THE LOST CITY OF THE EXODUS THE ARCHAEOLOGICAL EVIDENCE BEHIND THE JOURNEY OUT OF EGYPT

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The Lost City Of The Exodus

Author : Ahmed Osman
ISBN : 9781591437710
Genre : Body, Mind & Spirit
File Size : 27.35 MB
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Recent archaeological findings confirm Osman’s 25-year-old discovery of the location of the city of the Exodus • Explains why modern scholars have been unable to find the city of the Exodus: they are looking in the wrong historical period and thus the wrong region of Egypt • Details the author’s extensive research on Hebrew scriptures and ancient Egyptian texts and records, which allowed him to pinpoint the Exodus site • Reveals his effort to have his finding confirmed by the Egyptian government, including his debates with Zahi Hawass, Egyptian Minister for Antiquities Affairs When the first archaeologists visited Egypt in the late 1800s, they arrived in the eastern Nile Delta to verify the events described in the biblical Book of Exodus. Several locations believed to be the city of the Exodus were found but all were later rejected for lack of evidence. This led many scholars to dismiss the Exodus narrative merely as a myth that borrowed from accounts of the Hyksos expulsion from Egypt. But as Ahmed Osman shows, the events of Exodus have a historical basis and the ruins of the ancient city of Zarw, where the Road to Canaan began, have been found. Drawing on decades of research as well as recent archaeological findings in Egypt, Ahmed Osman reveals the exact location of the lost city of the Exodus as well as his 25-year effort to have this finding confirmed by the Egyptian government, including his heated debates with Zahi Hawass, former Egyptian Minister for Antiquities Affairs. He explains why modern scholars have been unable to find the city of the Exodus: they are looking in the wrong historical period and thus the wrong region of Egypt. He details his extensive research on the Pentateuch of the Hebrew scriptures, the historical scenes recorded in the great hall of Karnak, and other ancient source texts, which allowed him to pinpoint the Exodus site after he discovered that the Exodus happened not during the pharaonic reign of Ramses II but during that of his grandfather Ramses I. Osman concluded that the biblical city of the Exodus was to be found at Tell Heboua at the ruins of the fortified city of Zarw, the royal city of Ramses I--far from the Exodus locations theorized by previous archaeologists and scholars. In 2012, after 20 years of archaeological work, the location of Zarw was confirmed by Egyptian officials exactly where Osman said it would be 25 years ago. Thus, Osman shows that, time and again, if we take the creators of the source texts at their word, they will prove to be right.
Category: Body, Mind & Spirit

Out Of Egypt

Author : Ahmed Osman
ISBN : 0099277654
Genre : Christianity
File Size : 50.81 MB
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Category: Christianity

The Exodus Evidence In Pictures The Bible S Exodus

Author : Paul Backholer
ISBN : 9781907066306
Genre : Religion
File Size : 60.27 MB
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Experience a photographic search for the Bible's exodus with 100+ colour photos. Join two authors and television broadcasters on their four year quest to investigate the mystery of the Hebrew exodus out of Egypt. Has archaeology provided us with any data to indicate that Joseph, Moses and ancient Israel were in Egypt? What was the Red Sea, where was the exodus route and can Mount Sinai be found today? These are the questions that must be answered in this exciting photographic expedition in Egypt. Witness in full colour pictures, scenes of Semitic people with multi-coloured coats entering ancient Egypt, find Semitic settlements in the Bible's land of Goshen and discover how archaeological finds combined with new computer technology can help reveal the face of Joseph and the exodus pharaoh! See photos of ancient slaves making bricks, discover how lost cities were found, plus enter the tombs and the temples of pharaohs. Hunt with our explorers as they search for the Red Sea, trace the possible exodus routes and watch as they examine the first reference to ancient Israel found outside of the Bible!
Category: Religion

Ancient Israel In Sinai

Author : James K. Hoffmeier
ISBN : 9780199882601
Genre : Bibles
File Size : 28.61 MB
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In his pathbreaking Israel in Egypt James K. Hoffmeier sought to refute the claims of scholars who doubt the historical accuracy of the biblical account of the Israelite sojourn in Egypt. Analyzing a wealth of textual, archaeological, and geographical evidence, he put forth a thorough defense of the biblical tradition. Hoffmeier now turns his attention to the Wilderness narratives of Exodus, Leviticus, and Numbers. As director of the North Sinai Archaeological Project, Hoffmeier has led several excavations that have uncovered important new evidence supporting the Wilderness narratives, including a major New Kingdom fort at Tell el-Borg that was occupied during the Israelite exodus. Hoffmeier employs these archaeological findings to shed new light on the route of the exodus from Egypt. He also investigates the location of Mount Sinai, and offers a rebuttal to those who have sought to locate it in northern Arabia and not in the Sinai peninsula as traditionally thought. Hoffmeier addresses how and when the Israelites could have lived in Sinai, as well as whether it would have been possible for Moses to write down the law received at Mount Sinai. Building on the new evidence for the Israelite sojourn in Egypt, Hoffmeier explores the Egyptian influence on the Wilderness tradition. For example, he finds Egyptian elements in Israelite religious practices, including the use of the tabernacle, and points to a significant number of Egyptian personal names among the generation of the exodus. The origin of Israel is a subject of much debate and the wilderness tradition has been marginalized by those who challenge its credibility. In Ancient Israel in Sinai, Hoffmeier brings the Wilderness tradition to the forefront and makes a case for its authenticity based on solid evidence and intelligent analysis.
Category: Bibles

