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The Personalisation Of Politics

Author : Lauri Karvonen
ISBN : 9781907301032
Genre : Political Science
File Size : 77.27 MB
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With the weakening of the structural determinants of politics in Western democracies, it is commonly assumed that individual politicians and politicians as individuals have come to mean more for voter behaviour and party choice. Many observers argue that politics has become more personalised in the course of the last few decades. Although considerable research on the various aspects of personalisation has been carried out, no single study so far has approached the question from a broad comparative perspective. By examining four central dimensions of personalisation – institutions, candidates, party leaders and media – and by including data from most stable parliamentary democracies, this book attempts to fill part of that gap. The book demonstrates clearly that there is no linear trend towards more personalisation among the cases studied. From the point of view of the general personalisation thesis, the findings are mixed at best; in some important respects, they are negative. While the media tend to focus more on individual politicians, the idea that party leaders increasingly determine the party choice of voters finds little support in empirical evidence. Most researchers seem to agree that the position of the prime minister has become more dominant. A closer look at comparative evidence results in a more complex picture. There has been a certain tendency to develop the most party-centred electoral systems in a more candidate-centred direction. On the other hand, recent reforms have altered some of the most candidate-centred systems in the opposite direction. Individual candidates seem to mean more to voters in systems where preferential voting has been practiced for a long time. This change is by no means dramatic, nor does it seem to apply to other electoral systems. Karvonen shows that the personalisation thesis, while not completely erroneous, has been overstated not just by the media but in some of the research literature as well.
Category: Political Science

Personality Politics

Author : Marina Costa Lobo
ISBN : 9780199660124
Genre : Political Science
File Size : 25.74 MB
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Personality Politics? assesses the role that voters' perceptions and evaluations of leaders play in democratic elections. The book presents evidence from an array of countries with diverse historical and institutional contexts, and employs innovative methodologies to determine the importance of leaders in democracies worldwide. Addressing such questions as 'Where do leaders effects come from?', 'In which institutional contexts are leader effects more important?' and, 'To which kinds of voters are leaders a more prominent factor for voting behaviour?', the authors seek to determine whether the roles leaders play enhances or damages the electoral process, and what impact this has on the quality of democracy in electoral democracies today.
Category: Political Science

Agents Or Bosses

Author : Özge Kemahlioğlu
ISBN : 9781907301261
Genre : Political Science
File Size : 42.73 MB
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Clientelism in public employment —the practice of offering jobs in return for political favours to a party or politician—is a problem from the perspectives of equality, democratic accountability and economic efficiency. Focusing on intra-party competition, this book presents an original explanation of why some politicians and parties engage more extensively in such practices than others. Examining Argentina and Turkey in a period of economic restructuring, the author argues that patronage jobs are distributed hierarchically to the politicians' circle within the party. Consequently, the distribution of patronage is affected by competition for party leadership. Analysis of original statistical and case study data at the sub national level confirms that clientelistic practices are influenced by party characteristics. Kemahlioğlu's research reveals a surprising and counter-intuitive conclusion; that when party support is crucial to politicians' career progression and the leadership of the party is openly contested the proliferation of clientelism is contained and controlled.
Category: Political Science

Why Aren T They There

Author : Didier Ruedin
ISBN : 9780955820397
Genre : Political Science
File Size : 60.21 MB
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Why Aren't They There? is a comprehensive study of political representation in a cross-national format, making a cross-country comparison of the representation of women, ethnic groups, and policy positions. It includes an analysis of the representation of women over time, and presents a critical view of the effectiveness of quotas. Using new data on ethnic groups in legislatures, it makes a significant step forward in the analysis of political representation. The representation of issue positions is examined in eight policy domains, and the book's systematic approach allows a groundbreaking examination of how different forms of representation – women, ethnic groups, issue positions – are interlinked. Didier Ruedin examines aspects unattainable in studies focusing only on a single form of representation. The result is a comprehensive understanding of political representation, and important and policy-relevant insights for electoral engineering.
Category: Political Science

