URBAN CLIMATES

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Urban Climates

Author : T. R. Oke
ISBN : 9780521849500
Genre : Political Science
File Size : 57.7 MB
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Urban Climates is the first full synthesis of modern scientific and applied research on urban climates. The book begins with an outline of what constitutes an urban ecosystem. It develops a comprehensive terminology for the subject using scale and surface classification as key constructs. It explains the physical principles governing the creation of distinct urban climates, such as airflow around buildings, the heat island, precipitation modification and air pollution, and it then illustrates how this knowledge can be applied to moderate the undesirable consequences of urban development and help create more sustainable and resilient cities. With urban climate science now a fully-fledged field, this timely book fulfills the need to bring together the disparate parts of climate research on cities into a coherent framework. It is an ideal resource for students and researchers in fields such as climatology, urban hydrology, air quality, environmental engineering and urban design.
Category: Political Science

The Urban Climate

Author : Helmut E. Landsberg
ISBN : 0080924190
Genre : Science
File Size : 73.68 MB
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The Urban Climate aims to summarize analytical studies directed toward physical understanding of the rural-urban differences in the atmospheric boundary layer. Attempts to quantify conditions have met with some success. There is certainly a clear understanding of the physical relations that create the climatic differences of urbanized areas. Although some of the earlier classical studies are cited here, the emphasis is on the work done during the last decade and a half. This volume comprises 11 chapters, beginning with an introductory chapter discussing the literature surrounding the topic, its historical development, and the problem of local climate modification. The second chapter presents an assessment of the urban atmosphere on a synoptic and local scale, and examines the observational procedures involved. The following chapters then go on to discuss urban air composition; urban energy fluxes; the urban heat island; the urban wind field; models of urban temperature and wind fields; moisture, clouds, and hydrometeors; urban hydrology; special aspects of urban climate; and finally, urban planning. This book will be of interest to practitioners in the fields of meteorology, urban planning, and urban climatology.
Category: Science

Constructed Climates

Author : Will Wilson
ISBN : 9780226901466
Genre : Architecture
File Size : 86.24 MB
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As our world becomes increasingly urbanized, an understanding of the context, mechanisms, and consequences of city and suburban environments becomes more critical. Without a sense of what open spaces such as parks and gardens contribute, it’s difficult to argue for their creation and maintenance: in the face of schools needing resources, roads and sewers needing maintenance, and people suffering at the hands of others, why should cities and counties spend scarce dollars planting trees and preserving parks? In Constructed Climates, ecologist William G. Wilson demonstrates the value of urban green. Focusing specifically on the role of vegetation and trees, Wilson shows the costs and benefits reaped from urban open spaces, from cooler temperatures to better quality ground water—and why it all matters. While Constructed Climates is a work of science, it does not ignore the social component. Wilson looks at low-income areas that have poor vegetation, and shows how enhancing these areas through the planting of community gardens and trees can alleviate social ills. This book will be essential reading for environmentalists and anyone making decisions for the nature and well-being of our cities and citizens.
Category: Architecture

Urban Climates

Author : Symposium on Urban Climates and Building Climatology, Bruxelles, 1968
ISBN : OCLC:798746242
Genre :
File Size : 20.95 MB
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Urban Climates

Author : World Meteorological Organization
ISBN : UIUC:30112039311177
Genre : Urban climatology
File Size : 57.90 MB
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Category: Urban climatology

Urban Climates In Latin America

Author : Cristián Henríquez
ISBN : 3319970127
Genre : Science
File Size : 31.77 MB
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This book describes the observation of urban climates in Latin-American and their relationships with urban sprawl, the economic emergence of Latin American countries, social segregation, urban ecology, disasters and resilience. The chapters include contributions dealing with urban heat islands, local climate zones, thermal comfort, air pollution, extreme climate index, green infrastructure, health issues and adaptions based on the socio-economic background of urban areas. This book revises the role of urban planning and environmental governance, highlighting the singularities in climate adaptation policies in developing countries.
Category: Science

