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Valve Regulated Lead Acid Batteries

Author : Patrick T. Moseley
ISBN : 008047473X
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 81.61 MB
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For many decades, the lead-acid battery has been the most widely used energy-storage device for medium- and large-scale applications (approximately 100Wh and above). In recent years, the traditional, flooded design of the battery has begun to be replaced by an alternative design. This version - the valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) battery - requires no replenishment of the water content of the electrolyte solution, does not spill liquids, and can be used in any desired orientation. Since the VRLA battery operates in a somewhat different manner from its flooded counterpart, considerable technological development has been necessary to meet the exacting performance requirements of the full range of applications in which rechargeable batteries are used. The valve-regulated design is now well established in the industrial battery sector, and also appears set to be adopted widely for automotive duty. This book provides a comprehensive account of VRLA technology and its uses. In the future, all industrial processes - including the manufacture of batteries - will be required to conform to the conventions of sustainability. Accordingly, the crucial areas of the environmental impact associated with the production and use of VRLA batteries and the recycling of spent units are also treated thoroughly. Valve-Regulated Lead-Acid Batteries gives an essential insight into the science that underlies the development and operation of VRLA batteries and is a comprehensive reference source for those involved in the practical use of the technology in key energy-storage applications. Covers all major advances in the field Provides a comprehensive account of VRLA technology and its uses First book dedicated to this technology
Category: Technology & Engineering

Development In Valve Regulated Lead Acid Vrla Batteries

Author : P. G. Balakrishnan
ISBN : 1604562692
Genre : Science
File Size : 74.78 MB
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Although Gaston Planté invented the lead-acid battery in 1859 in France, it took about a century to make it maintenance-free in the sense that there is no necessity for topping up the battery with water. This was made possible by the invention of a hermetically sealed nickel oxyhydroxide-cadmium battery. Though such batteries were variously called in the beginning as maintenance-free battery, sealed battery, starved electrolyte battery, absorbed electrolyte battery, etc., due to heavy litigation, particularly in the U.K., the term valve-regulated lead-acid battery (VRLAB) was coined to obviate the legal battle. The VRLAB operates on the principle of "internal oxygen cycle" without resorting to the use of catalytic recombination plugs. The binary alloys used in the initial periods of development of VRLAB had no aluminium or silver. After the introduction of Ca-Al master alloy for preparing the Pb-Ca-Al alloy, the grid casting problems were minimised. The introduction of tin to alleviate the problem of premature capacity loss helped to a very great extent in increasing the market share of VRLAB, particularly in the stationary market segment. Developments in the absorptive glass mat (AGM) separator also gave a great impetus to the popularisation of the VRLAB. The work done by the Advanced Lead-Acid Battery Consortium (ALABC) paved the way for increasing the Electric Vehicle (EV) market for VRLAB. Rapid charging of VRLAB not only helped in extending the range of EVs by reducing the down time of EVs, but also increased the life of fast-charged VRLAB. The VRLA battery technology being a comparatively new one, a lot of teething troubles were encountered in the initial periods of its introduction. A detailed analysis of the failure modes of VRLAB and remedial measures adopted by the industry is critically analysed. Extensive trials of VRLAB have been carried out to prove the utility of automotive VRLAB in Australia, Italy, Germany and Japan. Aircraft VRLAB have been proved immune to thermal runaway even though the temperature rises to 72°C. A new idea of a hybrid AGM-Gel VRLAB for use in high temperature operation is under investigation and field trial.
Category: Science

Valve Regulated Lead Acid Batteries For Stationary Applications Scholar S Choice Edition

Author : U S Air Force
ISBN : 1298043654
Genre :
File Size : 70.40 MB
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This work has been selected by scholars as being culturally important, and is part of the knowledge base of civilization as we know it. This work was reproduced from the original artifact, and remains as true to the original work as possible. Therefore, you will see the original copyright references, library stamps (as most of these works have been housed in our most important libraries around the world), and other notations in the work. This work is in the public domain in the United States of America, and possibly other nations. Within the United States, you may freely copy and distribute this work, as no entity (individual or corporate) has a copyright on the body of the work.As a reproduction of a historical artifact, this work may contain missing or blurred pages, poor pictures, errant marks, etc. Scholars believe, and we concur, that this work is important enough to be preserved, reproduced, and made generally available to the public. We appreciate your support of the preservation process, and thank you for being an important part of keeping this knowledge alive and relevant.

Ieee Guide For Selection Of Valve Regulated Lead Acid Vrla Batteries For Stationary Applications

Author :
ISBN : 0738156930
Genre : Storage batteries
File Size : 27.64 MB
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This guide describes methods for selecting the appropriate type of valve-regulated, immobilized-electrolyte, recombinant lead-acid battery for any of a variety of stationary float applications. The purpose of this document is to ensure that the reader is aware of all significant issues that should be considered when selecting VRLA batteries, so that the user might make an informed decision.
Category: Storage batteries

Reliability Of Valve Regulated Lead Acid Batteries For Stationary Applications

Author : Paul Charles Butler
ISBN : OCLC:316461945
Genre :
File Size : 86.12 MB
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A survey has been carried out to quantify the performance and life of over 700,000 valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) cells, which have been or are being used in stationary applications across the United States. The findings derived from this study have not identified any fundamental flaws of VRLA battery technology. There is evidence that some cell designs are more successful in float duty than others. A significant number of the VRLA cells covered by the survey were found to have provided satisfactory performance.

Battery Technology Handbook

Author : H.A. Kiehne
ISBN : 0203911857
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 37.22 MB
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This practical reference remains the most comprehensive guide to the fundamental theories, techniques, and strategies used for battery operation and design. It includes new and revised chapters focusing on the safety, performance, quality, and enhancement of various batteries and battery systems. From automotive, electrochemical, and high-energy applications to system implementation, selection, and standardization, the Second Edition presents expert discussions on electrochemical energy storage, the advantages of battery-powered traction, the disposal and recycling of used batteries, hazard prevention, and the chemistry and physics of lithium primary batteries.
Category: Technology & Engineering