VALVE REGULATED LEAD ACID BATTERIES

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Valve Regulated Lead Acid Batteries

Author : Patrick T. Moseley
ISBN : 008047473X
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 62.33 MB
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For many decades, the lead-acid battery has been the most widely used energy-storage device for medium- and large-scale applications (approximately 100Wh and above). In recent years, the traditional, flooded design of the battery has begun to be replaced by an alternative design. This version - the valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) battery - requires no replenishment of the water content of the electrolyte solution, does not spill liquids, and can be used in any desired orientation. Since the VRLA battery operates in a somewhat different manner from its flooded counterpart, considerable technological development has been necessary to meet the exacting performance requirements of the full range of applications in which rechargeable batteries are used. The valve-regulated design is now well established in the industrial battery sector, and also appears set to be adopted widely for automotive duty. This book provides a comprehensive account of VRLA technology and its uses. In the future, all industrial processes - including the manufacture of batteries - will be required to conform to the conventions of sustainability. Accordingly, the crucial areas of the environmental impact associated with the production and use of VRLA batteries and the recycling of spent units are also treated thoroughly. Valve-Regulated Lead-Acid Batteries gives an essential insight into the science that underlies the development and operation of VRLA batteries and is a comprehensive reference source for those involved in the practical use of the technology in key energy-storage applications. Covers all major advances in the field Provides a comprehensive account of VRLA technology and its uses First book dedicated to this technology
Category: Technology & Engineering

Valve Regulated Lead Acid Batteries

Author : David Anthony James Rand
ISBN : 0444507469
Genre : Science
File Size : 87.37 MB
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For many decades, the lead-acid battery has been the most widely used energy-storage device for medium- and large-scale applications (approximately 100Wh and above). In recent years, the traditional, flooded design of the battery has begun to be replaced by an alternative design. This version - the valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) battery - requires no replenishment of the water content of the electrolyte solution, does not spill liquids, and can be used in any desired orientation. Since the VRLA battery operates in a somewhat different manner from its flooded counterpart, considerable technological development has been necessary to meet the exacting performance requirements of the full range of applications in which rechargeable batteries are used. The valve-regulated design is now well established in the industrial battery sector, and also appears set to be adopted widely for automotive duty. This book provides a comprehensive account of VRLA technology and its uses. In the future, all industrial processes - including the manufacture of batteries - will be required to conform to the conventions of sustainability. Accordingly, the crucial areas of the environmental impact associated with the production and use of VRLA batteries and the recycling of spent units are also treated thoroughly. Valve-Regulated Lead-Acid Batteries gives an essential insight into the science that underlies the development and operation of VRLA batteries and is a comprehensive reference source for those involved in the practical use of the technology in key energy-storage applications. - Covers all major advances in the field. - Provides a comprehensive account of VRLA technology and its uses. - First book dedicated to this technology.
Category: Science

