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The Oxford Companion To Archaeology

Author : Neil Asher Silberman
ISBN : 9780199735785
Genre : Reference
File Size : 41.32 MB
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Since its publication in 1996, The Oxford Companion to Archaeology has firmly established itself as the standard reference work in the field of archaeology, selling nearly 15,000 copies to date and remaining a favorite among students, scholars, and anyone interested in archaeology. In 700 entries, the second edition provides thorough coverage to historical archaeology, the development of archaeology as a field of study, and the ways the discipline works to explain the past. In addition to these theoretical entries, other entries describe the major excavations, discoveries, and innovations, from the discovery of the cave paintings at Lascaux to the deciphering of Egyptian hieroglyphics and the use of luminescence dating. Much has changed in the field since 1996. Recent developments in methods and analytical techniques (e.g., laser-based mapping and survey systems, new applications of the scanning electron microscope) have revolutionized the ways excavations are performed. Cultural tourism, cultural resource management, heritage, and conservation have been redefined as areas within archaeology, and have had new emphasis given them by scholars and administrators. Major new sites have expanded our understanding of prehistory and human developments through time. The second edition explores each of these advances in the field, adding approximately 200 entries and exanding the total work to three volumes. Neil Asher Silberman, a renowned practicing archaeologist, author, and scholar, and a board member for the first edition, is the editor in chief. In addition to significant expansion, first-edition entries have been thoroughly revised and updated to reflect the progress that has been made in the last decade and a half
Category: Reference

The Oxford Companion To Archaeology

Author : Brian M. Fagan
ISBN : UOM:49015002846633
Genre : Religion
File Size : 42.47 MB
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Features articles written by archaeology scholars on such topics as bog bodies, underwater archaeology, the Pyramids of Giza, and the Valley of the Kings
Category: Religion

The Oxford Companion To Indian Archaeology

Author : Dilip K. Chakrabarti
ISBN : 9780195673425
Genre : History
File Size : 59.78 MB
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This authoritative work, the first comprehensive study of its kind, traces the evolving archaeological scenario of the Indian subcontinent, area by area, phase by phase, from prehistory to the thirteenth century AD. Using a wide variety of sources, distinguished scholar Dilip K. Chakrabarti provides an in-depth multi-layered archaeological chronicle of the subcontinent.
Category: History

The Oxford Companion To Cheese

Author :
ISBN : 9780199330898
Genre : Cooking
File Size : 41.75 MB
Format : PDF
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The discovery of cheese is a narrative at least 8,000 years old, dating back to the Neolithic era. Yet, after all of these thousands of years we are still finding new ways to combine the same four basic ingredients - milk, bacteria, salt, and enzymes - into new and exciting products with vastly different shapes, sizes, and colors, and equally complex and varied tastes, textures, and, yes, aromas. In fact, after a long period of industrialized, processed, and standardized cheese, cheesemakers, cheesemongers, affineurs, and most of all consumers are rediscovering the endless variety of cheeses across cultures. The Oxford Companion to Cheese is the first major reference work dedicated to cheese, containing 855 A-Z entries on cheese history, culture, science, and production. From cottage cheese to Camembert, from Gorgonzola to Gruy?re, there are entries on all of the major cheese varieties globally, but also many cheeses that are not well known outside of their region of production. The concentrated whey cheeses popular in Norway, brunost, are covered here, as are the traditional Turkish and Iranian cheeses that are ripened in casings prepared from sheep's or goat's skin. There are entries on animal species whose milk is commonly (cow, goat, sheep) and not so commonly (think yak, camel, and reindeer) used in cheesemaking, as well as entries on a few highly important breeds within each species, such as the Nubian goat or the Holstein cow. Regional entries on places with a strong history of cheese production, biographies of influential cheesemakers, innovative and influential cheese shops, and historical entries on topics like manorial cheesemaking and cheese in children's literature round out the Companion's eclectic cultural coverage. The Companion also reflects a fascination with the microbiology and chemistry of cheese, featuring entries on bacteria, molds, yeasts, cultures, and coagulants used in cheesemaking and cheese maturing. The blooms, veins, sticky surfaces, gooey interiors, crystals, wrinkles, strings, and yes, for some, the odors of cheese are all due to microbial action and growth. And today we have unprecedented insight into the microbial complexity of cheese, thanks to advances in molecular biology, whole-genome sequencing technologies, and microbiome research. The Companion is equally interested in the applied elements of cheesemaking, with entries on production methodologies and the technology and equipment used in cheesemaking. An astonishing 325 authors contributed entries to the Companion, residing in 35 countries. These experts included cheesemakers, cheesemongers, dairy scientists, anthropologists, food historians, journalists, archaeologists, and on, from backgrounds as diverse as the topics they write about. Every entry is signed by the author, and includes both cross references to related topics and further reading suggestions. The endmatter includes a list of cheese-related museums and a thorough index. Two 16-page color inserts and well over a hundred black and white images help bring the entries to life. This landmark encyclopedia is the most wide-ranging, comprehensive, and reliable reference work on cheese available, suitable for both novices and industry insiders alike.
Category: Cooking

