Travesti

Author : Don Kulick
ISBN : 0226461017
Genre : Psychology
File Size : 33.44 MB
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In this dramatic and compelling narrative, anthropologist Don Kulick follows the lives of a group of transgendered prostitutes (called travestis in Portuguese) in the Brazilian city Salvador. Travestis are males who, often beginning at ages as young as ten, adopt female names, clothing styles, hairstyles, and linguistic pronouns. More dramatically, they ingest massive doses of female hormones and inject up to twenty liters of industrial silicone into their bodies to create breasts, wide hips, and large thighs and buttocks. Despite such irreversible physiological changes, virtually no travesti identifies herself as a woman. Moreover, travestis regard any male who does so as mentally disturbed. Kulick analyzes the various ways travestis modify their bodies, explores the motivations that lead them to choose this particular gendered identity, and examines the complex relationships that they maintain with one another, their boyfriends, and their families. Kulick also looks at how travestis earn their living through prostitution and discusses the reasons prostitution, for most travestis, is a positive and affirmative experience. Arguing that transgenderism never occurs in a "natural" or arbitrary form, Kulick shows how it is created in specific social contexts and assumes specific social forms. Furthermore, Kulick suggests that travestis—far from deviating from normative gendered expectations—may in fact distill and perfect the messages that give meaning to gender throughout Brazilian society and possibly throughout much of Latin America. Through Kulick's engaging voice and sharp analysis, this elegantly rendered account is not only a landmark study in its discipline but also a fascinating read for anyone interested in sexuality and gender.
Category: Psychology

Locating Transnational Ideals

Author : Walter Goebel
ISBN : 9781136603877
Genre : Literary Criticism
File Size : 39.23 MB
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This volume defines versions of the transnational in their historical and cultural specificity. By "locating," the contributors contextualize historical and contemporary understandings of the fluid term "transnational," which vary in relation to the disciplines involved. This kind of historical and geographical "locating" implicitly turns against forms of contemporary transnational euphoria which, inspired by poststructural models of all-encompassing semiospheres, on the one hand, and by visions of the utopian communicative potential of new media like the internet, on the other, see national and ethnic paradigms as easily superseded by transnational agendas. By differentiating between various forms of transnational ideals and ideas in historical and geographical perspective since the Renaissance, the contributors aim to rediscover distinctions -- for instance between transnationalisms and cosmopolitanisms -- which neo-liberal transnational euphoria has tended to erase.
Category: Literary Criticism

The Emerging Lesbian

Author : Tze-Lan D. Sang
ISBN : 0226734803
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 29.20 MB
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In early twentieth-century China, age-old traditions of homosocial and homoerotic relationships between women suddenly became an issue of widespread public concern. Discussed formerly in terms of friendship and sisterhood, these relationships came to be associated with feminism, on the one hand, and psychobiological perversion, on the other—a radical shift whose origins have long been unclear. In this first ever book-length study of Chinese lesbians, Tze-lan D. Sang convincingly ties the debate over female same-sex love in China to the emergence of Chinese modernity. As women's participation in social, economic, and political affairs grew, Sang argues, so too did the societal significance of their romantic and sexual relations. Focusing especially on literature by or about women-preferring women, Sang traces the history of female same-sex relations in China from the late imperial period (1600-1911) through the Republican era (1912-1949). She ends by examining the reemergence of public debate on lesbians in China after Mao and in Taiwan after martial law, including the important roles played by globalization and identity politics.
Category: Social Science

An Interpretation Of Desire

Author : John Gagnon
ISBN : 0226278581
Genre : Psychology
File Size : 77.48 MB
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An Interpretation of Desire offers a bracing collection of major essays by John Gagnon, one of the leading and most inspiring figures in sexual research. Spanning his work from the 1970s, when he explored the idea that sexuality is mediated through social processes and categories—thus paving the way for Foucault—and then extending through his turn to issues of desire during the 1990s, these essays constitute an essential entrée to the study of sexuality in the twentieth century. Gagnon may be best known as the coauthor of Sexual Conduct—a book that introduced the seminal concept of sexual scripting—and as one of the coauthors of The Social Organization of Sexuality, a foundational work that is widely considered to be the most important study of human sexual behavior since the Kinsey report. The essays collected here first trace the influence of scripting theory on Gagnon, outlining the radical departure he took from the dominant biological and psychiatric models of sex research. The volume then turns to more recent essays that consider such vexed issues as homosexuality, the theories of Sigmund Freud, HIV, hazardous sex, and the social aspects of sexually transmitted diseases.
Category: Psychology

With Respect To Sex

Author : Gayatri Reddy
ISBN : 0226707547
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 39.52 MB
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With Respect to Sex is an intimate ethnography that offers a provocative account of sexual and social difference in India. The subjects of this study are hijras or the "third sex" of India—individuals who occupy a unique, liminal space between male and female, sacred and profane. Hijras are men who sacrifice their genitalia to a goddess in return for the power to confer fertility on newlyweds and newborn children, a ritual role they are respected for, at the same time as they are stigmatized for their ambiguous sexuality. By focusing on the hijra community, Gayatri Reddy sheds new light on Indian society and the intricate negotiations of identity across various domains of everyday life. Further, by reframing hijra identity through the local economy of respect, this ethnography highlights the complex relationships among local and global, sexual and moral, economies. This book will be regarded as the definitive work on hijras, one that will be of enormous interest to anthropologists, students of South Asian culture, and specialists in the study of gender and sexuality.
Category: Social Science

