THE LIFE GIVING STONE ETHNOARCHAEOLOGY OF MAYA METATES

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The Life Giving Stone

Author : Michael T. Searcy
ISBN : 9780816529094
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 29.81 MB
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In The Life-Giving Stone, Michael Searcy provides a thought-provoking ethnoarchaeological account of metate and mano manufacture, marketing, and use among Guatemalan Maya for whom these stone implements are still essential equipment in everyday life and diet. Although many archaeologists have regarded these artifacts simply as common everyday tools and therefore unremarkable, SearcyÕs methodology reveals how, for the ancient Maya, the manufacture and use of grinding stones significantly impacted their physical and economic welfare. In tracing the life cycle of these tools from production to discard for the modern Maya, Searcy discovers rich customs and traditions that indicate how metates and manos have continued to sustain lifeÑnot just literally, in terms of food, but also in terms of culture. His research is based on two years of fieldwork among three Mayan groups, in which he documented behaviors associated with these tools during their procurement, production, acquisition, use, discard, and re-use. SearcyÕs investigation documents traditional practices that are rapidly being lost or dramatically modified. In few instances will it be possible in the future to observe metates and manos as central elements in household provisioning or follow their path from hand-manufacture to market distribution and to intergenerational transmission. In this careful inquiry into the cultural significance of a simple tool, SearcyÕs ethnographic observations are guided both by an interest in how grinding stone traditions have persisted and how they are changing today, and by the goal of enhancing the archaeological interpretation of these stones, which were so fundamental to pre-Hispanic agriculturalists with corn-based cuisines.
Category: Social Science

Social Perspectives On Ancient Lives From Paleothnobotanical Data

Author : Matthew P. Sayre
ISBN : 9783319528496
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 47.22 MB
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This volume contributes to the emerging topic of social paleoethnobotany with a series of papers exploring dynamic aspects of past social life, particularly the day-to-day practices and politics of procuring, preparing, and consuming plants. The contributors to this volume illustrate how one can bridge differences between the natural and social sciences through the more socially-focused interpretations of botanical datasets. The chapters in this volume draw on a diversity of plant-derived datasets, macrobotanical, microbotanical, and molecular, which contribute to general paleoethnobotanical practice today. They also carefully consider the contexts in which the plant remains were recovered. These studies illustrate that the richest interpretations come from projects that are able to consider the widest range of data types, particularly as they aim to move beyond simple descriptions of food items and environmental settings. The authors in this volume address several themes including: the collection of wild resources, the domestication of crops and spread of agriculture, the role of plant remains in questions regarding domestic life, ritual, and gender as well as the broader implications of a socially-engaged paleoethnobotany. These studies point a path forward for the constantly evolving field of paleoethnobotany, one that is methodologically rigorous and theoretically engaged. Together, these papers shed light on ways in which the specialized analysis of plant remains can contribute to theory building and advancing archaeological understanding of past lifeways.
Category: Social Science

Religion History And Place In The Origin Of Settled Life

Author : Ian Hodder
ISBN : 9781607327370
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 56.41 MB
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This volume explores the role of religion and ritual in the origin of settled life in the Middle East, focusing on the repetitive construction of houses or cult buildings in the same place. Prominent archaeologists, anthropologists, and scholars of religion working at several of the region’s most important sites—such as Çatalhöyük, Göbekli Tepe, Körtik Tepe, and Aşıklı Höyük—contend that religious factors significantly affected the timing and stability of settled economic structures. Contributors argue that the long-term social relationships characteristic of delayed-return agricultural systems must be based on historical ties to place and to ancestors. They define different forms of history-making, including nondiscursive routinized practices as well as commemorative memorialization. They consider the timing in the Neolithic of an emerging concern with history-making in place in relation to the adoption of farming and settled life in regional sequences. They explore whether such correlations indicate the causal processes in which history-making, ritual practices, agricultural intensification, population increase, and social competition all played a role. Religion, History, and Place in the Origin of Settled Life takes a major step forward in understanding the adoption of farming and a settled way of life in the Middle East by foregrounding the roles of history-making and religious ritual. This work is relevant to students and scholars of Near Eastern archaeology, as well as those interested in the origins of agriculture and social complexity or the social role of religion in the past. Contributors: Kurt W. Alt, Mark R. Anspach, Marion Benz, Lee Clare, Anna Belfer-Cohen, Morris Cohen, Oliver Dietrich, Güneş Duru, Yilmaz S. Erdal, Nigel Goring-Morris, Ian Hodder, Rosemary A. Joyce, Nicola Lercari, Wendy Matthews, Jens Notroff, Vecihi Özkaya, Feridun S. Şahin, F. Leron Shults, Devrim Sönmez, Christina Tsoraki, Wesley Wildman
Category: Social Science

