THE NEURAL ARCHITECTURE OF GRAMMAR

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The Neural Architecture Of Grammar

Author : Stephen E. Nadeau
ISBN : 9780262017022
Genre : Language Arts & Disciplines
File Size : 77.8 MB
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A comprehensive, neurally based theory of language function that draws on principles of neuroanatomy, cognitive psychology, cognitive neuropsychology, psycholinguistics, and parallel distributed processing. Linguists have mapped the topography of language behavior in many languages in intricate detail. To understand how the brain supports language function, however, we must take into account the principles and regularities of neural function. Mechanisms of neurolinguistic function cannot be inferred solely from observations of normal and impaired language. In The Neural Architecture of Grammar, Stephen Nadeau develops a neurologically plausible theory of grammatic function. He brings together principles of neuroanatomy, neurophysiology, and parallel distributed processing and draws on literature on language function from cognitive psychology, cognitive neuropsychology, psycholinguistics, and functional imaging to develop a comprehensive neurally based theory of language function. Nadeau reviews the aphasia literature, including cross-linguistic aphasia research, to test the model's ability to account for the findings of these empirical studies. Nadeau finds that the model readily accounts for a crucial finding in cross-linguistic studies--that the most powerful determinant of patterns of language breakdown in aphasia is the predisorder language spoken by the subject--and that it does so by conceptualizing grammatic function in terms of the statistical regularities of particular languages that are encoded in network connectivity. He shows that the model provides a surprisingly good account for many findings and offers solutions for a number of controversial problems. Moreover, aphasia studies provide the basis for elaborating the model in interesting and important ways.
Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Artificial Neural Networks In Real Life Applications

Author : Rabuñal, Juan R.
ISBN : 9781591409045
Genre : Computers
File Size : 39.4 MB
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"This book offers an outlook of the most recent works at the field of the Artificial Neural Networks (ANN), including theoretical developments and applications of systems using intelligent characteristics for adaptability"--Provided by publisher.
Category: Computers

Artificial Neural Networks

Author : Petia Koprinkova-Hristova
ISBN : 9783319099033
Genre : Computers
File Size : 83.7 MB
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The book reports on the latest theories on artificial neural networks, with a special emphasis on bio-neuroinformatics methods. It includes twenty-three papers selected from among the best contributions on bio-neuroinformatics-related issues, which were presented at the International Conference on Artificial Neural Networks, held in Sofia, Bulgaria, on September 10-13, 2013 (ICANN 2013). The book covers a broad range of topics concerning the theory and applications of artificial neural networks, including recurrent neural networks, super-Turing computation and reservoir computing, double-layer vector perceptrons, nonnegative matrix factorization, bio-inspired models of cell communities, Gestalt laws, embodied theory of language understanding, saccadic gaze shifts and memory formation, and new training algorithms for Deep Boltzmann Machines, as well as dynamic neural networks and kernel machines. It also reports on new approaches to reinforcement learning, optimal control of discrete time-delay systems, new algorithms for prototype selection, and group structure discovering. Moreover, the book discusses one-class support vector machines for pattern recognition, handwritten digit recognition, time series forecasting and classification, and anomaly identification in data analytics and automated data analysis. By presenting the state-of-the-art and discussing the current challenges in the fields of artificial neural networks, bioinformatics and neuroinformatics, the book is intended to promote the implementation of new methods and improvement of existing ones, and to support advanced students, researchers and professionals in their daily efforts to identify, understand and solve a number of open questions in these fields.
Category: Computers

Automatic Generation Of Neural Network Architecture Using Evolutionary Computation

Author : E. Vonk
ISBN : 9810231067
Genre : Computers
File Size : 35.50 MB
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This book describes the application of evolutionary computation in the automatic generation of a neural network architecture. The architecture has a significant influence on the performance of the neural network. It is the usual practice to use trial and error to find a suitable neural network architecture for a given problem. The process of trial and error is not only time-consuming but may not generate an optimal network. The use of evolutionary computation is a step towards automation in neural network architecture generation.An overview of the field of evolutionary computation is presented, together with the biological background from which the field was inspired. The most commonly used approaches to a mathematical foundation of the field of genetic algorithms are given, as well as an overview of the hybridization between evolutionary computation and neural networks. Experiments on the implementation of automatic neural network generation using genetic programming and one using genetic algorithms are described, and the efficacy of genetic algorithms as a learning algorithm for a feedforward neural network is also investigated.
Category: Computers