Development In Valve Regulated Lead Acid Vrla Batteries

Author : P. G. Balakrishnan
ISBN : 1604562692
Genre : Science
File Size : 61.18 MB
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Although Gaston Planté invented the lead-acid battery in 1859 in France, it took about a century to make it maintenance-free in the sense that there is no necessity for topping up the battery with water. This was made possible by the invention of a hermetically sealed nickel oxyhydroxide-cadmium battery. Though such batteries were variously called in the beginning as maintenance-free battery, sealed battery, starved electrolyte battery, absorbed electrolyte battery, etc., due to heavy litigation, particularly in the U.K., the term valve-regulated lead-acid battery (VRLAB) was coined to obviate the legal battle. The VRLAB operates on the principle of "internal oxygen cycle" without resorting to the use of catalytic recombination plugs. The binary alloys used in the initial periods of development of VRLAB had no aluminium or silver. After the introduction of Ca-Al master alloy for preparing the Pb-Ca-Al alloy, the grid casting problems were minimised. The introduction of tin to alleviate the problem of premature capacity loss helped to a very great extent in increasing the market share of VRLAB, particularly in the stationary market segment. Developments in the absorptive glass mat (AGM) separator also gave a great impetus to the popularisation of the VRLAB. The work done by the Advanced Lead-Acid Battery Consortium (ALABC) paved the way for increasing the Electric Vehicle (EV) market for VRLAB. Rapid charging of VRLAB not only helped in extending the range of EVs by reducing the down time of EVs, but also increased the life of fast-charged VRLAB. The VRLA battery technology being a comparatively new one, a lot of teething troubles were encountered in the initial periods of its introduction. A detailed analysis of the failure modes of VRLAB and remedial measures adopted by the industry is critically analysed. Extensive trials of VRLAB have been carried out to prove the utility of automotive VRLAB in Australia, Italy, Germany and Japan. Aircraft VRLAB have been proved immune to thermal runaway even though the temperature rises to 72°C. A new idea of a hybrid AGM-Gel VRLAB for use in high temperature operation is under investigation and field trial.
Category: Science

Valve Regulated Lead Acid Batteries For Stationary Applications Scholar S Choice Edition

Author : U S Air Force
ISBN : 1298043654
Genre :
File Size : 38.26 MB
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This work has been selected by scholars as being culturally important, and is part of the knowledge base of civilization as we know it. This work was reproduced from the original artifact, and remains as true to the original work as possible. Therefore, you will see the original copyright references, library stamps (as most of these works have been housed in our most important libraries around the world), and other notations in the work. This work is in the public domain in the United States of America, and possibly other nations. Within the United States, you may freely copy and distribute this work, as no entity (individual or corporate) has a copyright on the body of the work.As a reproduction of a historical artifact, this work may contain missing or blurred pages, poor pictures, errant marks, etc. Scholars believe, and we concur, that this work is important enough to be preserved, reproduced, and made generally available to the public. We appreciate your support of the preservation process, and thank you for being an important part of keeping this knowledge alive and relevant.
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Lead Acid Batteries Science And Technology

Author : D. Pavlov
ISBN : 9780444595607
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 71.59 MB
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Lead-Acid Batteries: Science and Technology: A Handbook of Lead-Acid Battery Technology and Its Influence on the Product, Second Edition presents a comprehensive overview of the technological processes of lead-acid battery manufacture and their influence on performance parameters. The book summarizes current knowledge on lead-acid battery production, presenting it in the form of an integral theory that is supported by ample illustrative material and experimental data that allows technologists and engineers to control technological processes in battery plants. In addition, the book provides university lecturers with a tool for a clear and in-depth presentation of lead-acid battery production in courses. This updated edition includes new supplementary material (text and illustrations) in chapters 2, 4, 6 and 16, as well as a brand new chapter on the action of carbon as an additive to the negative active material and the utilization of the lead-carbon supercapacitor electrodes. Substantial revisions of other chapters have been made, making the book beneficial for battery researchers, engineers and technologists. Written by a world authority on lead-acid batteries in a comprehensive and unified manner Includes new chapters on lead-acid batteries operating in the HRPSoC duty for hybrid electric vehicle applications and on lead-carbon electrodes Presents a comprehensive overview of the theory of the technological processes of lead-acid battery manufacture and their influence on battery performance parameters Proposes optimum conditions for individual technological processes that would yield superior structures of the lead and lead dioxide active masses Discusses the processes involved in the closed oxygen cycle in VRLAB and the thermal phenomena leading to thermal runaway (TRA)
Category: Technology & Engineering

Reliability Of Valve Regulated Lead Acid Batteries For Stationary Applications

Author : Paul Charles Butler
ISBN : OCLC:316461945
Genre :
File Size : 28.4 MB
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A survey has been carried out to quantify the performance and life of over 700,000 valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) cells, which have been or are being used in stationary applications across the United States. The findings derived from this study have not identified any fundamental flaws of VRLA battery technology. There is evidence that some cell designs are more successful in float duty than others. A significant number of the VRLA cells covered by the survey were found to have provided satisfactory performance.
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Lead Acid Batteries For Future Automobiles

