THE MATERIALS AND CRAFT OF EARLY ICONOGRAPHERS SPRINGERBRIEFS IN MATERIALS

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The Materials And Craft Of Early Iconographers

Author : Mihaela D. Leonida
ISBN : 9783319048284
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 87.25 MB
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This book describes in detail the materials and techniques used by medieval iconographers. It offers information about the natural sources, the raw materials, the tools and the technologies involved in preparing them. The book allows entry into the secretive world of very knowledgeable and skilled artisans, about which very little is known. Topics covered include raw materials, pigments, binders, solvents, adhesives, inks and varnishes. Special chapters will be dedicated to the fresco technique as practiced by the early iconographers, grinding, painting on glass and the training/apprenticeship of these craftsmen.
Category: Technology & Engineering

Metals In Past Societies

Author : Shadreck Chirikure
ISBN : 9783319116419
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 52.20 MB
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This book seeks to communicate to both a global and local audience, the key attributes of pre-industrial African metallurgy such as technological variation across space and time, methods of mining and extractive metallurgy and the fabrication of metal objects. These processes were transformative in a physical and metaphoric sense, which made them total social facts. Because the production and use of metals was an accretion of various categories of practice, a chaine operatoire conceptual and theoretical framework that simultaneously considers the embedded technological and anthropological factors was used. The book focuses on Africa’s different regions as roughly defined by cultural geography. On the one hand there is North Africa, Egypt, the Egyptian Sudan, and the Horn of Africa which share cultural inheritances with the Middle East and on the other is Africa south of the Sahara and the Sudan which despite interacting with the former is remarkably different in terms of technological practice. For example, not only is the timing of metallurgy different but so is the infrastructure for working metals and the associated symbolic and sociological factors. The cultural valuation of metals and the social positions of metal workers were different too although there is evidence of some values transfer and multi-directional technological cross borrowing. The multitude of permutations associated with metals production and use amply demonstrates that metals participated in the production and reproduction of society. Despite huge temporal and spatial differences there are so many common factors between African metallurgy and that of other regions of the world. For example, the role of magic and ritual in metal working is almost universal be it in Bolivia, Nepal, Malawi, Timna, Togo or Zimbabwe. Similarly, techniques of mining were constrained by the underlying geology but this should not in any way suggest that Africa’s metallurgy was derivative or that the continent had no initiative. Rather it demonstrates that when confronted with similar challenges, humanity in different regions of the world responded to identical challenges in predictable ways mediated as mediated by the prevailing cultural context. The success of the use of historical and ethnographic data in understanding variation and improvisation in African metallurgical practices flags the potential utility of these sources in Asia, Latin America and Europe. Some nuance is however needed because it is simply naïve to assume that everything depicted in the history or ethnography has a parallel in the past and vice versa. Rather, the confluence of archaeology, history and ethnography becomes a pedestal for dialogue between different sources, subjects and ideas that is important for broadening our knowledge of global categories of metallurgical practice.
Category: Social Science

Archaeological Human Remains

Author : Barra Odonnabhain
ISBN : 9783319063706
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 63.6 MB
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This volume addresses the directions that studies of archaeological human remains have taken in a number of different countries, where attitudes range from widespread support to prohibition. Overlooked in many previous publications, this diversity in attitudes is examined through a variety of lenses, including academic origins, national identities, supporting institutions, archaeological context and globalization. The volume situates this diversity of attitudes by examining past and current tendencies in studies of archaeologically-retrieved human remains across a range of geopolitical settings. In a context where methodological approaches have been increasingly standardized in recent decades, the volume poses the question if this standardization has led to a convergence in approaches to archaeological human remains or if significant differences remain between practitioners in different countries. The volume also explores the future trajectories of the study of skeletal remains in the different jurisdictions under scrutiny.
Category: Social Science

An Amazing Journey

Author : Elizabeth Anne Brechter
ISBN : 0615922767
Genre :
File Size : 73.90 MB
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The book you hold in your hand is aptly titled An Amazing Journey. Elizabeth Anne Brechter has written an honest and revealing account of what it is like to live with a serious mental illness. After you read it, you will be amazed at what she has overcome. I hope many people will read her story and appreciate the message of persistence, hope, and courage that she offers. - Nancy Tomes, Professor of History, SUNY
Category:

