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Warfare In Cultural Context

Author : Axel E. Nielsen
ISBN : 0816527075
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 60.99 MB
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Warfare is a constant in human history. According to the contributors to this volume, archaeologists have assumed thatÑwithin certain socioenvironmental parametersÑwar is always essentially the same phenomenon and follows a common logic, breaking out under similar conditions and having analogous effects on the people involved. In pursuit of this idea, archaeologists have built models to account for the occurrence of war in various times and places. The models are then tested against prehistoric evidence to make the causes and conduct of war predictable and data-based. However, contributors argue, this model-and-evidence approach has given rise to multiple competing hypotheses and ambiguity rather than to full, coherent explanations of what turns out to be surprisingly complex acts of war. The chapters in Warfare in Cultural Context contend that agency and culture, inherited values and dispositions (such as religion and other cultural practices), beliefs, and institutions are always woven into the conduct of war. This revealing book focuses on the ways that specific people construed their interests and life projects, and their problems and possibilities, and consequently chose among alternative courses of action. Using archaeological and ethnohistorical data from various parts of the world, the contributors explore the multiple avenues for the cultural study of warfare that these ideas make possible. Contributions focus on cultural aspects of warfare in Mesoamerica, South America, North America, and Southeast Asia. Case studies include warfare among the Maya, Inca, southwestern Pueblos, Mississippian cultures, and the Enga of Papua New Guinea.
Category: Social Science

Warfare Violence And Slavery In Prehistory

Author : Michael Parker Pearson
ISBN : UOM:39015060992826
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 45.30 MB
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19 papers presented at the Proceedings of a Prehistoric Society conference at Sheffield University in February 2001. (1) The ancient origins of warfare and violence (I J N Thorpe); (2) Warfare, violence and slavery in later prehistory: an introduction (Mike Parker Pearson); (3) Aggression and nonhuman primates (Pia Nystrom); (4) Sociobiology, cultural anthropology and the causes of warfare (Robert Layton); (5) The physical evidence of warfare - subtle stigmata? (Christopher J Knusel); (6) The head burials from Ofnet cave: an example of warlike conflict in the Mesolithic (Jorg Orschiedt); (7) Assessing rank and warfare-strategy in prehistoric hunter-gatherer society: a study of representational warrior figures in rock-art from the Spanish Levant, southeastern Spain (George Nash); (8) The emergence of warfare in the Early Bronze Age: the Nitra group in Slovakia and Moravia, 2200-1800 BC (Andreas Harde); (9) Warfare, redistribution and society in western Iberia (Eduardo Sanchez-Moreno); (10) Warfare, violence and the construction of masculinity in the Iron Age rock art of Valcamonica, northern Italy (Lynne Bevan); (11) The dead of Tormarton - Middle Bronze Age combat victims? (Richard Osgood); (12) Giving up weapons (David Fontijn); (13) Ritual bondage, violence, slavery and sacrifice in later European prehistory (Miranda Aldhouse Green); (14) Fragmentation, mutilation and dismemberment: an interpretation of human remains on Iron Age sites (Rebecca Craig, Christopher J Knusel and Gillian Carr); (15) The origins of warfare: later prehistory in southeastern Iberia (Gonzalo Aranda Jimencz and Margarita Sanchez Romero); (16) Weaponry, statues and petroglyphs: the ideology of war in Atlantic Iron Age Iberia (Jose Freire); (17) A palaeodemographic investigation of warfare in prehistory (Neil A Bishop and Christopher J Knusel); (18) War in prehistoric society: modern views of ancient violence (John Carman and Patricia Carman); (19) Ambushed by a grotesque: archaeology, slavery and the third paradigm (Tim Taylor).
Category: Social Science

War And The Cultural Turn

Author : Jeremy Black
ISBN : 9780745656380
Genre : History
File Size : 35.18 MB
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In this stimulating new text, renowned military historian Jeremy Black unpacks the concept of culture as a descriptive and analytical approach to the history of warfare. Black takes the reader through the limits and prospects of culture as a tool for analyzing war, while also demonstrating the necessity of maintaining the context of alternative analytical matrices, such as technology. Black sets out his unique approach to culture and warfare without making his paradigm into a straightjacket. He goes on to demonstrate the flexibility of his argument through a series of case studies which include the contexts of rationale (Gloire), strategy (early modern Britaisn), organizations (the modern West), and ideologies (the Cold War). These case studies drive home the point at the core of the book: culture is not a bumper sticker; it is a survival mechanism. Culture is not immutable; it is adaptable. Wide-ranging, international and always provocative, War and the Cultural Turn will be required reading for all students of military history and security studies.
Category: History