The Oxford Companion To Classical Civilization

Author : Simon Hornblower
ISBN : STANFORD:36105024213188
Genre : History
File Size : 86.63 MB
Format : PDF
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Illustrated with full-color plates and 140 black-and-white pictures, an encyclopedic, exhaustive, and up-to-date guide contains finely detailed articles and short reference notes on the people, places, and events that shaped ancient Western civilization. UP.
Category: History

The Oxford Companion To Irish History

Author : Sean J. Connolly
ISBN : 0192805010
Genre : History
File Size : 37.95 MB
Format : PDF, ePub
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'With its appearance in 1998 the Oxford Companion set a benchmark among reference works on Irish history for accuracy, comprehensiveness, and scholarly detail. Since then Irish history, politics, and culture have continued to develop and transform themselves, and the new edition admirably extends its team of contributors to broaden the coverage of art, literature, archaeology, and material culture as well as contemporary writing and current politics. It re-emerges more indispensable thanever.' Roy Foster, Carroll Professor of Irish History, University of Oxford, and author of the acclaimed biography of W. B. Yeats 'A companion to be cherished', 'judicious and authoritative', 'excellent work', 'informative and entertaining', these are just some of the phrases used by reviewers describing the first edition of The Oxford Companion to Irish History, published in hardback in 1998. 'A rewarding read', 'marvellous companion', and 'invaluable work of reference' echo the reviewers of the second edition. The history of Ireland has long been a topic at the forefront of debate and one that continues to raise emotions and be the cause of much dispute. It is astonishing that such a small area of land has had one of the most controversial yet fascinating histories of any country in the world. Interest in Irish culture, politics, and society, both ancient and modern, never seems to falter, not only in scholarly circles but also among the general public. With over 1,800entries, the Companion offers a comprehensive and authoritative guide to all aspects of the Irish past from earliest times to the present day. There is coverage not only of leading political figures, organizations, and events but also of subjects such as dress, music, sport, and diet. Traditional topics such as the rebellion of 1798 and the Irish Civil War sit alongside entries on newly developing areas such as women's history and popular culture. The editor, Sean Connolly, with the help of the existing 87 contributors and a small number of new contributors, has updated and revised the text for this second edition to take into account recent research and events. The coverage has been expanded to offer a fuller treatment of prehistoric and early historic Ireland and more comprehensive information on literary history. There are also new entries on individuals who have died since the first edition was published. In addition the sections dealing with politics in the Irish Republic and in Northern Ireland have been rewritten to take full account of developments up to the end of the 20th century. New / rewritten entries include: Visual Arts (art schools, ceramics, furniture, history painting, painting, sculpture) Politics / Religion (Brendan Corish, James Dillon, Sean MacDermott, Alfred O'Rahilly, peace process, Progressive Democrats, Michael Tierney, Workers' Party) Literature (Dun Emer Press, Lady Augusta Gregory, James Joyce, George Bernard Shaw, Lady Jane ('Speranza') Wilde) Prehistoric and Early Ireland (Bronze Age Ireland, Celtic Ireland, crannog, La Tene in Ireland, Mesolithic Ireland, Neolithic Ireland, rath) Medieval Ireland (fuidir, MacCarthy, O'Brien, O'Donnell, senchleithe, sept) Other (agriculture, Devon Commission, John Henry Newman, Ulster Scots) In addition to A-Z entries the Companion includes a section of maps showing the shape of modern Ireland, post-reformation ecclesiastical divisions in Ireland, political divisions circa 800, Ireland circa 1350, Ireland in the late 15th century, and the pattern of transport and communications in Ireland. There is also a subject index, which groups headwords into thematic batches to provide an alternative way to access the entries. This second edition of the Companion, continuing on from the original, will be valuable to different people for different uses. It will be of particular use to students as a work of general reference and to the general public with an interest in the history and culture of Ireland. But it should also have appeal to academics, both for the longer analytical entries and as a source of reference for topics outside of their immediate area of expertise.
Category: History

