UNDERSTANDING RADIOACTIVE AEROSOLS AND THEIR MEASUREMENT ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY LIBRARY

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Understanding Radioactive Aerosols And Their Measurement

Author : S.D. Schery
ISBN : 9789401007863
Genre : Science
File Size : 57.68 MB
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This book is intended as an introduction to radioactivity and aerosols for the scientifically literate reader who has had no previous exposure to either of these subjects. Although its main focus is radioactive aerosols, on the road to this subject I provide short, somewhat independent introductions to both radioactivity and aerosols, with some emphasis on experimental aspects. The audience I have in mind is upper-level undergraduates or beginning graduate students with a minimum background of introductory college courses in physics, chemistry, and calculus. This book may also be useful to "crossover" professional- professionals in other fields of science and engineering, for example biology or geoscience, who would like a step-by-step introduction to this subject matter from the physical science perspective. In writing this book I have been sensitive to requests and suggestions from students who need some background in this subject matter but will probably not specialize in it. These students are bright, but busy, and they sometimes feel overwhelmed by the mass of information in advanced, comprehensive texts. No matter how noble the intentions of the authors (or the teachers assigning the books!), these students often do not have time to read such books through cover to cover, and they fmd it difficult to pick out a coherently-connected subset of the material. Furthermore, modern students studying an interdisciplinary subject like radioactive aerosols are likely to be more diversified than ever, in educational background, in interests, and in preparation.
Category: Science

Reproductive Health And The Environment

Author : P. Nicolopoulou-Stamati
ISBN : 9781402048296
Genre : Medical
File Size : 81.95 MB
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This book reviews recent trends and developments in the study of the impact that the environment has on human reproduction. It thoroughly examines these issues, using the most modern techniques and methods available, to analyze the manner in which both male and female fertility can be affected and assessed. Coverage examines such diverse factors as toxic environmental contaminants, air pollution, and exposure to medical drugs.
Category: Medical

Congenital Diseases And The Environment

Author : P. Nicolopoulou-Stamati
ISBN : 9781402048319
Genre : Medical
File Size : 28.44 MB
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This book explores some further concepts that have arisen from more recent perceptions of environmental effects and their possible interactions with living systems. The book is written by international experts and numerous case studies are given. Discussion and presentation of old and novel ideas is targeted at developing a more holistic and united perception of the interaction between congenital diseases and the environment.
Category: Medical

Cancer As An Environmental Disease

Author : P. Nicolopoulou-Stamati
ISBN : 1402020198
Genre : Medical
File Size : 66.24 MB
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During recent decades the somatic mutation theory for the causation of cancer has held sway. The influence of environmental factors in the aetiology of cancer has become a matter of debate between those who maintain that it is largely a degenerative phenomenon and other voices who increasingly support the hypothesis that environmental factors predominate. An examination of some aspects of this debate is the prime purpose of this book. The increasing incidence of cancer across many parts of the world, particularly in children, has happened over a very short period of time in evolutionary terms. One can infer that it is connected to changes in the environment and/or our lifestyles. A major counter-argument to this contention is that rising cancer incidence is mainly because the average life expectancy has increased.These pages contain a number of chapters from specialists in the field who consider, from a number of different perspectives, the currently available evidence that supports the environmental cancer,aetiology hypothesis. This constitutes the first part of the book. In the second part of the book, an examination of the policy implications of accepting that the cancer epidemic may essentially be preventable is presented. This will pose some difficult problems for politicians and decision-makers, who will have to consider adopting policies that may damage the economy in the short term in order to reap health benefits which will only become apparent several decades in the future.
Category: Medical

Radioactive Aerosols

Author : Constantin Papastefanou
ISBN : 0080555985
Genre : Medical
File Size : 63.5 MB
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Whenever radioactivity is released to the atmosphere, for example by the detonation of nuclear weapons or the testing of nuclear weapons or from nuclear reactor accidents that fraction of it which remains airborne for more than a few hours is liable to be attached to aerosol particles. The resulting radioactive aerosols are carried by atmospheric mixing processes until they settle out or are scavenged by precipitation. The radiation exposure pathway of maximum concern to humans is by inhalation of aerosols and their deposition in the respiratory tract. In this context, it is important to note that radioactive aerosols are commonly of natural origin alos. In particular, the associated radionuclides can be of natural terrestrial origin, such as the decay products of radon gas, or they can e cosmogenic, such as beryllium-7. The exposure of miners of uranium and other ores and minerals to radon and its aerosol-borne decay products is of major significance. The book describes the formation of aerosols, their aerodynamic size distribution, their atmospheric residence time, their sampling and measurement, the range of radioactive aerosols found and studied thus far, including man-made nuclides and radon decay products and their interaction with man, including deposition in the lung and subsequent health effects. Advanced level science handbook for researchers, scientists and academics Covers all aspects of radiation exposure in humans, including subsequent health implications Presents the latest findings and analysis in this highly topical area
Category: Medical

