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Developmental Patterning Of The Vertebrate Limb

Author : J.Richard Hinchliffe
ISBN : 9781461533108
Genre : Science
File Size : 65.90 MB
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Following pioneering work by Harrison on amphibian limbs in the 1920s and by Saunders (1948) on the apical ridge in chick limbs, limb development became a classical model system for investigating such fundamental developmental issues as tissue interactions and induction, and the control of pattern formation. Earlier international conferences, at Grenoble 1972, Glasgow 1976,and Storrs, Connecticut 1982, reflected the interests and technology of their time. Grenoble was concerned with ectoderm-mesenchyme interaction, but by the time of the Glasgow meeting, the zone of polarizing activity (ZPA) and its role in control of patterning was the dominant theme. Storrs produced the first intimations that the ZPA could be mimicked by retinoic acid (RA), but the diversity of extracellular masrix ~olecules,particularly in skeletogenesis,was the main focus of attention. By 1990, the paradigms had again shifted. Originally, the planners of the ARW saw retinoic acid (as a possible morphogen controlling skeletal patterning), the variety of extracellular matrix components and their roles, and the developmental basis of limb evolution as the leading contemporary topics. However, as planning proceeded, it was clear that the new results emerging from the use of homeobox gene probes (first developed to investigate the genetic control of patterning of Drosophila embryos) to analyse the localised expression of "patterning genes" in limb buds would also be an important theme.
Category: Science

The Neural Crest In Development And Evolution

Author : Brian K. Hall
ISBN : 9781475730647
Genre : Science
File Size : 45.47 MB
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A discussion of the neural crest and neural crest cells, dealing with their discovery, their embryological and evolutionary origins, their cellular derivatives - in both agnathan and jawed vertebrates or gnathostomes - and the broad topics of migration and differentiation in normal development. The book also considers what goes wrong when development is misdirected by mutations, or by exposure of embryos to exogenous agents such as drugs, alcohol, or excess vitamin A, and includes discussions of tumours and syndromes and birth defects involving neural crest cells.
Category: Science


Author : Benedikt Hallgrimsson Ph.D.
ISBN : 9780520948822
Genre : Science
File Size : 45.71 MB
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Illuminating the processes and patterns that link genotype to phenotype, epigenetics seeks to explain features, characters, and developmental mechanisms that can only be understood in terms of interactions that arise above the level of the gene. With chapters written by leading authorities, this volume offers a broad integrative survey of epigenetics. Approaching this complex subject from a variety of perspectives, it presents a broad, historically grounded view that demonstrates the utility of this approach for understanding complex biological systems in development, disease, and evolution. Chapters cover such topics as morphogenesis and organ formation, conceptual foundations, and cell differentiation, and together demonstrate that the integration of epigenetics into mainstream developmental biology is essential for answering fundamental questions about how phenotypic traits are produced.
Category: Science

Morphology And Evolution Of Turtles

Author : Donald B. Brinkman
ISBN : 9789400743083
Genre : Science
File Size : 28.6 MB
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This volume celebrates the contributions of Dr. Eugene Gaffney to the study of turtles, through a diverse and complementary collection of papers that showcases the latest research on one of the most intriguing groups of reptiles. A mix of focused and review papers deals with numerous aspects of the evolutionary history of turtles, including embryonic development, origins, early diversification, phylogenetic relationships, and biogeography. Moreover it includes reports on important but poorly understood fossil turtle assemblages, provides historical perspectives on turtle research, and documents disease and variation in turtles. With its broad scope, which includes descriptions of material and new taxa from Australia, Asia, and Europe, as well as North and South America, this work will be an essential resource for anyone interested in the morphology and evolution of turtles. “This volume’s breadth of time, geography, and taxonomic coverage makes it a major contribution to the field and a ‘must have’ for all vertebrate paleontologists.”, James F. Parham, California State University, CA, USA “A comprehensive and sweeping overview of turtle evolution by the top experts in the field that will interest everyone curious about these unique reptiles.” Jason S. Anderson, University of Calgary, Canada “An invaluable addition to the literature that covers the full spectrum of approaches toward understanding the evolution of these noble creatures.” Ann C. Burke, Wesleyan University, CT , USA “A truly comprehensive volume that both the student of fossil turtles, as well as the general reader interested in these enigmatic creatures, will find fascinating.” Tyler Lyson, Yale University, CT, USA​
Category: Science

Extracellular Matrix In Development

Author : Douglas W. DeSimone
ISBN : 9783642359354
Genre : Science
File Size : 67.48 MB
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Cells in the developing embryo depend on signals from the extracellular environment to help guide their differentiation. An important mediator in this process is the extracellular matrix – secreted macromolecules that interact to form large protein networks outside the cell. During development, the extracellular matrix serves to separate adjacent cell groups, participates in establishing morphogenic gradients, and, through its ability to interact directly will cell-surface receptors, provides developmental clocks and positional information. This volume discusses how the extracellular matrix influences fundamental developmental processes and how model systems can be used to elucidate ECM function. The topics addressed range from how ECM influences early development as well as repair processes in the adult that recapitulate developmental pathways.
Category: Science