Handbook For Classical Research

Author : David M. Schaps
ISBN : 9781136919671
Genre : History
File Size : 89.3 MB
Format : PDF, Kindle
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One of the glories of the Greco-Roman classics is the opportunity that they give us to consider a great culture in its entirety; but our ability to do that depends on our ability to work comfortably with very varied fields of scholarship. The Handbook for Classical Research offers guidance to students needing to learn more about the different fields and subfields of classical research, and its methods and resources. The book is divided into 7 parts: The Basics, Language, The Traditional Fields, The Physical Remains, The Written Word, The Classics and Related Disciplines, The Classics since Antiquity. Topics covered range from history and literature, lexicography and linguistics, epigraphy and palaeography, to archaeology and numismatics, and the study and reception of the classics. Guidance is given not only to read, for example, an archaeological or papyrological report, but also on how to find such sources when they are relevant to research. Concentrating on "how-to" topics, the Handbook for Classical Research is a much needed resource for both teachers and students.
Category: History

Scalable And Efficient Probabilistic Topic Model Inference For Textual Data

Author : Måns Magnusson
ISBN : 9789176852880
Genre : Electronic books
File Size : 22.63 MB
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Probabilistic topic models have proven to be an extremely versatile class of mixed-membership models for discovering the thematic structure of text collections. There are many possible applications, covering a broad range of areas of study: technology, natural science, social science and the humanities. In this thesis, a new efficient parallel Markov Chain Monte Carlo inference algorithm is proposed for Bayesian inference in large topic models. The proposed methods scale well with the corpus size and can be used for other probabilistic topic models and other natural language processing applications. The proposed methods are fast, efficient, scalable, and will converge to the true posterior distribution. In addition, in this thesis a supervised topic model for high-dimensional text classification is also proposed, with emphasis on interpretable document prediction using the horseshoe shrinkage prior in supervised topic models. Finally, we develop a model and inference algorithm that can model agenda and framing of political speeches over time with a priori defined topics. We apply the approach to analyze the evolution of immigration discourse in the Swedish parliament by combining theory from political science and communication science with a probabilistic topic model. Probabilistiska ämnesmodeller (topic models) är en mångsidig klass av modeller för att estimera ämnessammansättningar i större corpusar. Applikationer finns i ett flertal vetenskapsområden som teknik, naturvetenskap, samhällsvetenskap och humaniora. I denna avhandling föreslås nya effektiva och parallella Markov Chain Monte Carlo algoritmer för Bayesianska ämnesmodeller. De föreslagna metoderna skalar väl med storleken på corpuset och kan användas för flera olika ämnesmodeller och liknande modeller inom språkteknologi. De föreslagna metoderna är snabba, effektiva, skalbara och konvergerar till den sanna posteriorfördelningen. Dessutom föreslås en ämnesmodell för högdimensionell textklassificering, med tonvikt på tolkningsbar dokumentklassificering genom att använda en kraftigt regulariserande priorifördelningar. Slutligen utvecklas en ämnesmodell för att analyzera "agenda" och "framing" för ett förutbestämt ämne. Med denna metod analyserar vi invandringsdiskursen i Sveriges Riksdag över tid, genom att kombinera teori från statsvetenskap, kommunikationsvetenskap och probabilistiska ämnesmodeller.
Category: Electronic books

The Oxford Companion To Ships And The Sea

Author : Ian Dear
ISBN : 0198606168
Genre : History
File Size : 62.23 MB
Format : PDF
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Completely revised and updated, this volume brings together more than 2,600 entries on every imaginable aspect of the seas and the vessels that sail on them, from shipbuilding, yachting, diving, and marine mammals, to tidal power, piracy, and the literature and language of the sea.
Category: History

The Oxford Companion To Local And Family History

Author : David Hey
ISBN : 0198606672
Genre : Genealogy
File Size : 67.65 MB
Format : PDF, ePub, Docs
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There has been a huge growth of interest in local and family history in the last 30 years. This reference work caters for such interest by providing detailed summaries of the latest knowledge in related branches of history.
Category: Genealogy