Caring For Place

Author : E N Anderson
ISBN : 9781315432489
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 35.9 MB
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How can cultural forms motivate people to care about their environment? While important scientific data about ecosystems is mushrooming, E. N. Anderson argues in this powerful new book that putting effective conservation into practice depends primarily on social solidarity and emotional factors. Marshaling decades of research on cultures across several continents, he shows how societies have been more or less successful in sustainably managing their environments based on collective engagements such as religion, art, song, myth, and story. This provocative and deeply felt book by a leading writer and scholar in human ecology and anthropology will be read and debated widely for years to come.
Category: Social Science

Archaeology

Author : Brian M. Fagan
ISBN : 9781317350118
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 33.26 MB
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Method and Theory in Archaeology Archaeology: A Brief Introduction is an introduction to the fundamental principles of method and theory in archaeology, exposing students to archaeology as a career. The text begins by covering the goals of archaeology, and then moves on to consider the basic concepts of culture, time, and space, by discussing the finding and excavation of archaeological sites. By providing a distinct emphasis on the ethics behind archaeology, and how we should act as stewards of the finite records of the human past, Archaeology: A Brief Introduction continues to be a book with a truly international perspective, not simply focusing on North America or Europe. Teaching and Learning Experience Improve Critical Thinking - Archaeology: A Brief Introduction's "Archaeology and You" chapter provides students with career advice in an era when archaeology is transitioning from predominantly academic to professional. Engage Students - Each chapter within Archaeology: A Brief Introduction highlights important finds that have shaped our archaeological perspective, and a global perspective that shows students that archaeology is the most global of all sciences, encompassing all of humanity.
Category: Social Science

European Union Law For International Business

Author : Bernard Bishop
ISBN : 9781139480918
Genre : Law
File Size : 42.57 MB
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Written specifically for exporters and those without legal training, this book is an introduction to the business laws of the European Union that need to be understood by those operating outside the EU. It is a practical guide to the regulatory and procedural issues that exporters and businesses need to be aware of. While providing an overview of how the EU operates as a governing body, the book addresses the key matters that exporters will face during their business transactions. Topics covered include: • Direct export transactions to the EU • Exporting via an agent or distributor • Customs laws and procedures • Resolving international business disputes • How to establish a permanent business presence within the EU The book uses case studies to illustrate how these transaction types can be applied to real world business dealings. It is an essential resource for anyone involved in international business with customers in the European Union.
Category: Law

Transformation By Fire

Author : Gabriel Cooney
ISBN : 9780816531141
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 33.8 MB
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Transformation by Fire offers a current assessment of the archaeological research on the widespread social practice of cremation. Editors Ian Kuijt, Colin P. Quinn, and Gabriel Cooney chart a path for the development of interpretive archaeology surrounding this complex social process.
Category: Social Science

New Approaches To Old Stones

Author : Yorke M. Rowan
ISBN : 9781134949717
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 36.24 MB
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Ground stone artefacts were widely used in food production in prehistory. However, the archaeological community has widely neglected the dataset of ground stone artefacts until now. 'New Approaches to Old Stones' offers a theoretical and methodological analysis of the archaeological data pertaining to ground stone tools. The essays draw on a range of case studies - from the Levant, Egypt, Crete, Anatolia, Mexico and North America - to examine ground stone technologies. From medieval Islamic stone cooking vessels and late Minoan stone vases, to the use of stone in ritual and as a symbol of luxury, 'New Approaches to Old Stones' offers a radical reassessment of the impact of ground-stone artefacts on technological change, production and exchange.
Category: Social Science

Cuello

Author : Norman Hammond
ISBN : 9780521384223
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 62.61 MB
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An unmatched picture of the Mayan tropical forest community emerges from this well-documented study.
Category: Social Science