Moses And Monotheism

Author : Sigmund Freud
ISBN : 9788898301799
Genre : History
File Size : 30.7 MB
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The book consists of three essays and is an extension of Freud’s work on psychoanalytic theory as a means of generating hypotheses about historical events. Freud hypothesizes that Moses was not Hebrew, but actually born into Ancient Egyptian nobility and was probably a follower of Akhenaten, an ancient Egyptian monotheist. Freud contradicts the biblical story of Moses with his own retelling of events, claiming that Moses only led his close followers into freedom during an unstable period in Egyptian history after Akhenaten (ca. 1350 BCE) and that they subsequently killed Moses in rebellion and later combined with another monotheistic tribe in Midian based on a volcanic God, Jahweh. Freud explains that years after the murder of Moses, the rebels regretted their action, thus forming the concept of the Messiah as a hope for the return of Moses as the Saviour of the Israelites. Freud said that the guilt from the murder of Moses is inherited through the generations; this guilt then drives the Jews to religion to make them feel better.
Category: History

The Exodus Reality

Author : Scott Alan Roberts
ISBN : 9781601635006
Genre : Body, Mind & Spirit
File Size : 84.44 MB
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In this groundbreaking work, the authors reexamine humanity’s most enduring account of bondage, emancipation, and freedom. The Great Exodus is the story of how one man, empowered by divine epiphany, brought the mighty ancient kingdom of Egypt to its knees. For thousands of years, this story has bolstered the faithful of three major religions, though little historical data confirms it. So the question must be asked: Did it ever really happen? Roberts, a historian and theologian, and Ward, an archaeologist, Egyptologist, and anthropologist, dig deeply into historical records to answer the most vexing questions: Is there any historical evidence for the biblical account of the Great Exodus? Was Moses a real person? Where is the Biblical Mount Sinai? What is the Ark of the Covenant, and where did it come from? Why did Moses write about the Serpent and the Nephilim? Is there a Templar and Masonic connection to the events and personages in the story? Did the Exodus take place under Amenhotep II or Amenhotep III, two pharaohs of the same royal house separated by two generations and 80-odd years? Or were Thutmoses III, Hatshepsut, and Amenhotep Son of Hapu at the core of the action? The authors present two opposing, yet strangely interlaced historical accounts for the Exodus, naming the historical pharaohs and surprising candidates for the historical Moses. While Roberts presents an account that finds its moorings in the efficacy of scriptural historicity, Ward presents a new and completely unique theory for the Exodus and its cast of characters.
Category: Body, Mind & Spirit

Moses And Akhenaten

Author : Ahmed Osman
ISBN : 9781591438847
Genre : History
File Size : 27.66 MB
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A reinterpretation of biblical and Egyptian history that shows Moses and the Pharaoh Akhenaten to be one and the same. • Provides dramatic evidence from both archaeological and documentary sources. • A radical challenge to long-established beliefs on the origin of Semitic religion. During his reign, the Pharaoh Akhenaten was able to abolish the complex pantheon of the ancient Egyptian religion and replace it with a single god, the Aten, who had no image or form. Seizing on the striking similarities between the religious vision of this “heretic” pharaoh and the teachings of Moses, Sigmund Freud was the first to argue that Moses was in fact an Egyptian. Now Ahmed Osman, using recent archaeological discoveries and historical documents, contends that Akhenaten and Moses were one and the same man. In a stunning retelling of the Exodus story, Osman details the events of Moses/Akhenaten's life: how he was brought up by Israelite relatives, ruled Egypt for seventeen years, angered many of his subjects by replacing the traditional Egyptian pantheon with worship of the Aten, and was forced to abdicate the throne. Retreating to the Sinai with his Egyptian and Israelite supporters, he died out of the sight of his followers, presumably at the hands of Seti I, after an unsuccessful attempt to regain his throne. Osman reveals the Egyptian components in the monotheism preached by Moses as well as his use of Egyptian royal ritual and Egyptian religious expression. He shows that even the Ten Commandments betray the direct influence of Spell 125 in the Egyptian Book of the Dead. Moses and Akhenaten provides a radical challenge to long-standing beliefs concerning the origin of Semitic religion and the puzzle of Akhenaten's deviation from ancient Egyptian tradition. In fact, if Osman's contentions are correct, many major Old Testament figures would be of Egyptian origin.
Category: History