The Politics Of Party Leadership

Author : William Cross
ISBN : 9780191065811
Genre : Political Science
File Size : 36.85 MB
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Making use of a unique data set that includes more than 1000 leadership elections from over 100 parties in 14 countries over an almost 50 year period, this volume provides the first comprehensive, comparative examination of how parties choose their leaders and the impact of the different decisions they make in this regard. Among the issues examined are how leaders are chosen, the factors that result in parties changing their selection rules, how the rules affect the competitiveness of leadership elections, the types of leaders chosen, the impact of leadership transition on electoral outcomes, the factors affecting the length of leadership tenures, and how leadership tenures come to an end. This volume is situated in the literature on intra-party decision making and party organizational reform and makes unique and important contributions to our understanding of these areas. The analysis includes parties in Australia, Austria, Belgium, Canada, Denmark, Germany, Hungary, Israel, Italy, Portugal, Romania, Spain, Norway, and the United Kingdom. Comparative Politics is a series for students, teachers, and researchers of political science that deals with contemporary government and politics. Global in scope, books in the series are characterised by a stress on comparative analysis and strong methodological rigour. The series is published in association with the European Consortium for Political Research. For more information visit:
Category: Political Science

The Selection Of Political Party Leaders In Contemporary Parliamentary Democracies

Author : Jean-Benoit Pilet
ISBN : 9781317929451
Genre : Political Science
File Size : 66.28 MB
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This book explores the ways in which political parties, in contemporary parliamentary democracies, choose their leaders and then subsequently hold them accountable. The authors provide a comprehensive examination of party leadership selection and accountability both through examination of parties and countries in different institutional settings and through a holistic analysis of the role of party leaders and the methods through which they assume, and exit, the office. The collection includes essays on Australia, Austria, Belgium, Canada, Germany, Hungary, Israel, Italy, Portugal, Romania, Spain, Norway and the United Kingdom which have important differences in their party systems, their degree of democratization, the role assigned to party leaders and their methods of leadership selection. Each country examination provides significant data relating to party rules and norms of leadership selection, leadership tenures and leadership contests. The book concludes with a chapter that merges the country data analyses to provide a truly comparative examination of the theoretical questions underlying the volume. This book will be of strong interest to students and scholars of legislative studies, elections, democracy, political parties, party systems, political elites and comparative politics.
Category: Political Science

Causes Of War

Author : Thomas Lindemann
ISBN : 9781907301018
Genre : Political Science
File Size : 26.9 MB
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Theories on the origins of war are often based on the premise that the rational actor is in pursuit of material satisfaction, such as the quest for power or for wealth. These perspectives disregard the need for homo symbolicus – meaning the preservation of a positive self-image for both emotional and instrumental reasons. A good reputation ensures authority and material resources. Non-recognition can be as much as an explanation of war as that of other explicative 'variables'. Two empirical studies examining the role of non-recognition in great power conflicts and in international crises will demonstrate the value of this symbolic approach.
Category: Political Science

Urban Foreign Policy And Domestic Dilemmas

Author : Nico van der Heiden
ISBN : 9781907301070
Genre : Political Science
File Size : 23.60 MB
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City-regions have gained economic and political power in the process of globalisation. Many of them use this power to develop their own international activities. This book investigates why city-regions go global and the consequences of their newly gained self-confidence on the international scale. The book analyses Swiss and EU city-regions' international activities with seven in-depth case studies. The book shows that the local economic setting, and the political response in developing international activities, are closely linked. Not only has urban politics changed due to its international dimension, but also the interplay between the core city, the agglomeration communities, the regional, the national, and EU levels. Understanding the role of the EU in city-regions' international activities is crucial for comprehending recent trends in urban governance.
Category: Political Science

Regulation In Practice

Author : Martino Maggetti
ISBN : 9781907301285
Genre : Political Science
File Size : 52.6 MB
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This book develops and applies an inventive theoretical approach to the comparative study of the neglected aspect of the real (or "de facto") independence of regulatory agencies. The book begins with an examination of the organisational and institutional factors shaping the de facto independence of regulatory agencies in Western Europe. There follows an analysis of the role of independent regulatory agencies in the policy-making process, using de facto independence as an explanatory variable. The final section is devoted to the relationship between regulatory agencies and the news media. In the conclusive discussion, the author also tackles a set of normative questions, which relates to the virtues and perils of independence
Category: Political Science

Civil Society In Communist Eastern Europe

Author : Matt Killingsworth
ISBN : 9781907301278
Genre : Political Science
File Size : 73.19 MB
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As well as promoting debates about liberal democracy, the dramatic events of 1989 also bought forth a powerful revival in the interest of the notion of civil society. This revival was reflected mainly in two broad tracts of literature. The first was primarily focused on the events surrounding the Solidarity movement in Poland and the tumultuous events of 1980-81. The second was concerned with the ‘Velvet Revolutions’ more broadly. Following the events of 1989, there appeared a number of works sharing the common central argument that civil society played a key role in the overthrow of these Communist regimes in 1989
Category: Political Science