TOWARD EQUITY IN HEALTH

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Toward Equity In Health

Author : Barbara C. Wallace, PhD
ISBN : 0826103685
Genre : Medical
File Size : 26.12 MB
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This essential collection presents a state-of-the-art framework for how workers in public health and related disciplines should conceptualize health disparities and how they should be addressed worldwide. The contributors, who are leading public health professionals, educators, and practitioners in complimentary fields advance new evidence-based models designed to mobilize and educate the next generation of research and practice. The resulting chapters articulate new theory, procedures, and policies; the legacy of racism; community-based participatory research; new internet technology; training community workers and educators; closing the education and health gap; and addressing the needs of special populations. Toward Equity in Health is an essential book for all who are working toward global health equity-whether in health education, health promotion, disease prevention, public health, the health care delivery system, or patient- and population level health.
Category: Medical

Toward Equity In The Quality Of European Public Health Education

Author :
ISBN : OCLC:994773914
Genre :
File Size : 53.55 MB
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The motivation behind the project comes from the fact that second cycle public health training across the EHEA is not level and shows great disparities across many areas such as,governance, management, admissions, curriculum, pedagogy and quality systems. Not only does this question the quality of graduates entering in to the national workforces it also hinders academic mobility between nations. An attempt to remedy this is through a formal accreditation system embraced by the newly formed APHEA which increases transparencyand ensures a recognised quality standard across the EHEA. However, given the aforementioned disparities, questions could be raised as to how many institutions wouldgain accreditation and if there were schools who had or had not accreditation, would this not create a new tier of disparity? This project and book sets out to understand the range of reforms required by Schools of Public Health in order to achieve positive accreditation. It then seeks to identify practicable actions which can be undertaken by the schools to help realise these reforms. The focus of the research was on second cycle academic programmes of public health throughout the Bologna or EHEA region. The ability or willingness to reform is an additional issue which needs to be understood and any recommended actions would have to be grounded on the potential feasibility and cost-effectiveness of their implementation. [Ed.].
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Toward Health Equity And Patient Centeredness

Author : Institute of Medicine
ISBN : 0309177537
Genre : Medical
File Size : 20.33 MB
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To receive the greatest value for health care, it is important to focus on issues of quality and disparity, and the ability of individuals to make appropriate decisions based on basic health knowledge and services. The Forum on the Science of Health Care Quality Improvement and Implementation, the Roundtable on Health Disparities, and the Roundtable on Health Literacy jointly convened the workshop "Toward Health Equity and Patient-Centeredness: Integrating Health Literacy, Disparities Reduction, and Quality Improvement" to address these concerns. During this workshop, speakers and participants explored how equity in care delivered and a focus on patients could be improved.
Category: Medical

Toward Universal Health Coverage In Latin America And The Caribbean

Author : Tania Dmytraczenko
ISBN : 1464804540
Genre : Medical
File Size : 81.10 MB
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Over the past three decades, many countries in Latin America and the Caribbean have recognized health asa human right. Since the early 2000s, 46 million more people in the countries studied are covered by healthprograms with explicit entitlements to care. Reforms have been accompanied by a rise in public spending forhealth, financed largely by general revenues that prioritize or explicitly target the population withoutcapacity to pay. Political commitment has generally translated into larger budgets as well as passage oflegislation that ring-fenced funding for health. Most countries have prioritized cost-effective primary careand have adopted purchasing methods that incentivize efficiency and accountability for results and thatgive stewards of the health sector greater leverage to steer providers to deliver on public health priorities.Despite progress, disparities remain in financing and quality of services provision across health subsystems.Delivering on the commitment to universal health coverage will require concerted efforts to improverevenue generation in a fiscally sustainable manner and to increase the productivity of expenditures.In Toward Universal Health Coverage and Equity in Latin America and the Caribbean: Evidence from SelectCountries, the authors show that evidence from an analysis of 54 household surveys corroborates thatinvestments in extending coverage are yielding results. Although the poor still have worse health outcomesthan do the rich, disparities have narrowed considerably -- particularly in the early stages of life. Countrieshave reached high levels of coverage and equity in utilization of maternal and child health services.The picture is more nuanced, and not nearly as positive, regarding adult health status and prevalence ofchronic conditions and illnesses. Coverage of noncommunicable disease interventions is not as high, andservice utilization is still skewed toward those who are better off. Prevalence of noncommunicable diseaseshas not behaved as expected given the drop in mortality; better access to diagnosis among wealthierindividuals may be masking changes in actual prevalence.Catastrophic health expenditures have declined in most countries. The picture regarding equity, however,is mixed, pointing to limitations in the measure. Although the rate of impoverishment owing to healthexpenditures is low and generally declining, 2-4 million people in the countries studied still fall below thepoverty line after health spending.Efforts to systematically monitor quality of care in the region are still in their infancy. Nonetheless, a reviewof the literature reveals important shortcomings in quality of care, as well as substantial differences acrosssubsystems. Improving quality of care and ensuring sustainability of investments in health remain anunfinished agenda.
Category: Medical

