WOMEN IN HUMAN EVOLUTION

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Women In Human Evolution

Author : Lori Hager
ISBN : 9781134840106
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 41.87 MB
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This volume, the first of it's kind, examines the role of women paleontologists and archaeologists in a field traditionally dominated by men. Women researchers in this field, have questioned many of the assumptions and developmental scenarios advanced by male scientists. As a result of such efforts, women have forged a more central role in models of human development and have radically altered the way in which human evolution is perceived. This history of the feminist critique of science, is of profound significance and will be of interest to all those who work in the fields of anthropology, archaeology, paleontology, and human biology.
Category: Social Science

Sex Time And Power

Author : Leonard Shlain
ISBN : 0142004677
Genre : Psychology
File Size : 78.49 MB
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From the best selling author of Art and Physics and The Alphabet Versus the Goddess comes a provocative new book that will change our views of human sexuality and evolution. According to Leonard Shlain there is no clear and compelling explanation for the sudden emergence of glib, big-brained Homo sapiens 150,000 years ago. In his latest book, he proposes an original thesis that variations in female sexuality changed the course of human evolution. Due to the narrowness of her bipedal pelvis and the increasing size of her infant's head, the human female began to experience high childbirth death rates. Natural selection adapted her to this environmental stress by drastically reconfiguring her hormonal cycles. Her estrus with its external signal that she was ovulating disappeared as her menses became the most florid of any mammal and it mysteriously entrained with the periodicity of the moon. These interlocking adaptations led the first women to grasp the concept of a month and make the connection between sex and pregnancy.
Category: Psychology

Managing Without Power

Author : R Meredith Belbin
ISBN : 9781136014338
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 54.31 MB
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Meredith Belbin, best known for his work on teams, now considers the way in which continuing evolution has produced distinct patterns of behaviour for men and women. Examination of the key stages in the history of homo sapiens reveals * how very early human society was regulated not through power but by organic balance, so allowing women to play a vital role in the community * why women lost their hold over men as more populous and structured societies became dominated by aggressive warriors seeking territorial expansion * how natural selection within competing empires favoured the survival of able professionals and compliant slaves, so diversifying the behavioural roles to which humans were genetically disposed * how, in the present era, power has lost its biological utility as human evolution slowed, and technological evolution favoured the emancipation of women with its premium on communication skills *how in this changing scenario, as women have recovered their status and influence, social progress has brought in its wake a new set of cross-gender problems. Penetrating, original and provocative this book offers suggestions on how men and women can come to terms with their genetic heritage, so restoring much needed balance to business organizations and to the community at large.
Category: Business & Economics

Woman The Gatherer

Author : Frances Dahlberg
ISBN : 0300029896
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 77.79 MB
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Essays discuss chimpanzees as an evolutionary model, modern examples of hunter-gatherer tribes, women's and men's roles in prehistoric times, and primitive human adaptations
Category: Social Science

Reproductive Ecology And Human Evolution

Author : Peter T. Ellison
ISBN : 9781351493505
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 65.67 MB
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The study of human reproductive ecology represents an important new development in human evolutionary biology. Its focus is on the physiology of human reproduction and evidence of adaptation, and hence the action of natural selection, in that domain. But at the same time the study of human reproductive ecology provides an important perspective on the historical process of human evolution, a lens through which we may view the forces that have shaped us as a species. In the end, all actions of natural selection can be reduced to variation in the reproductive success of individuals.Peter Ellison is one of the pioneers in the fast growing area of reproductive ecology. He has collected for this volume the research of thirty-one of the most active and influential scientists in the field. Thanks to recent noninvasive techniques, these contributors can present direct empirical data on the effect of a broad array of ecological, behavioral, and constitutional variables on the reproductive processes of humans as well as wild primates. Because biological evolution is cumulative, however, organisms in the present must be viewed as products of the selective forces of past environments. The study of adaptation thus often involves inferences about formative ecological relationships that may no longer exist, or not in the same form. Making such inferences depends on carefully weighing a broad range of evidence drawn from studies of contemporary ecological variation, comparative studies of related taxonomies, and paleontological and genetic evidence of evolutionary history. The result of this inquiry sheds light not only on the functional aspects of an organism's contemporary biology but also on its evolutionary history and the selective forces that have shaped it through time.Encompassing a range of viewpoints--controversy along with consensus--this far-ranging collection offers an indispensable guide for courses in biological anthropology, human biology, and primatology, along with
Category: Social Science

