The Teeth And Claws Of The Buddha

Author : Mikael S. Adolphson
ISBN : 9780824831233
Genre : History
File Size : 49.30 MB
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Japan's monastic warriors have fared poorly in comparison to the samurai, both in terms of historical reputation and representations in popular culture. Often maligned and criticized for their involvement in politics and other secular matters, they have been seen as figures separate from the larger military class. However, as Mikael Adolphson reveals in his comprehensive and authoritative examination of the social origins of the monastic forces, political conditions, and warfare practices of the Heian (794-1185) and Kamakura (1185-1333) eras, these monk-warriors(s hei) were in reality inseparable from the warrior class. Their negative image, Adolphson argues, is a construct that grew out of artistic sources critical of the established temples from the fourteenth century on. In deconstructing the s hei image and looking for clues as to the characteristics, role, and meaning of the monastic forces, The Teeth and Claws of the Buddha highlights the importance of historical circumstances; it also points to the fallacies of allowing later, especially modern, notions of religion to exert undue influence on interpretations of the past. It further suggests that, rather than constituting a separate category of violence, religious violence needs to be understood in its political, social, military, and ideological contexts.
Category: History

Buddhismus

Author : Oliver Freiberger
ISBN : 9783647500041
Genre : Religion
File Size : 67.93 MB
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Die Autoren bieten eine aktuelle Einführung in die Geschichte und die vielfältigen Lehren und Praktiken des Buddhismus. Es gibt einen Überblick zur historischen Entwicklung des Buddhismus in Asien und dem Westen und behandelt im Anschluss diverse Themenkomplexe: buddhistische Sprachen und Texte, Weltbilder, religiöse Praxis, Sozialformen, Staat und Politik, Ökonomie, Kunst und Architektur, Modernisierung und Globalisierung, sowie die Interaktion mit anderen Religionen. Zahlreiche Beispiele illustrieren die Vielfalt der buddhistischen Haltungen zu diesen Fragen in Geschichte und Gegenwart. Dabei wird deutlich, dass das im Westen verbreitete positive Bild vom Buddhismus als einer friedfertigen, weltabgewandten und meditativen Erleuchtungslehre große und wichtige Bereiche dieser Religion ausblendet, z.B. die gesamte nicht-meditative religiöse Praxis, interne Konflikte aller Art, wirtschaftliche und politische Interessen, Mission, die Verfolgung Andersgläubiger oder die religiöse Rechtfertigung von Krieg und Gewalt. Oliver Freiberger und Christoph Kleine versuchen, anhand von Beispielen die reale und faszinierende Komplexität des Buddhismus anzudeuten und damit das Interesse auch für weniger populäre, aber nicht minder bedeutsame Facetten dieser Religion zu wecken. Es bietet eine leserfreundliche und informative Einführung, die den aktuellen Stand der Forschung repräsentiert.
Category: Religion

Ritter Und Samurai Kriegerische Vorstellungswelten

Author : Johann Gutjahr
ISBN : 9783842898608
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 27.46 MB
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‘Samurai’ und ‘Ritter’ sind Begriffe von großer medialer Popularität, die vielfältige Bedeutungen in sich bündeln. Die populäre Literatur beschäftigt sich mindestens ebenso häufig mit diesen Themen wie die wissenschaftliche Forschung. Außerdem werden die Begriffe immer wieder in moderne Zusammenhänge gesetzt. ‘Warum gelten Yakuza als Erben des Bushidô, ('Weg des Kriegers‘)?’, heißt es in der Beschreibung zu einer japanischsprachigen Monographie, welche das Männlichkeitsbild von Yakuza (organisierte Kriminalität in Japan) und Samurai einander gegenüberstellt. ‘Die Rückkehr der Samurai – Japans Wirtschaft nach der Krise’ lautet der Titel einer deutschen Publikation, welche den Begriff in einen ganz anderen Kontext stellt. Eine Monographie zum Nationalsozialismus trägt den Titel ‘Ritter, Landsknecht, Legionär: militärmythische Leitbilder in der Ideologie der SS’. Ein populärpsychologisches Werk heißt ‘Die Tyrannei der edlen Ritter: Männer, die Frauen retten wollen’. Schnell wird deutlich, dass beide Begriffe dem Bedarf entsprechend und z.T. sogar semantisch unscharf gebraucht werden. Ein mentalitätsgeschichtlicher Vergleich zweier voneinander unbeeinflusster Gesellschaftsstände schafft Verständnis für historisch gewachsenen Phänomenen jenseits von Nationalgeschichte. Dieser Ansatz fußt auf einer weltgeschichtlich ausgerichteten Perspektive, die sich vom gewohnten Eurozentrismus zu entfernen und den Fragehorizont zu erweitern vermag.
Category: Social Science