Toward Equity And Inclusion In Canadian Cities

Author : Fran Klodawsky
ISBN : 9780773552623
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 27.22 MB
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Housing insecurity, intensified employment anxiety, access to adequate services, and fear of personal and structural violence are some of the issues troubling today’s cities and municipalities. Often, these conditions most affect residents whose place in the social hierarchy makes them particularly susceptible to exclusion. Seeking to redress these trends and guide research to facilitate meaningful local action, Toward Equity and Inclusion in Canadian Cities promotes more inclusive urban environments by highlighting and comparing theoretical and practice-based insights. Building on feminist, anti-racist, and anti-colonialist arguments to offer action-oriented solutions to inequalities and exclusions, the contributors to this volume tackle themes such as LGBTQ inclusion, health disparities, diversity initiatives, and urban planning dilemmas. Through a lens of critical praxis the book explores the challenges of collaborations, the negotiations required to reconceptualize research relations, and the ways in which values and practices inform one another. In light of the growing complexity, interrelations, and interactions of our world, Toward Equity and Inclusion in Canadian Cities is a timely work that speaks to a diverse audience of activists, policy makers, community organizations, and researchers of various disciplines.
Category: Social Science

Toward Health Equity And Patient Centeredness

Author : Institute of Medicine
ISBN : 0309177537
Genre : Medical
File Size : 81.6 MB
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To receive the greatest value for health care, it is important to focus on issues of quality and disparity, and the ability of individuals to make appropriate decisions based on basic health knowledge and services. The Forum on the Science of Health Care Quality Improvement and Implementation, the Roundtable on Health Disparities, and the Roundtable on Health Literacy jointly convened the workshop "Toward Health Equity and Patient-Centeredness: Integrating Health Literacy, Disparities Reduction, and Quality Improvement" to address these concerns. During this workshop, speakers and participants explored how equity in care delivered and a focus on patients could be improved.
Category: Medical