Cognitive Plasticity In Neurologic Disorders

Author : Joseph I Tracy
ISBN : 9780190205461
Genre : Medical
File Size : 40.94 MB
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Cognitive Plasticity in Neurologic Disorders describes and specifies the cognitive impact of neuroplastic processes in key neurologic disorders and syndromes. It is set apart from previous works in this area by its emphasis on the changing quality of neurocognition, demonstrating that this dynamic nature emerges from the neuroplastic processes at work in both mild and severe states of brain disease or injury. This resource describes the ways neurological illness or trauma (or attempts to treat patients with such conditions) can trigger neuroplastic mechanisms in the brain, inducing cognitive reorganization and remapping of brain networks. Each chapter shows how the cognitive and behavioral presentation of the disorder mirrors the changing neurobiologic context, and displays the numerous techniques being employed (e.g. behavior and rehabilitation therapies, electrical stimulation, and computer/machine neuromodulation of brain signals) underlying the neurobiology in ways that facilitate adaptive plasticity and cognitive recovery. An important feature of the book involves characterizing the degree to which the mechanistic principles governing neuroplastic responses and cognitive reorganization in the brain have been elucidated, making clear that it is these principles which will allow us to further develop rational rehabilitative therapies, match patients to appropriate treatments, and even begin to predict clinical treatment outcomes.
Category: Medical

Formal Grammar

Author : Robert Levine
ISBN : 0195344928
Genre : Language Arts & Disciplines
File Size : 61.2 MB
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The second volume in the Vancouver Studies in Cognitive Science series, this collection presents recent work in the fields of phonology, morphology, semantics, and neurolinguistics. Its overall theme is the relationship between the contents of grammatical formalisms and their real-time realizations in machine or biological systems. Individual essays address such topics as learnability, implementability, computational issues, parameter setting, and neurolinguistic issues. Contributors include Janet Dean Fodor, Richard T. Oehrle, Bob Carpenter, Edward P. Stabler, Elan Dresher, Arnold Zwicky, Mary-Louis Kean, and Lewis P. Shapiro.
Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Lexical Bootstrapping

Author : Dagmar Bittner
ISBN : 9783110308693
Genre : Language Arts & Disciplines
File Size : 22.86 MB
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The internal bootstrapps for establishing the grammatical system of a human language build an essential topic in language acquisition research. The discussion of the last 20 years came up with the Lexical Bootstrapping Hypothesis which assigns lexical development the role of the central bootstrapping process. The volume presents work from different theoretical perspectives evaluating the strength and weaknesses of this hypothesis.
Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

A New Architecture For Functional Grammar

Author : J. Lachlan Mackenzie
ISBN : 9783110197112
Genre : Language Arts & Disciplines
File Size : 76.68 MB
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This volume, which represents a major advance on Simon Dik's final statement of the theory (1997), lays the foundation for the future evolution of FG towards a Functional Discourse Grammar. It rises to the double challenge of specifying the interface between discourse and grammar and of detailing the expression rules that link semantic representation and morphosyntactic form. The opening chapter, by Kees Hengeveld, sets out in programmatic form a new architecture for FG which both preserves the best of the traditional model and offers a place for numerous recent insights. The remaining chapters are devoted to refining and developing the programme laid down by Hengeveld, bringing in data from a range of languages as well as theoretical insights inspired by adjoining frameworks. Of special interest are an account by Matthew Anstey of how current proposals arise from the history of FG and various chapters in which the model is brought much closer to an account of real-time language production, notably including the first ever detailed account of the workings of expression rules, by Dik Bakker and Anna Siewierska. The final chapter, also by Hengeveld, draws together the findings of the various chapters, culminating in an elaborated model that represents the most sophisticated statement of Functional Grammar currently available. The volume thus gives a coherent account of FG as a theory which combines formal explicitness with a broad account of language functions.
Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

The Harmonic Mind Cognitive Architecture

Author : Paul Smolensky
ISBN : 0262195267
Genre : Computers
File Size : 78.99 MB
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An integrated connectionist/symbolic architecture of the mind/brain, applied to neural/genomic realisation of grammar; aequisition, processing, and typology in phonology and syntax; and foundations of cognitive explanation. Despite their apparently divergent accounts of higher cognition, cognitive theories based on neural computation and those employing symbolic computation can in fact strengthen one another. To substantiate this controversial claim, this landmark work develops in depth a cognitive architecture based in neural computation but supporting formally explicit higher-level symbolic descriptions, including new grammar [Illegible]. Detailed studies in both phonology and syntax provide arguments that these grammatical theories and their neural network realisations enable deeper explanations of early acquisition, processing difficulty, cross-linguistic typology, and the possibility of genomically [Illegible] universal principles of grammar. Foundational questions concerning the explanatory status of symbols for central problems such as the unbounded productivity of higher cognition are also given proper treatment. science through tutorial chapters and numerous expository boxes providing background material from several disciplines. Examples common to different chapters facilitate the transition from more basic to more sophisticated treatments. Details of method, formalism, and foundation are presented in later chapters, offering a wealth of new results to specialists in psycholinguistics, language acquisition, theoretical linguistics, computational linguistics, computational neuroscience, connectionist modelling, and philosophy of mind.
Category: Computers