The Personalisation Of Politics

Author : Lauri Karvonen
ISBN : 9781907301032
Genre : Political Science
File Size : 78.87 MB
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With the weakening of the structural determinants of politics in Western democracies, it is commonly assumed that individual politicians and politicians as individuals have come to mean more for voter behaviour and party choice. Many observers argue that politics has become more personalised in the course of the last few decades. Although considerable research on the various aspects of personalisation has been carried out, no single study so far has approached the question from a broad comparative perspective. By examining four central dimensions of personalisation – institutions, candidates, party leaders and media – and by including data from most stable parliamentary democracies, this book attempts to fill part of that gap. The book demonstrates clearly that there is no linear trend towards more personalisation among the cases studied. From the point of view of the general personalisation thesis, the findings are mixed at best; in some important respects, they are negative. While the media tend to focus more on individual politicians, the idea that party leaders increasingly determine the party choice of voters finds little support in empirical evidence. Most researchers seem to agree that the position of the prime minister has become more dominant. A closer look at comparative evidence results in a more complex picture. There has been a certain tendency to develop the most party-centred electoral systems in a more candidate-centred direction. On the other hand, recent reforms have altered some of the most candidate-centred systems in the opposite direction. Individual candidates seem to mean more to voters in systems where preferential voting has been practiced for a long time. This change is by no means dramatic, nor does it seem to apply to other electoral systems. Karvonen shows that the personalisation thesis, while not completely erroneous, has been overstated not just by the media but in some of the research literature as well.
Category: Political Science

Agents Or Bosses

Author : Özge Kemahlioğlu
ISBN : 9781907301261
Genre : Political Science
File Size : 60.78 MB
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Clientelism in public employment —the practice of offering jobs in return for political favours to a party or politician—is a problem from the perspectives of equality, democratic accountability and economic efficiency. Focusing on intra-party competition, this book presents an original explanation of why some politicians and parties engage more extensively in such practices than others. Examining Argentina and Turkey in a period of economic restructuring, the author argues that patronage jobs are distributed hierarchically to the politicians' circle within the party. Consequently, the distribution of patronage is affected by competition for party leadership. Analysis of original statistical and case study data at the sub national level confirms that clientelistic practices are influenced by party characteristics. Kemahlioğlu's research reveals a surprising and counter-intuitive conclusion; that when party support is crucial to politicians' career progression and the leadership of the party is openly contested the proliferation of clientelism is contained and controlled.
Category: Political Science

Why Aren T They There

Author : Didier Ruedin
ISBN : 9780955820397
Genre : Political Science
File Size : 48.49 MB
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Why Aren't They There? is a comprehensive study of political representation in a cross-national format, making a cross-country comparison of the representation of women, ethnic groups, and policy positions. It includes an analysis of the representation of women over time, and presents a critical view of the effectiveness of quotas. Using new data on ethnic groups in legislatures, it makes a significant step forward in the analysis of political representation. The representation of issue positions is examined in eight policy domains, and the book's systematic approach allows a groundbreaking examination of how different forms of representation – women, ethnic groups, issue positions – are interlinked. Didier Ruedin examines aspects unattainable in studies focusing only on a single form of representation. The result is a comprehensive understanding of political representation, and important and policy-relevant insights for electoral engineering.
Category: Political Science

Regulation In Practice

Author : Martino Maggetti
ISBN : 9781907301285
Genre : Political Science
File Size : 48.88 MB
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This book develops and applies an inventive theoretical approach to the comparative study of the neglected aspect of the real (or "de facto") independence of regulatory agencies. The book begins with an examination of the organisational and institutional factors shaping the de facto independence of regulatory agencies in Western Europe. There follows an analysis of the role of independent regulatory agencies in the policy-making process, using de facto independence as an explanatory variable. The final section is devoted to the relationship between regulatory agencies and the news media. In the conclusive discussion, the author also tackles a set of normative questions, which relates to the virtues and perils of independence
Category: Political Science

Civil Society In Communist Eastern Europe

Author : Matt Killingsworth
ISBN : 9781907301278
Genre : Political Science
File Size : 33.31 MB
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As well as promoting debates about liberal democracy, the dramatic events of 1989 also bought forth a powerful revival in the interest of the notion of civil society. This revival was reflected mainly in two broad tracts of literature. The first was primarily focused on the events surrounding the Solidarity movement in Poland and the tumultuous events of 1980-81. The second was concerned with the ‘Velvet Revolutions’ more broadly. Following the events of 1989, there appeared a number of works sharing the common central argument that civil society played a key role in the overthrow of these Communist regimes in 1989
Category: Political Science