Japan Emerging

Author : Karl F. Friday
ISBN : 9780813345611
Genre : History
File Size : 45.13 MB
Format : PDF, ePub, Mobi
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Japan Emerging provides a comprehensive survey of Japan from prehistory to the nineteenth century. Incorporating the latest scholarship and methodology, leading authorities writing specifically for this volume outline and explore the main developments in Japanese life through ancient, classical, medieval, and early modern periods. Instead of relying solely on lists of dates and prominent names, the authors focus on why and how Japanese political, social, economic, and intellectual life evolved. Each part begins with a timeline and a set of guiding questions and issues to help orient readers and enhance continuity. Engaging, thorough, and accessible, this is an essential text for all students and scholars of Japanese history.
Category: History

Routledge Handbook Of Premodern Japanese History

Author : Karl F. Friday
ISBN : 9781351692014
Genre : History
File Size : 59.79 MB
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Scholarship on premodern Japan has grown spectacularly over the past four decades, in terms of both sophistication and volume. A new approach has developed, marked by a higher reliance on primary documents, a shift away from the history of elites to broader explorations of social structures, and a re-examination of many key assumptions. As a result, the picture of the early Japanese past now taught by specialists differs radically from the one that was current in the mid-twentieth century. This handbook offers a comprehensive historiographical review of Japanese history up until the 1500s. Featuring chapters by leading historians and covering the early J?mon, Yayoi, Kofun, Nara, and Heian eras, as well as the later medieval periods, each section provides a foundational grasp of the major themes in premodern Japan. The sections will include: Geography and the environment Political events and institutions Society and culture Economy and technology The Routledge Handbook of Premodern Japanese History is an essential reference work for students and scholars of Japanese, Asian, and World History.
Category: History

Public Zen Personal Zen

Author : Peter D. Hershock
ISBN : 9781442216143
Genre : Religion
File Size : 66.82 MB
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Among Buddhist traditions, Zen has been remarkably successful in garnering and sustaining interest outside the Buddhist homelands of Asia, and “zen” is now part of the global cultural lexicon. This deeply informed book explores the history of this enduring Japanese tradition—from its beginnings as a form of Buddhist thought and practice imported from China to its reinvention in medieval Japan as a force for religious, political, and cultural change to its role in Japan’s embrace of modernity. Going deeper, it also explores Zen through the experiences and teachings of key individuals who shaped Zen as a tradition committed to the embodiment of enlightenment by all. By bringing together Zen’s institutional and personal dimensions, Peter D. Hershock offers readers a nuanced yet accessible introduction to Zen as well as distinctive insights into issues that remain relevant today, including the creative tensions between globalization and localization, the interplay of politics and religion, and the possibilities for integrating social transformation with personal liberation. Including an introduction to the basic teachings and practices of Buddhism and an account of their spread across Asia, Public Zen, Personal Zen deftly blends historical detail with the felt experiences of Zen practitioners grappling with the meaning of human suffering, personal freedom, and the integration of social and spiritual progress.
Category: Religion