Christianity An Ancient Egyptian Religion

Author : Ahmed Osman
ISBN : 9781591438854
Genre : History
File Size : 72.22 MB
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Contends that the roots of Christian belief come not from Judaea but from Egypt • Shows that the Romans fabricated their own version of Christianity and burned the Alexandrian library as a way of maintaining political power • Builds on the arguments of the author's previous books The Hebrew Pharaohs of Egypt, Moses and Akhenaten, and Jesus in the House of the Pharaohs In Christianity: An Ancient Egyptian Religion author Ahmed Osman contends that the roots of Christian belief spring not from Judaea but from Egypt. He compares the chronology of the Old Testament and its factual content with ancient Egyptian records to show that the major characters of the Hebrew scriptures--including Solomon, David, Moses, and Joshua--are based on Egyptian historical figures. He further suggests that not only were these personalities and the stories associated with them cultivated on the banks of the Nile, but the major tenets of Christian belief--the One God, the Trinity, the hierarchy of heaven, life after death, and the virgin birth--are all Egyptian in origin. He likewise provides a convincing argument that Jesus himself came out of Egypt. With the help of modern archaeological findings, Osman shows that Christianity survived as an Egyptian mystery cult until the fourth century A.D., when the Romans embarked on a mission of suppression and persecution. In A.D. 391 the Roman-appointed Bishop Theophilus led a mob into the Serapeum quarter of Alexandria and burned the Alexandrian library, destroying all records of the true Egyptian roots of Christianity. The Romans' version of Christianity, manufactured to maintain political power, claimed that Christianity originated in Judaea. In Christianity: An Ancient Egyptian Religion Osman restores Egypt to its rightful place in the history of Christianity.
Category: History

Exodus Lost

Author : S. C. Compton
ISBN : 1439276838
Genre : History
File Size : 22.5 MB
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Aztec and Mayan chronicles told of voyagers who arrived from across the Atlantic Ocean centuries before Columbus. Remembered as founding fathers, they hailed from a remote land called Tlillan Tlapallan, "Black Land Red Land." Now, for the first time, Exodus Lost presents compelling evidence that this lost homeland was Kemet Deshret, "Black Land Red Land," the ancient Egyptian name for Egypt. From this follow a series of groundbreaking discoveries into the origins of Mexican civilization, the roots of Western civilization, the creation of the alphabet, the history of the pyramids, and even new archaeological evidence for several major Bible stories. Enter a world of exploration and discovery, mystery and revelation. Whether your passion is archaeology or religion, history or simply a great adventure, Exodus Lost delivers. Beautifully illustrated with 126 photos, maps, and engravings.
Category: History

Israel S Exodus In Transdisciplinary Perspective

Author : Thomas E. Levy
ISBN : 9783319047683
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 87.17 MB
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The Bible's grand narrative about Israel's Exodus from Egypt is central to Biblical religion, Jewish, Christian, and Muslim identity and the formation of the academic disciplines studying the ancient Near East. It has also been a pervasive theme in artistic and popular imagination. Israel's Exodus in Transdisciplinary Perspective is a pioneering work surveying this tradition in unprecedented breadth, combining archaeological discovery, quantitative methodology and close literary reading. Archaeologists, Egyptologists, Biblical Scholars, Computer Scientists, Geoscientists and other experts contribute their diverse approaches in a novel, transdisciplinary consideration of ancient topography, Egyptian and Near Eastern parallels to the Exodus story, the historicity of the Exodus, the interface of the Exodus question with archaeological fieldwork on emergent Israel, the formation of biblical literature, and the cultural memory of the Exodus in ancient Israel and beyond. This edited volume contains research presented at the groundbreaking symposium "Out of Egypt: Israel’s Exodus Between Text and Memory, History and Imagination" held in 2013 at the Qualcomm Institute of the University of California, San Diego. The combination of 44 contributions by an international group of scholars from diverse disciplines makes this the first such transdisciplinary study of ancient text and history. In the original conference and with this new volume, revolutionary media, such as a 3D immersive virtual reality environment, impart innovative, Exodus-based research to a wider audience. Out of archaeology, ancient texts, science and technology emerge an up-to-date picture of the Exodus for the 21st Century and a new standard for collaborative research.
Category: Social Science