Neural Crest Induction And Differentiation

Author : Jean-Pierre Saint-Jeannet
ISBN : 9780387469546
Genre : Medical
File Size : 61.52 MB
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Written by an international panel of recognized leaders in the field, Neural Crest Induction and Differentiation discusses all aspects of modern neural crest biology from its evolutionary significance to its specification, migration, plasticity and contribution to multiple lineages of the vertebrate body, to the pathologies associated with abnormal neural crest development and function. Abundant color figures enhance the text providing clear and attractive illustrations of central issues and concepts.
Category: Medical

Clinical Neuroembryology

Author : Hans J. ten Donkelaar
ISBN : 9783642546877
Genre : Medical
File Size : 21.76 MB
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This book provides a comprehensive overview of the development of the human central nervous system (CNS) in the context of its many developmental disorders due to genetic, environmental, and hypoxic/ischemic causes. The introductory chapters give an overview of the development of the human brain and the spinal cord, the mechanisms of development as obtained in experimental studies of various invertebrates and vertebrates, and the causes of congenital malformations. In the main part, the developmental disorders of the human brain and the spinal cord are presented in a regional, more or less segmental way, starting with neurulation and neural tube defects, and ending with developmental disorders of the cerebral cortex. These are underlined by carefully chosen clinical case studies, including imaging data and, when available, postmortem verification of the developmental disorders involved. Numerous color photographs and illustrations complement the text. This second edition emphasizes the prenatal diagnosis by ultrasound, MRI, and DTI and implements new classifications of developmental disorders.
Category: Medical

Role Of Proteases In Cellular Dysfunction

Author : Naranjan S. Dhalla
ISBN : 9781461490999
Genre : Science
File Size : 80.67 MB
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It is now well known that proteases are found everywhere, in viruses and bacteria as well as in all human, animal and plant cells, and play a role in a variety of biological functions ranging from digestion, fertilization, development to senescence and death. Under physiological conditions the ability of proteases is regulated by endogenous inhibitors. However, when the activity of proteases is not regulated appropriately, disease processes can result, as seen in Alzheimer’s disease, cancer metastasis and tumor progression, inflammation and atherosclerosis. Thus it is evident that there is an absolute need for a tighter control of proteolytic activities in different cells and tissues. Aimed at graduate students and researchers with an interest in cellular proteolytic events, Role of Proteases in Cellular Dysfunctions is the second book on Proteases in this series. The book consists of three parts in specified topics based on current literatures for a better understanding for the readers with respect to their subject-wise interests. The first section of this book covers a brief idea about the neuronal disorders and the involvement of proteases such as calpains, caspases and matrix metalloproteases (MMPs). The second section covers the deadly disease cancer and its relation to ubiquitin-proteasome system, MMPs and serine proteases. The last section is about the role of proteases such as calpains, MMPs and serine protease as well as urokinase type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) in causing cardiovascular defects.
Category: Science

Neural Crest Cells

Author : Paul Trainor
ISBN : 9780124045866
Genre : Science
File Size : 61.48 MB
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Neural Crest Cells: Evolution, Development and Disease summarizes discoveries of historical significance and provides in-depth, current analyses of the evolution of neural crest cells, their contribution to embryo development, and their roles in disease. In addition, prospects for tissue engineering, repair and regeneration are covered, offering a timely synthesis of the current knowledge in neural crest cell research. A comprehensive resource on neural crest cells for researchers studying cell biology, developmental biology, stem cells and neurobiology, Neural Crest Cells: Evolution, Development and Disease provides foundational information needed for students , practicing physicians and dentists treating patients with craniofacial defects. BMA Medical Book Awards 2014 - Highly Commended,Basic and Clinical Sciences,2014, British Medical Association Provides timely, comprehensive synthesis of the current knowledge of neural crest cells Covers the evolution and development of neural crest cells Includes content on applications for tissue engineering, repair and regeneration
Category: Science

Etiology And Morphogenesis Of Congenital Heart Disease

Author : Toshio Nakanishi
ISBN : 9784431546283
Genre : Medical
File Size : 82.68 MB
Format : PDF
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This volume focuses on the etiology and morphogenesis of congenital heart diseases. It reviews in detail the early development and differentiation of the heart, and later morphologic events of the cardiovascular system, covering a wide range of topics such as gene functions, growth factors, transcription factors and cellular interactions that are implicated in cardiac morphogenesis and congenital heart disease. This book also presents recent advances in stem cell and cell sheet tissue engineering technologies which have the potential to provide novel in vitro disease models and to generate regenerative paradigms for cardiac repair and regeneration. This is the ideal resource for physician scientists and investigators looking for updates on recent investigations on the origins of congenital heart disease and potential future therapies.
Category: Medical