Microclimate And Local Climate

Author : Roger G. Barry
ISBN : 9781316652336
Genre : Science
File Size : 22.79 MB
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This book provides an up-to-date, comprehensive treatment of the variables and processes of microclimate and local climate, including radiation balance and energy balance. It describes and explains the climate within the lower atmosphere and upper soil, the region critical to life on Earth. Topics that are covered include not only the physical processes that affect microclimate, but also biological processes that affect vegetation and animals, including people. A geographic tour of the microclimates of the major ecosystems around the world is included. All major biomes and surface types, including urban areas, are examined, and the effects of climate change on microclimate are described. This book is invaluable for advanced students and researchers in climatology in departments of environmental science, geography, meteorology, agricultural science, and forestry.
Category: Science

Urban Climate Challenges In The Tropics

Author : Rohinton Emmanuel
ISBN : 9781783268429
Genre : Architecture
File Size : 78.13 MB
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Among the places worst hit by climate change are areas of high urban growth in the warm, humid tropics of Asia and Latin America. In these places, the global trend of rapid urbanisation and conditions of local warming compound the effects of climate change. This three-part book explores the unique local climate consequences of urban growth trajectories of tropical cities and provides strategies and design approaches to enhance the quality of life of tropical urban dwellers in the face of urban warming. Part One considers the philosophical basis of the climate challenge in this context and investigates tropical urbanism from the viewpoints of urban activity patterns and the notion of 'thermal pleasure'. Part Two explores specific, practical techniques in enhancing ventilation, shading and greenery as well as the challenges in local climate assessment in the tropics. Part Three explores the barriers and future opportunities for climate-sensitive urban planning and presents specific examples of good practice, contextualized within the wider global debate on adapting to climate change. Urban Climate Challenges in the Tropics is an indispensable companion for planners, designers, architects and students of all levels. Contents:Introduction (Rohinton Emmanuel)Achieving Thermal Pleasure in Tropical Urban Outdoors (Rohinton Emmanuel)Management of Shading and Public Places (Tzu-Ping Lin)Urban Air Ventilation in High-Density Cities in the Tropics (Edward Ng)Vegetation and Climate-sensitive Public Places (Denise H S Duarte)Urban Thermal Comfort in the Tropics (Erik Johansson)Urban Climate Mapping in the Tropics Narein Perera)Urban Climate Modeling: Challenges in the Tropics (Renganathan Giridharan)Urban Exemplars of Climate-sensitive Design (Patricia Drach)Integration of Climate Knowledge in Urban Design and Planning (Gerald Mills) Readership: Planners, designers, architects and advanced undergraduate and graduate students of architecture or planning and environmental management with a focus on the tropics. Key Features:Places the urban climate amelioration debate within the wider climate change debateFocuses specifically on an important and rapidly urbanizing region (the tropics)Provides practical advice to researchers and practitioners dealing with urban sustainability and climate sensitive design in the tropics
Category: Architecture

Wind Climate In Cities

Author : Jack E. Cermak
ISBN : 9789401736862
Genre : Science
File Size : 72.68 MB
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If one surveys the development of wind engineering, one comes to the conclusion that the challenge of urban climatology is one of the most important remaining tasks for the wind engineers. But what distinguishes wind engineering in urban areas from conventional wind engineering? Principally, the fact that the effects studied are usually unique to a particular situation, requiring consideration of the surroundings of the buildings. In the past, modelling criteria have been developed that make it possible to solve environmental problems with great confidence, and studies validated the models: at least in a neutrally stratified atmosphere. The approach adopted in the book is that of applied fluid mechanics, since this forms the basis for the evaluation of the urban wind field. Variables for air quality or loads are problem specific, or even random, and methods for studying them are based on risk analysis, which is also presented. Criteria are developed for a systematic approach to urban wind engineering problems, including parameter studies. The five sections of the book are: Fundamentals of urban boundary layer and dispersion; Forces on complex structures in built-up areas; Air pollution in cities; Numerical solution techniques; and Posters. A subject index is included.
Category: Science