Photosynthetic Microorganisms

Author : Shailendra Kumar Singh
ISBN : 9783319091235
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 88.11 MB
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This book provides a cohesive overview of carbon concentrating mechanism (CCM) of photosynthetic microorganisms such as cyanobacteria and microalgae. This unique mechanism is by far the most spectacular physiological process in algal growth and productivity. Due to this fact, the study of CCM has captivated phycologists, algal molecular and cellular biologists, botanists, agriculturalists, crop growers, and most recently algal biofuel researchers, around the world. In the brief, the authors draw a contextual in-depth overview, on the basis of the latest findings, to develop an account of the core concepts regarding state-of-the-art of CCM. Subsequent chapters use this account to explore carbon concentrating mechanism of cyanobacteria and microalgae. They highlight the concise summaries of cutting-edge research and integrated industrial applications of photosynthetic microorganism based CO2 mitigation system, across a wide spectrum of energy and environment. The brief also presents sustainable perspectives of carbon concentrating mechanism in the context of current global energy and environmental challenges.
Category: Technology & Engineering

The Intangible Elements Of Culture In Ethnoarchaeological Research

Author : Stefano Biagetti
ISBN : 9783319231532
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 68.26 MB
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This volume focuses on the intangible elements of human cultures, whose relevance in the study of archaeology has often been claimed but rarely practiced. In this book, the authors successfully show how the adoption of ethnoarchaeological perspectives on non-material aspects of cultures can support the development of methodologies aimed at refining the archaeological interpretation of ancient items, technologies, rituals, settlements and even landscape. The volume includes a series of new approaches that can foster the dialogue between archaeology and anthropology in the domain of the intangible knowledge of rural and urban communities. The role of ethnoarchaeology in the study of the intangible heritage is so far largely underexplored, and there is a considerable lack of ethnoarchaeological studies explicitly focused on the less tangible evidence of present and past societies. Fresh case studies will revitalize the theoretical debate around ethnoarchaeology and its applicability in the archaeological and heritage research in the new millennium. Over the past decade, ‘intangible’ has become a key word in anthropological research and in heritage management. Archaeological theories and methods regarding the explorations of the meaning and the significance of artifacts, resources, and settlement patterns are increasingly focusing on non-material evidence. Due to its peculiar characteristics, ethnoarchaeology can effectively foster the development of the study of the intangible cultural heritage of living societies, and highlight its relevance to the study of those of the past.
Category: Social Science

Tourism And Archaeological Heritage Management At Petra

Author : Douglas C. Comer
ISBN : 9781461414803
Genre : History
File Size : 71.28 MB
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Once visited only by the cognoscenti of the ancient world, over the last decade Petra has drawn almost a million visitors in some years. Petra burst into popular consciousness with the release of enormously popular motion picture Raiders of the Lost Ark in 1981. Moviegoers all over the world were introduced to some of the spectacular scenic wonders of Petra: the Siq, a narrow chasm with colorful, towering sandstone walls, and Al-Khazna, the exquisitely carved tomb for a Nabataean king. For centuries, the Nabataeans controlled the trade in precious commodities across the Arabian Peninsula, bring spices from Southeast Asia, incense from present-day Yemen, gold and ivory from Africa, and silk from the Far East across the Empty Quarter to ports on the western Mediterranean. In 1985, Petra was included on the list of World Heritage Sites. Since then, low cost jet travel and a fast highway from the capital city of Amman have made the site increasingly accessible. The Jordanian government has made attracting tourists to Jordan a top priority. For all of the attention that Petra has received, it is still surprisingly poorly understood. A widely accepted chronology of the city, even the dates of major tombs and monuments, has yet to be established. Even the mystery of why and how Arab nomads adopted a sedentary lifestyle and built a great city has yet to be fully explained. Will Petra’s popularity as a tourism destination overshadow the importance of addressing these questions, and, more importantly, will tourism damage the archaeological remains there in ways that make answers more difficult or even impossible to find?
Category: History

The Chemical History Of Color

Author : Mary Virginia Orna
ISBN : 9783642326424
Genre : Science
File Size : 52.44 MB
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In this brief, Mary Virginia Orna details the history of color from the chemical point of view. Beginning with the first recorded uses of color and ending in the development of our modern chemical industry, this rich, yet concise exposition shows us how color pervades every aspect of our lives. Our consciousness, our perceptions, our useful appliances and tools, our playthings, our entertainment, our health, and our diagnostic apparatus – all involve color and are based in no small part on chemistry.
Category: Science

General Relativity From A To B

Author : Robert Geroch
ISBN : 9780226190792
Genre : Science
File Size : 89.78 MB
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"This beautiful little book is certainly suitable for anyone who has had an introductory course in physics and even for some who have not."—Joshua N. Goldberg, Physics Today "An imaginative and convincing new presentation of Einstein's theory of general relativity. . . . The treatment is masterful, continual emphasis being placed on careful discussion and motivation, with the aim of showing how physicists think and develop their ideas."—Choice
Category: Science