The Evolutionary Biology Of Human Female Sexuality

Author : Randy Thornhill
ISBN : 0199712484
Genre : Psychology
File Size : 49.89 MB
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Research conducted in the last fifteen years has placed in question many of the traditional conclusions scholars have formed about human female sexuality. Though conventional wisdom asserts that women's estrus has been evolutionarily lost, Randy Thornhill and Steven W. Gangestad assert that it is present, though concealed. Women, they propose, therefore exhibit two sexualities each ovulatory cycle-estrus and sexuality outside of the estrous phase, extended sexuality-that possess distinct functions. Synthesizing research in behavioral evolution and comparative biology, the authors provide a new theoretical framework for understanding the evolution of human female sexuality, one that is rooted in female sexuality and phylogeny across all vertebrate animals.
Category: Psychology

The Descent Of Woman

Author : Elaine Morgan
ISBN : 9780285639843
Genre : Science
File Size : 48.8 MB
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A pioneering work, the first to argue for the equal role of women in human evolution. On its first publication in 1972 it became a rallying-point for feminism and changed the terminology of anthropologists forever. It remains a key text in feminist history, as well as an extension to the author's Aquatic Ape Hypothesis, which is gaining more academic support each year. Starting with her demolition of the Biblical myth that woman was an afterthought to the creation of man, Elaine Morgan rewrites human history and evolution.
Category: Science

The Evolution Of Human Sexuality

Author : Donald Symons
ISBN : 9780199878475
Genre : Psychology
File Size : 79.46 MB
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Anthropology, Sexual Studies, Psychology, Sociology, Gender and Cultural Studies
Category: Psychology

Erect Men Undulating Women

Author : Melanie G. Wiber
ISBN : 9780889205574
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 90.85 MB
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Based on intensive study of human origin illustrations, responses from students and colleagues and research into reconstructive illustration and feminist criticism of Western art, this ground-breaking book traces the subtle ways in which paleoanthropological conventions have influenced and have shifted in the creation of these illustrations. Wiber reveals that embedded meanings in these illustrations go beyond gender to include two other ubiquitous themes—racial superiority and upward cultural progress. Underlying all these themes, she found a basic conservatism in the paleoanthropological approach to evolutionary theory. Erect Men/Undulating Women provides a deeper understanding of popularized illustrations of human origins, but, more importantly, it encourages readers to gain a sensitivity to the ways in which Western culture constructs “scientific” findings that are compatible with its deeply held beliefs and values.
Category: Social Science

Grandmotherhood

Author : Eckart Voland
ISBN : 081353609X
Genre : Family & Relationships
File Size : 64.17 MB
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By the year 2030, the average life expectancy of women in industrialized countries could reach ninety--exceeding that of men by about ten years. At the present time, postmenopausal women represent more than fifteen percent of the world's population and this figure is likely to grow. From an evolutionary perspective, these demographic numbers pose some intriguing questions. Darwinian theory holds that a successful life is measured in terms of reproduction. How is it, then, that a woman's lifespan can greatly exceed her childbearing and childrearing years? Is this phenomenon simply a byproduct of improved standards of living, or do older women--grandmothers in particular--play a measurable role in increasing their family members' biological success? Until now, these questions have not been examined in a thorough and comprehensive manner. Bringing together theoretical and empirical work by internationally recognized scholars in anthropology, psychology, ethnography, and the social sciences, Grandmotherhood explores the evolutionary purpose and possibilities of female post-generative life. Students and scholars of human evolution, anthropology, and even gerontology will look to this volume as a major contribution to the current literature in evolutionary studies.
Category: Family & Relationships