeutic efficacy, the passage of the Kefauver-Harris amendments mandating proof of drug efficacy via well-controlled studies, and the empowering of the Food and Drug Administration to remove inefficacious drugs from the market. Despite such victories, no entity was empowered to rein in physicians who inappropriately prescribed, or overly prescribed, approved drugs. Now, in an era of emerging bugs and receding drugs, discussions of antibiotic resistance focus on the need to develop novel antibiotics and the need for more appropriate prescription practices in the face of pharmaceutical marketing, pressure from patients, and the structural constraints that impede rational delivery of antibiotics worldwide. Concerns about the enduring utility of antibiotics—indeed, about a post-antibiotic era—are widespread, as evidenced by reports from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, academia, and popular media alike. Only by understanding the historical forces that have shaped our current situation, Podolsky argues, can we properly understand and frame our choices moving forward.
Category: Medical

Case Studies In Nursing Ethics

Author : Sara T. Fry
ISBN : 0763713333
Genre : Medical
File Size : 34.2 MB
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Rev. ed. of: Case studies in nursing ethics / Robert M. Veach, Sara T. Fry. 1987.
Category: Medical

Bioethics Beyond The Headlines

Author : Albert R. Jonsen
ISBN : 9780742571631
Genre : Philosophy
File Size : 83.81 MB
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Bioethics asks fundamental questions. 'Who lives? Who dies? Who decides?' These questions are relevant to us all. Too often, the general public's sole encounter with these weighty questions is through sound bites fed to us by the media—where complex, difficult matters are typically presented in superficial and inaccurate terms. Here, renowned bioethicist Albert R. Jonsen equips readers with the tools and background to navigate the fascinating and complex landscape of bioethics. Bioethics Beyond the Headlines is a primer. You will not find convoluted philosophical arguments in this volume. Rather, you will find an engaging sampling of the key questions in bioethics, including euthanasia, assisted reproduction, cloning and stem cells, neuroscience, access to healthcare, and even research on animals and questions of environmental ethics—areas typically overlooked in general introductions to bioethics. But a 'primer' is not merely a first book—it should also 'prime' the interest of the reader, to prepare the mind for a more expansive venture into these issues. Bioethics Beyond the Headlines intends to do just that.
Category: Philosophy


Author : Mary Ann Gardell Cutter
ISBN : 9789401136143
Genre : Medical
File Size : 73.99 MB
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Some conferences produce proceedings, others an inspiration to labor, which finally leads to a published work. Such has been the case with regard to this volume. In 1984, the Center for Ethics, Medicine, and Public Issues held a conference with the title 'When are Competent Patients Incompetent?' with the support of the Texas Committee for the Humanities, a state-based program of the National Endowment for the Humanities. Assistance was provided by both Baylor College of Medicine and the Institute of Religion. This conference evoked a con siderable interest in examining further the moral status of competency determinations in the clinical setting. This interest is realized in this volume, which now affords us an opportunity to thank all those individ uals who made the conference possible, only some of whom are acknowledged in this Preface. In particular, we wish to express our gratitude to Baruch A. Brody, Rebecca Dresser, the Honorable Jerome Jones, H. Steven Moffic, Margery W. Shaw, Eleanor Tinsley, and Albert Van HeIden. The volume took its shape through the labors of Earl Shelp and Mary Ann Gardell Cutter, who inspired the further evolution of the papers presented at the conference and attracted contributions from individuals who had not attended. Earl Shelp and Mary Ann Gardell Cutter have produced a volume following extensive reflection and dialogue; they were ably assisted in the final preparation of the manu script by Thomas J. Bole III and George Khushf, to whom special thanks are due.
Category: Medical