War Peace And Human Nature

Author : Douglas P. Fry
ISBN : 9780190232467
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 66.44 MB
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Have humans always waged war? Is warring an ancient evolutionary adaptation or a relatively recent behavior--and what does that tell us about human nature? In War, Peace, and Human Nature, editor Douglas P. Fry brings together leading experts in such fields as evolutionary biology, archaeology, anthropology, and primatology to answer fundamental questions about peace, conflict, and human nature in an evolutionary context. The chapters in this book demonstrate that humans clearly have the capacity to make war, but since war is absent in some cultures, it cannot be viewed as a human universal. And counter to frequent presumption the actual archaeological record reveals the recent emergence of war. It does not typify the ancestral type of human society, the nomadic forager band, and contrary to widespread assumptions, there is little support for the idea that war is ancient or an evolved adaptation. Views of human nature as inherently warlike stem not from the facts but from cultural views embedded in Western thinking. Drawing upon evolutionary and ecological models; the archaeological record of the origins of war; nomadic forager societies past and present; the value and limitations of primate analogies; and the evolution of agonism, including restraint; the chapters in this interdisciplinary volume refute many popular generalizations and effectively bring scientific objectivity to the culturally and historically controversial subjects of war, peace, and human nature.
Category: Social Science

Warfare In Late Byzantium 1204 1453

Author : Savvas Kyriakidis
ISBN : 9789004206663
Genre : History
File Size : 37.5 MB
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Examining a wide body of sources this book offers a comprehensive analysis of late Byzantine attitudes to warfare and places late Byzantine military ethos, thought and practice in the wider geographical, cultural and historical context.
Category: History

Globalization And War

Author : Tarak Barkawi
ISBN : 0742537013
Genre : Political Science
File Size : 23.16 MB
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War doesn't just tear nations apart—it brings peoples and places closer together, providing a new lens on globalization. This book offers a fresh perspective on globalization and war, topics rarely considered together. It conceives war as a form of interconnection between home and abroad, and as an occasion for circulation and interchange. It identifies the political and military work required to create and maintain a free-trading world, while critiquing liberal and neoliberal conceptions of the pacific benefits of economic globalization. Speaking from the heart of old and new imperial orders, Tarak Barkawi exposes the Eurocentric limitations of military history and highlights the imperial dimensions of modern warfare. Britain, India, and the colonial Indian army exemplify the intertwined, global histories illuminated by attention to globalization and war. Around the world, geographies and wars are imagined differently. Cultural approaches to globalization show how popular consciousness of the world often takes military and warlike form, and how militaries spawn hybrid 'traveling cultures' wherever they go. Finally, Barkawi examines the contemporary 'war on terror' using historical and non-Eurocentric globalizations to clarify the politics and strategies involved in the purported 'clash of civilizations'. Adding a new layer of understanding, he looks at the globalization of the Israeli-Palestinian conflict and the intensifying 'Israelization' of the United States.
Category: Political Science

Cultures In Conflict

Author : Warren R. Hofstra
ISBN : 074255130X
Genre : History
File Size : 72.71 MB
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Cultures in Conflict addresses the broad pattern of events that framed this conflict's causes, the intercultural dynamics of its conduct, and its profound impact on subsequent events—most notably the American Revolution and a protracted Anglo-Indian struggle for continental control. Warren R. Hofstra has gathered the best of contemporary scholarship on the war (1754–1763) and its social and cultural history. The authors examine the viewpoints of British and French imperial authorities, the issues motivating Indian nations in the Ohio Valley, the matter of why and how French colonists fought, the diplomatic and social world of Iroquois Indians, and the responses of British colonists to the conflict. The result of these efforts is a dynamic historical approach in which cultural context provides a rationale for the well-established military and political narrative of the Seven Years' War.
Category: History

Atrocity Deviance And Submarine Warfare

Author : Nachman Ben-Yehuda
ISBN : 9780472118892
Genre : History
File Size : 33.51 MB
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In an era of changing ethics, the submarine has inaugurated a new type of unrestricted naval warfare
Category: History

Cultures Of War

Author : John W. Dower
ISBN : 9780393061505
Genre : History
File Size : 45.35 MB
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A Pulitzer Prize-winning historian presents a comparative analysis of September 11 and the subsequent War on Terror with Pearl Harbor and World War II, addressing institutional failures of intelligence and imagination and the driving forces behind Pan-Asian and Pan-Islam movements
Category: History