Ultra Society

Author : Peter Turchin
ISBN : 0996139516
Genre : Cooperation
File Size : 80.1 MB
Format : PDF
Download : 456
Read : 1141

Category: Cooperation


Author : Gregory Benford
ISBN : 3453521919
Genre :
File Size : 35.9 MB
Format : PDF, Mobi
Download : 384
Read : 513


Die Egoistische Information

Author : Peter Mersch
ISBN : 9783842343832
Genre : Science
File Size : 49.71 MB
Format : PDF, Kindle
Download : 630
Read : 1327

Prof. Dr. Dr. Gerhard Vollmer (Mitbegründer der Evolutionären Erkenntnistheorie): "Mir scheint, dass hier die bisher beste Verallgemeinerung des Evolutionsgedankens vorliegt." Kurzbeschreibung: Alles Leben ist absolute und komparative Kompetenzverlustvermeidung, oder anders gesagt: Lebewesen und sonstige Evolutionsakteure verhalten sich informationsegoistisch. Aus dieser mit dem Zweiten Hauptsatz der Thermodynamik begründbaren Verallgemeinerung der Theorie der egoistischen Gene wird im Laufe des Buches ein Großteil der uns umgebenden belebten Welt evolutionär rekonstruiert, von einfachsten Lebensformen bis hin zu aktuellen sozialen Phänomenen und Problemstellungen moderner menschlicher Gesellschaften. Mehr ist nicht erforderlich. So gesehen ist die Welt einfach. Als Verhaltensmodell stellt die Theorie der egoistischen Information eine Alternative zum Modell des Homo oeconomicus dar: Menschen und sonstige Lebewesen sind gemäß ihr keine einfachen Nutzenmaximierer, sondern primär darum bemüht, ihre Kompetenzen mit der Zeit und in Relation zu ihrer Umwelt und anderen nicht schwächer werden zu lassen. Zudem werden einige wesentliche Theorien und Theoreme auf sie zurückgeführt. Dazu zählen: 1) Charles Darwins biologische Selektionstheorie, 2) Ricardos Theorem in einer verallgemeinerten kompetenzbasierten Formulierung und 3) die Population Ecology of Organizations Theory. Für die Eusozialität im Tierreich, die sozialen Phänomene demografischer Wandel und demografisch-ökonomisches Paradoxon und die Begriffe Sozialdarwinismus und Zivilisation werden neue, sich unmittelbar auf die Theorie der egoistischen Information stützende Erklärungen und Definitionen vorgestellt. Das Paradigma der egoistischen Information ist Weltbild und Welterklärung zugleich.
Category: Science

Digital Storytelling

Author : Mark Dunford
ISBN : 9781137591524
Genre : Performing Arts
File Size : 45.54 MB
Format : PDF, Kindle
Download : 176
Read : 615

This edited collection brings together academics and practitioners to explore the uses of Digital Storytelling, which places the greatest possible emphasis on the voice of the storyteller. Case studies are used as a platform to investigate questions of concept, theory and practice, and to shine an interrogative light on this emergent form of participatory media. The collection examines the creative and academic roots of Digital Storytelling before drawing on a range of international examples to consider the way in which the practice has established itself and evolved in different settings across the world.
Category: Performing Arts

The Oxford Handbook Of The Human Essence

Author : John F. Dovidio
ISBN : 9780190854560
Genre : Psychology
File Size : 31.30 MB
Format : PDF, ePub
Download : 566
Read : 1188

What is the human essence? Although typically viewed as one of the big questions in philosophy, exploring the human essence requires a deep and comprehensive understanding of the human condition and thus social psychological perspectives are pivotal. Advances in social-psychological theorizing and research suggest that humans can be viewed as biological beings as well as cultural creatures, rational reasoners as well as emotional enigmas, moral minds as well as amoral agents. In this volume, talented scholars come together to present a fascinating array of insight into such topics ranging from evolutionary approaches to social constructivist accounts that essentially deny the existence of a human essence altogether. As such, this volume showcases the various shades of human essence that social psychology has discovered. Through these novel chapters, edited by Martijn van Zomeren and John F. Dovidio, The Oxford Handbook of the Human Essence expertly articulates both what social psychology can tell us about the human essence, and the astonishing range of perspectives reflected within this field. Consequently, this volume also raises important questions about the future of social psychology and the role of the notion of the human essence.
Category: Psychology

Justice For Victims Of Crime

Author : Albin Dearing
ISBN : 9783319450483
Genre : Law
File Size : 24.83 MB
Format : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Download : 207
Read : 631