Handbook Of Radioactivity Analysis

Author : Michael F. L'Annunziata
ISBN : 9780123848734
Genre : Science
File Size : 90.34 MB
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Authoritative reference providing the principles, practical techniques, and procedures for the accurate measurement of radioactivity.
Category: Science

Environmental Radionuclides

Author : Klaus Froehlich
ISBN : 0080913296
Genre : Science
File Size : 53.26 MB
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Environmental Radionuclides presents a state-of-the-art summary of knowledge on the use of radionuclides to study processes and systems in the continental part of the Earth’s environment. It is conceived as a companion to the two volumes of this series, which deal with isotopes as tracers in the marine environment (Livingston, Marine Radioactivity) and with the radioecology of natural and man-made terrestrial systems (Shaw, Radioactivity in Terrestrial Ecosystems). Although the book focuses on natural and anthropogenic radionuclides (radioactive isotopes), it also refers to stable environmental isotopes, which in a variety of applications, especially in hydrology and climatology, have to be consulted to evaluate radionuclide measurements in terms of the ages of groundwater and climate archives, respectively. The basic principles underlying the various applications of natural and anthropogenic radionuclides in environmental studies are described in the first part of the book. The book covers the two major groups of applications: the use of radionuclides as tracers for studying transport and mixing processes: and as time markers to address problems of the dynamics of such systems, manifested commonly as the so-called residence time in these systems. The applications range from atmospheric pollution studies, via water resource assessments to contributions to global climate change investigation. The third part of the book addresses new challenges in the development of new methodological approaches, including analytical methods and fields of applications. A state-of-the-art summary of knowledge on the use of radionuclides Conceived as a companion to the two volumes of this series, which deal with isotopes as tracers
Category: Science

Aerosol Measurement

Author : Paul A. Baron
ISBN : 0471784923
Genre : Science
File Size : 47.62 MB
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In recent years, industry has become increasingly interested in modern aerosol measurement methods, not only to protect the health of their workers but also to augment productivity and thereby gain competitive advantage. Aerosol Measurement: Principles, Techniques, and Applications, Second Edition offers scientists and practitioners the fundamental principles used in deciding which aerosol properties to measure and how to interpret the results. Divided into three parts, the material reviews the physical understanding of aerosols, covers specific instrumental techniques, and explains applications in fields ranging from health care to mining and upper-atmosphere research. Leading experts contribute to the review of such areas as direct-reading techniques, bioaerosol sampling, indoor air evaluations, industrial aerosol processing, and measurement in semiconductor clean rooms. Plus, all the chapters in this latest edition have been updated and some have been rewritten by new authors. Two new chapters have been added: one on historical aspects of aerosol measurements and the other on real-time single particle analysis.
Category: Science

Aerosols Handbook

Author : Lev S. Ruzer
ISBN : 0203493184
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 72.12 MB
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As more attention is dedicated to understanding the occupational health risks associated with the industrial manufacture and use of nanotechnology, Aerosols Handbook: Measurement, Dosimetry, and Health Effects is a timely presentation of time-tested research in the field of aerosol science. The book covers a multitude of topics in indoor, outdoor, and industrial aerosols, including aerosol measurement, deposition, particle size distribution, and biokinetic processes. Where harmful exposure to ultrafine particles may occur through inhalation, dermal contact, and ingestion, this book discusses how the size, shape, and chemical properties of particles affect aerosol deposition in the lungs, possibly other organs, and the overall toxicity. The book covers all relevant aspects of aerosols, from epidemiology to molecular biology, and emphasizes the importance of accurate aerosol measurement. The authors discuss Chernobyl accident and miners' lungs in detail to illustrate the effects of radioactive aerosols. The final section focuses on the health effects of specific aerosols, such as diesel aerosols and ultrafine particles. By converging research from both radioactive and non-radioactive aerosols, the editors give the book a unique and more complete perspective of how aerosols behave in the lungs. Aerosols Handbook: Measurement, Dosimetry, and Health Effects is an essential resource for those who study exposure, dosages, and toxicity to develop treatments for exposure, reduce air pollution, and establish better safety regulations, particularly in industries using nanotechnologies.
Category: Technology & Engineering