Author : Jürgen Garche
ISBN : 9780444637031
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 72.42 MB
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Lead-Acid Batteries for Future Automobiles provides an overview on the innovations that were recently introduced in automotive lead-acid batteries and other aspects of current research. Innovative concepts are presented, some of which aim to make lead-acid technology a candidate for higher levels of powertrain hybridization, namely 48-volt mild or high-volt full hybrids. Lead-acid batteries continue to dominate the market as storage devices for automotive starting and power supply systems, but are facing competition from alternative storage technologies and being challenged by new application requirements, particularly related to new electric vehicle functions and powertrain electrification. Presents an overview of development trends for future automobiles and the demands that they place on the battery Describes how to adapt LABs for use in micro and mild hybrid EVs via collector construction and materials, via carbon additives, via new cell construction (bipolar), and via LAB hybrids with Li-ion and supercap systems System integration of LABs into vehicle power-supply and hybridization concepts Short description of competitive battery technologies
Category: Technology & Engineering

Maintenance Free Batteries

Author : Dietrich Berndt
ISBN : 0863801986
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 22.33 MB
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Significant advances have been made in the development of maintenance-free batteries during the last few years. Written by an internationally known expert in the field, this book provides a comprehensive and up-to-date account of the theory and practice of the three main types of maintenance-free batteries based on aqueous electrolytes that are in use today. Since publication of the first edition in 1993, the book has been considerably revised and expanded and includes new material on nickel/metal hydride batteries and corrosion of electrodes. Special features of this book include: Describes fundamental features of lead-acid, nickel/cadmium, and nickel/metal hydride battery systems in detail. Relates quantitative electrochemical theory to the design and choice of appropriate batteries for the various applications. Includes numerous examples of applications of maintenance-free batteries - e.g. in the power supply, electronic equipment and telecommunications industries. Gives practical information on the parameters that influence the performance and characteristics of batteries and their behaviour in the field.
Category: Technology & Engineering

Electric Vehicle Battery Systems

Author : Sandeep Dhameja
ISBN : 0080488765
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 41.72 MB
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Electric Vehicle Battery Systems provides operational theory and design guidance for engineers and technicians working to design and develop efficient electric vehicle (EV) power sources. As Zero Emission Vehicles become a requirement in more areas of the world, the technology required to design and maintain their complex battery systems is needed not only by the vehicle designers, but by those who will provide recharging and maintenance services, as well as utility infrastructure providers. Includes fuel cell and hybrid vehicle applications. Written with cost and efficiency foremost in mind, Electric Vehicle Battery Systems offers essential details on failure mode analysis of VRLA, NiMH battery systems, the fast-charging of electric vehicle battery systems based on Pb-acid, NiMH, Li-ion technologies, and much more. Key coverage includes issues that can affect electric vehicle performance, such as total battery capacity, battery charging and discharging, and battery temperature constraints. The author also explores electric vehicle performance, battery testing (15 core performance tests provided), lithium-ion batteries, fuel cells and hybrid vehicles. In order to make a practical electric vehicle, a thorough understanding of the operation of a set of batteries in a pack is necessary. Expertly written and researched, Electric Vehicle Battery Systems will prove invaluable to automotive engineers, electronics and integrated circuit design engineers, and anyone whose interests involve electric vehicles and battery systems. * Addresses cost and efficiency as key elements in the design process * Provides comprehensive coverage of the theory, operation, and configuration of complex battery systems, including Pb-acid, NiMH, and Li-ion technologies * Provides comprehensive coverage of the theory, operation, and configuration of complex battery systems, including Pb-acid, NiMH, and Li-ion technologies
Category: Technology & Engineering