This book analyses the rights of crime victims within a human rights paradigm, and describes the inconsistencies resulting from attempts to introduce the procedural rights of victims within a criminal justice system that views crime as a matter between the state and the offender, and not as one involving the victim. To remedy this problem, the book calls for abandoning the concept of crime as an infringement of a state’s criminal laws and instead reinterpreting it as a violation of human rights. The state’s right to punish the offender would then be replaced by the rights of victims to see those responsible for violating their human rights convicted and punished and by the rights of offenders to be treated as accountable agents.
Category: Law

Religion Crime And Punishment

Author : Russil Durrant
ISBN : 9783319644288
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 83.78 MB
Format : PDF, ePub, Docs
Download : 127
Read : 902

This book provides a critical discussion of the way in which religion influences: criminal and antisocial behaviour, punishment and the law, intergroup conflict and peace-making, and the rehabilitation of offenders. The authors argue that in order to understand how religion is related to each of these domains it is essential to recognise the evolutionary origins of religion as well as how genetic and cultural evolutionary processes have shaped its essential characteristics. Durrant and Poppelwell posit that the capacity of religion to bind individuals into socially cohesive ‘moral communities’ can help us to understand its complex relationship with cooperation, crime, punishment, inter-group conflict and forgiveness. An original and innovative study, this book will be of special interest to criminologists and other social scientists interested in the role of religion in crime, punishment, intergroup conflict and law.
Category: Social Science

Personality Values Culture

Author : Ronald Fischer
ISBN : 9781108548090
Genre : Psychology
File Size : 71.74 MB
Format : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Download : 745
Read : 225

Humans are complex social beings. To understand human behaviour, an integrated perspective is required - one which considers both what we regularly do (our personality traits) and what motivates us (our values). Personality, Values, Culture uses an evolutionary perspective to look at the similarities and differences in personality and values across modern societies. Integrating research on personality and human values into a functional framework that highlights their underlying compatibilities (driven by shared genetic and brain mechanisms), Fischer describes how personality is shaped by the complex interplay between genes and the environment, both over the course of human evolution and within the lifespan of individuals. He proposes a gene-culture coevolution model of personality and values to explain how and why people differ around the world and how genes, economics, social conditions, and climate jointly shape personality.
Category: Psychology

The Great Leveler

Author : Walter Scheidel
ISBN : 9781400884605
Genre : History
File Size : 62.51 MB
Format : PDF, Mobi
Download : 210
Read : 605

Are mass violence and catastrophes the only forces that can seriously decrease economic inequality? To judge by thousands of years of history, the answer is yes. Tracing the global history of inequality from the Stone Age to today, Walter Scheidel shows that inequality never dies peacefully. Inequality declines when carnage and disaster strike and increases when peace and stability return. The Great Leveler is the first book to chart the crucial role of violent shocks in reducing inequality over the full sweep of human history around the world. Ever since humans began to farm, herd livestock, and pass on their assets to future generations, economic inequality has been a defining feature of civilization. Over thousands of years, only violent events have significantly lessened inequality. The "Four Horsemen" of leveling—mass-mobilization warfare, transformative revolutions, state collapse, and catastrophic plagues—have repeatedly destroyed the fortunes of the rich. Scheidel identifies and examines these processes, from the crises of the earliest civilizations to the cataclysmic world wars and communist revolutions of the twentieth century. Today, the violence that reduced inequality in the past seems to have diminished, and that is a good thing. But it casts serious doubt on the prospects for a more equal future. An essential contribution to the debate about inequality, The Great Leveler provides important new insights about why inequality is so persistent—and why it is unlikely to decline anytime soon.
Category: History

An Introduction To Criminal Psychology

Author : Russil Durrant
ISBN : 9781317230816
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 29.95 MB
Format : PDF, Kindle
Download : 600
Read : 638

This book offers a clear, up-to-date, comprehensive, and theoretically informed introduction to criminal psychology, exploring how psychological explanations and approaches can be integrated with other perspectives drawn from evolutionary biology, neurobiology, sociology, and criminology. Drawing on examples from around the world, it considers different types of offences from violence and aggression to white-collar and transnational crime, and links approaches to explaining crime with efforts to prevent crime and to treat and rehabilitate offenders. This revised and expanded second edition offers a thorough update of the research literature and introduces several new features, including: detailed international case studies setting the scene for each chapter, promoting real-world understanding of the topics under consideration; a fuller range of crime types covered, with new chapters on property offending and white-collar, corporate, and environmental crime; detailed individual chapters exploring prevention and rehabilitation, previously covered in a single chapter in the first edition; an array of helpful features including learning objectives, review and reflect checkpoints, annotated lists of further reading, and two new features: ‘Research in Focus’ and ‘Criminal Psychology Through Film’. This textbook is essential reading for upper undergraduate students enrolled in courses on psychological criminology, criminal psychology, and the psychology of criminal behaviour. Designed with the reader in mind, student-friendly and innovative pedagogical features support the reader throughout.
Category: Social Science