Organising The European Parliament

Author : Nikoleta Yordanova
ISBN : 9781907301391
Genre : Political Science
File Size : 89.3 MB
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The recent empowerment of the European Parliament makes this a timely study of the impact of its internal organisation on legislative politics, interest representation and democracy within the Union. Using data on all legislators and legislative proposals in the 6th parliamentary term, the book confronts alternative theories of legislative organisation in rigorous statistical analyses supported by rich interview information. The findings indicate that the internal setup and legislative output of the parliamentary committees serve the policy goals of parties in the European Parliament, and in particular the working majority party, rather than special interests or purely informational needs, which the author explains with the formal and informal parliamentary rules. As the committees advance party politics instead of particularistic policies, she concludes that legislating within the committees is positive for democracy in the European Union and raises concerns about the loss in transparency, legitimacy and accountability that the increasingly common fast-track bicameral decision-making outside the committees entails.
Category: Political Science

Contesting Europe

Author : Pieter de Wilde
ISBN : 9781907301643
Genre : Political Science
File Size : 53.99 MB
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The book compares EU coverage in main online news forums during the 2009 European Parliamentary campaigns.
Category: Political Science

Political Parties And Interest Groups In Norway

Author : Elin Haugsgjerd Allern
ISBN : 9780955820366
Genre : Political Science
File Size : 87.83 MB
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How do today's political parties relate to other organisations? Do they prefer rather distant relationships with a wide range of interest groups – or have they virtually detached themselves from civil society altogether? Scholars seem to agree that traditionally close relationships – such as those between social democratic parties and trade unions – have grown weaker since the 1960s. But to date only limited systematic research has been conducted. While parties and interest groups attract a great deal of attention from political scientists, the links between them have been largely overlooked. This book is an attempt to bridge the gap, starting from the party side of the relationship. It throws new light on the topic by presenting a theory-driven, comprehensive study of Norway's seven major political parties and their relationships with interest groups at the beginning of the new millennium. Based on original and extensive data, including party documents, in-depth interviews with key players and a survey of national party elites, Elin Haugsgjerd Allern paints a nuanced picture of the nature and significance of these relationships and the factors that shape them. A major conclusion is that Norway's parties tend to maintain rather distant but wide-ranging relationships with interest groups today. However, some parties still have fairly strong links with their traditional associates and a narrower network of links with other groups. Hence, Allern also shows that significant differences exist between parties that are apparently exposed to the same social, political and institutional environment.
Category: Political Science

Die Diffusion Umweltpolitischer Innovationen Im Internationalen System

Author : Kerstin Tews
ISBN : 9783322808134
Genre : Political Science
File Size : 51.52 MB
Format : PDF
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Die Ziele, Institutionen und Instrumente der Umweltpolitik von Nationalstaaten sind sich in den letzen 30 Jahren ähnlicher geworden. Warum aber nähern sich Staaten in ihren regulativen Mustern an? Verbindliche internationale Standards existieren bei den meisten umweltpolitischen Innovationen bis heute nicht. Übernehmen Staaten also freiwillig Politiken, die anderswo entwickelt wurden? Unter welchen Bedingungen Prozesse der Diffusion politischer Innovationen wahrscheinlich sind, welche Mechanismen ihnen unterliegen und welche Akteure diese Dynamiken erzeugen, sind die zentralen Themen dieser Studie.
Category: Political Science

Politik Pr Persuasion

Author : Romy Fröhlich
ISBN : 9783658016838
Genre : Language Arts & Disciplines
File Size : 23.22 MB
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Ein Thema steht auch in wahlkampffreien Phasen immer wieder gerne im Fokus der Medien: Das Verhältnis zwischen Politik und Public Relations. Die Bandbreite reicht von kritischen Berichten über vermeintlich unethische bis illegale Verquickungen zwischen beiden, über die Kritik an der Tatsache, dass die Politik öffentliche Gelder für Kommunikationsdienstleister ausgibt oder über den Einfluss kollektiver und individueller Interessensvertreter auf politische Entscheidungsprozesse (z. B. Stuttgart 21) bis hin zur zuweilen stark skandalisierenden Berichterstattung über Aufträge an PR-Agenturen, bestimmte Spitzenpolitiker wirksam zu inszenieren. Der massenmedialen Aufmerksamkeit im Umgang mit diesem Thema steht die Tatsache gegenüber, dass die wissenschaftliche Auseinandersetzung damit im deutschsprachigen Raum noch eher ein stiefmütterliches Dasein fristet. Mit diesen Beiträgen werden die übergreifende Bandbreite und die Foci relevanter nationaler und internationaler Forschung und Literatur zum Thema gebündelt und zugänglich gemacht („mapping“). So kann das Buch für Wissenschaftler aber auch für Studierende, die sich mit dem Thema “Politik und Public Relations“ beschäftigen, zu einer Art “key point of reference” für aktuellste und bisherige Forschung zum Thema werden.
Category: Language Arts & Disciplines