The A To Z Of Buddhism

Author : Carl Olson
ISBN : 0810870738
Genre : Religion
File Size : 63.98 MB
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In the early 21st century, Buddhism has become ubiquitous in America and other western nations, moving beyond the original bodhi tree in India to become a major global religion. During its journey westward, it has changed, adapted to new cultures, and offered spiritual help to many people looking for answers to the problems of life. It is being studied in institutions of higher education, being practice by many people, and having its literature translated and published. The A to Z of Buddhism covers and clarifies Buddhist concepts, significant figures, movements, schools, places, activities, and periods. This is done through a chronology, an introductory essay, a bibliography, and over 700 cross-referenced dictionary entries.
Category: Religion

Mental Health Spirituality And Religion In The Middle Ages And Early Modern Age

Author : Albrecht Classen
ISBN : 9783110361643
Genre : Literary Criticism
File Size : 66.80 MB
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This volume continues the critical exploration of fundamental issues in the medieval and early modern world, here concerning mental health, spirituality, melancholy, mystical visions, medicine, and well-being. The contributors, who originally had presented their research at a symposium at The University of Arizona in May 2013, explore a wide range of approaches and materials pertinent to these issues, taking us from the early Middle Ages to the eighteenth century, capping the volume with some reflections on the relevance of religion today. Lapidary sciences matter here as much as medical-psychological research, combined with literary and art-historical approaches. The premodern understanding of mental health is not taken as a miraculous panacea for modern problems, but the contributors suggest that medieval and early modern writers, scientists, and artists commanded a considerable amount of arcane, sometimes curious and speculative, knowledge that promises to be of value and relevance even for us today, once again. Modern palliative medicine finds, for instance, intriguing parallels in medieval word magic, and the mystical perspectives encapsulated highly productive alternative perceptions of the macrocosm and microcosm that promise to be insightful and important also for the post-modern world.
Category: Literary Criticism

Brief History Of Japan

Author : Jonathan Clements
ISBN : 9781462919345
Genre : History
File Size : 22.97 MB
Format : PDF
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This fascinating history tells the story of the people of Japan, from ancient teenage priest-queens to teeming hordes of salarymen, a nation that once sought to conquer China, yet also shut itself away for two centuries in self-imposed seclusion. First revealed to Westerners in the chronicles of Marco Polo, Japan was a legendary faraway land defended by a fearsome Kamikaze storm and ruled by a divine sovereign. It was the terminus of the Silk Road, the furthest end of the known world, a fertile source of inspiration for European artists, and an enduring symbol of the mysterious East. In recent times, it has become a powerhouse of global industry, a nexus of popular culture, and a harbinger of postindustrial decline. With intelligence and wit, author Jonathan Clements blends documentary and storytelling styles to connect the past, present and future of Japan, and in broad yet detailed strokes reveals a country of paradoxes: a modern nation steeped in ancient traditions; a democracy with an emperor as head of state; a famously safe society built on 108 volcanoes resting on the world's most active earthquake zone; a fast-paced urban and technologically advanced country whose land consists predominantly of mountains and forests. Among the chapters in this Japanese history book are: The Way of the Gods: Prehistoric and Mythical Japan A Game of Thrones: Minamoto vs. Taira Time Warp: 200 Years of Isolation The Stench of Butter: Restoration and Modernization The New Breed: The Japanese Miracle
Category: History

Ninja Tools And Weapons

Author : Michel Farivar
ISBN :
Genre : Sports & Recreation
File Size : 79.3 MB
Format : PDF
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Warriors of myth and legend, ninja are a fascinating, mysterious presence in our world. Through generations of disinformation and, more recently, their place in popular culture, the origins, tools, and methodology of the ninja have been shrouded in secrecy to alternately terrify or entertain the populace. The weapons of Ninjutsu are unusual and unorthodox. Though they have been popularized by the public's expanding interest in the Ninja arts, they remain poorly understood. Glamorization of this method of defense has led to a publicly perceived disassociation from its origins as a "peasant art." Ninja Tools and Weapons provides a reframing of the skills of Ninjutsu closer to the discipline's lower-class roots. Dr. Michel Farivar clarifies the origins of the weapons as well as supplies indepth insight into the mindset that developed them. As Ninjutsu moves into the modern age, this clarification remains relevant to those interested in the history of the ninja as well as the anatomy and evolution of conflict.
Category: Sports & Recreation