Technology In American Health Care

Author : Alan B. Cohen
ISBN : 0472113267
Genre : Medical
File Size : 90.3 MB
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"The definitive overview of health technology assessment in the U.S. and Europe, the biotech industry, adoption and use of medtech in health care." ---The World Future Society,Best Books and Reports "This excellent book provides a broad overview of the development, impact, and evaluation of health technology in the United States. . . .The authors take a well-organized and thorough approach to address these topics, combining reviews of each with case examples of particular technologies. . . .Given the broad scope of the book, it could serve as a text for students, an introduction to the field for healthcare professionals, or a tool for academics and policymakers wishing to fill knowledge gaps outside their disciplines. . . .The book makes a compelling case for the logic and potential benefits of medical technology evaluation as a tool for improving health care." ---Journal of the American Medical Association "By being comprehensive in their review, the authors chart a clear path to understanding the future of health care technology in America. They clarify the technical methods for evaluation and provide insight into the sociopolitical aspects of development and diffusion. Case studies are informative. Excellent reading for students and health professionals either as a textbook or as an off-the-shelf guide to methods for deciding among alternative technologies." ---Norman W. Weissman, University of Alabama "Technology today dominates every aspect of health care. This useful book offers a diverse range of perspectives for students, professors, and medical practitioners who wish to understand how to evaluate medical technology." ---Joel Howell, University of Michigan Medical School Technology in American Health Careis a comprehensive, multidisciplinary guide to understanding how medical advances-new drugs, biological devices, and surgical procedures-are developed, brought to market, evaluated, and adopted into health care. Cost-effective delivery of evidence-based health care is the sine qua non of American medicine in the twenty-first century. Health care decision makers, providers, payers, policymakers, and consumers all need vital information about the risks, benefits, and costs of new technologies in order to make informed decisions about which ones to adopt and how to use them. Alan B. Cohen and Ruth S. Hanft explore the evolving field of medical technology evaluation (MTE), as well as the current controversies surrounding the evaluation and diffusion of medical technologies, including the methods employed in their assessment and the policies that govern their adoption and use. The book opens with an introduction that provides basic definitions and the history of technological change in American medicine, and a second chapter that explores critical questions regarding medical technology in health care. Part I discusses biomedical innovation, the development and diffusion of medical technology, and the adoption and use of technology by hospitals, physicians, and other health care organizations and professions under changing health care market conditions. Part II examines the methods of MTE-including randomized controlled trials, meta-analyses, economic evaluation methods (such as cost-benefit, cost-effectiveness, and cost-utility analyses), and clinical decision analysis. Part III focuses on key public policy issues and concerns that affect the organization, financing, and delivery of health care and that relate importantly to medical technology, including safety, efficacy, quality, cost, access, equity, social, ethical, legal, and evaluation concerns. All three parts of the book provide a historical perspective on the relevant issues, methods, and policy concerns and contain examples of technologies whose development, adoption, evaluation, and use have contributed to our understanding of the field. This book will be invaluable in making MTE more accessible to individuals who are directly involved in the evaluation process and those who are touched by it in their professional lives-policymakers, clinicians, managers, and researchers.
Category: Medical

Communities In Action

Author : National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine
ISBN : 9780309452960
Genre : Medical
File Size : 53.22 MB
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In the United States, some populations suffer from far greater disparities in health than others. Those disparities are caused not only by fundamental differences in health status across segments of the population, but also because of inequities in factors that impact health status, so-called determinants of health. Only part of an individual’s health status depends on his or her behavior and choice; community-wide problems like poverty, unemployment, poor education, inadequate housing, poor public transportation, interpersonal violence, and decaying neighborhoods also contribute to health inequities, as well as the historic and ongoing interplay of structures, policies, and norms that shape lives. When these factors are not optimal in a community, it does not mean they are intractable: such inequities can be mitigated by social policies that can shape health in powerful ways. Communities in Action: Pathways to Health Equity seeks to delineate the causes of and the solutions to health inequities in the United States. This report focuses on what communities can do to promote health equity, what actions are needed by the many and varied stakeholders that are part of communities or support them, as well as the root causes and structural barriers that need to be overcome.
Category: Medical

The Quest For Health Equity

Author : Angela Sauaia
ISBN : 1631170759
Genre : Medical
File Size : 40.49 MB
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This book focuses on the achievement of health equity. It proposes pragmatic, feasible plans to greatly reduce them or perhaps eliminate them. Health is taken here in its most global sense, as defined by the WHO: "Health is a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity", which includes the achievement of one's full career potential (e.g. equality of opportunity for minorities to become public health professionals). In this book, the author address disparities existing in several populations to include (but not be limited to) low-income, racial and ethnic minorities, women, children, low literacy, disabled, GLBTI, as well as other groups who are victims of health disparities. While the needs of these populations are discussed openly and candidly, the author vigorously fights stereotyping of specific groups. The book will expose the institutionalized, personally-mediated and internalized mechanisms, which cause or perpetuate differences in opportunities, stresses and exposures as well as in health care access and quality. Currently, health disparities represent the most important challenge of public health. This book proposes to unveil often undetected, neglected aspects of health disparities embedded in all aspects of health and healthcare as well as medical research. Concepts are discussed based on critical appraisal of available evidence in current literature. Uncomfortable issues such as racism and discrimination in health and health care are discussed, respectfully but openly. These issues are never easy to talk about; however, being too comfortable often means very little change. Being uncomfortable can be a stimulus for change.
Category: Medical