The Night Is Young

Author : Héctor Carrillo
ISBN : 0226093034
Genre : Psychology
File Size : 67.40 MB
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The Night Is Young takes us past the stereotypes of macho hombres and dark-eyed señoritas to reveal the complex nature of sexuality in modern-day Mexico. Drawing on field research conducted in Guadalajara, Mexico's second-largest city, Héctor Carrillo shows how modernization, globalization, and other social changes have affected a wide range of hetero- and homosexual practices and identities. Carrillo finds that young Mexicans today grapple in a variety of ways with two competing tendencies. On the one hand, many seek to challenge traditional ideas and values they find limiting. But they also want to maintain a sense of Mexico's cultural distinctiveness, especially in relation to the United States. For example, while Mexicans are well aware of the dangers of unprotected sex, they may also prize the surrender to sexual passion, even in casual sexual encounters—an attitude which stems from the strong values placed on collective life, spontaneity, and an openness toward intimacy. Because these expectations contrast sharply with messages about individuality, planning, and overt negotiation commonly promoted in global public health efforts, Carrillo argues that they demand a new approach to AIDS prevention education in Mexico. A Mexican native, Carrillo has written an exceptionally insightful and accessible study of the relations among sexuality, social change, and AIDS prevention in Mexico. Anyone concerned with the changing place of sexuality in a modern and increasingly globalized world will profit greatly from The Night Is Young.
Category: Psychology

Homosexualities

Author : Stephen O. Murray
ISBN : 9780226551951
Genre : Psychology
File Size : 38.60 MB
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Breathtaking in its historical and geographical scope, this book provides a sweeping examination of the construction of male and female homosexualities, stressing both the variability of the forms same-sex desire can take and the key recurring patterns it has formed throughout history. "[An] indispensable resource on same-sex sexual relationships and their social contexts. . . . Essential reading." —Choice "[P]romises to deliver a lot, and even more extraordinarily succeeds in its lofty aims. . . . [O]riginal and refreshing. . . . [A] sensational book, part of what I see emerging as a new commonsense revolution within academe." —Kevin White, International Gay and Lesbian Review
Category: Psychology

Money Myths And Change

Author : M.V. Lee Badgett
ISBN : 0226034003
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 23.8 MB
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How does the standard of living of gay men and lesbians compare with that of heterosexuals? Do homosexuals make financial and family decisions differently? Why are the professional lives of gay men and lesbians dissimilar from those of heterosexuals? Or do they even differ? Have gay people benefited from the recent economic boom? Or have public policies denied them their fair share? Money, Myths, and Change provides new answers to these complex questions. This is the first comprehensive work to explore the economic lives of gays and lesbians in the United States. M. V. Lee Badgett weaves through and debunks common stereotypes about gay privilege, income, and consumer behavior. Studying the ends and means of gay life from an economic perspective, she disproves the assumption that gay men and lesbians are more affluent than heterosexuals, that they inspire discrimination when they come out of the closet, that they consume more conspicuously, that they enjoy a more self-indulgent, even hedonistic lifestyle. Badgett gets to the heart of these misconceptions through an analysis of the crucial issues that affect the livelihood of gay men and lesbians: discrimination in the workplace, denial of health care benefits to domestic partners and children, lack of access to legal institutions such as marriage, the corporate wooing of gay consumer dollars, and the use of gay economic clout to inspire social and political change. Both timely and readable, Money, Myths, and Change stands as a much-needed corrective to the assumptions that inhibit gay economic equality. It is a definitive work that sheds new light on just what it means to be gay or lesbian in the United States.
Category: Business & Economics

Sexual Sites Seminal Attitudes

Author : Sanjay Srivastava
ISBN : 9788132103844
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 60.65 MB
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Discussions on sexuality in the South Asian context have tended to focus largely on men`s preoccupations through notions such as `semen-anxiety`. Another restrictive framework is the excessive importance ascribed to religion in everyday life. The result has been a rather narrow debate on sexuality. By providing accounts of a myriad sites and meanings of sexuality, this remarkable volume broadens the debate on sexuality in South Asia. It combines perspectives from history, anthropology, and cultural and literary studies to provide an interdisciplinary exploration of the cultures of, and the multiple meanings and contestations that gather around, masculinities and sexualities. The collection is unique in the breadth of its theoretical concerns; its focus on hitherto marginalized sexual identities; and its novel juxtapositions of analyses of colonial discourses with those of postcolonised modernity.
Category: Social Science

Ethno Erotic Economies

Author : George Paul Meiu
ISBN : 9780226491172
Genre : History
File Size : 38.44 MB
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In Ethno-Erotic Economies, anthropologist George Paul Meiu looks at how fantasies of sexual difference create what we think of as "ethnicity" in a globalized world. Meiu draws back the curtain on a fascinating case of sexual tourism in Coastal Kenya in which young men deploy stereotypes of African warriors to establish transactional sexual relationships with foreign women. Meiu's deep familiarity with Samburu culture allowed him to explore the long-term effects of the sex trade on things like intimate affiliations, kinship, ritual, gender, and age in rural Kenya. What happens to communities when wealth becomes concentrated in the hands of its young men? How do these men seek to convert fast money into traditional, lasting forms of prestige to become "elders" and thus secure higher moral and social standing? And, crucially, how do others not privy to the sexual encounters themselves understand the circulation of new money? Meiu's exceptional skills as an ethnographer yield riveting testimonies from all quarters of Samburu society, resulting in a compelling look at how intimacy and ethnicity come together to shape the pathways of global and local trade in the postcolonial world.
Category: History