The Horse The Wheel And Language

Author : David W. Anthony
ISBN : 1400831105
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 72.72 MB
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Roughly half the world's population speaks languages derived from a shared linguistic source known as Proto-Indo-European. But who were the early speakers of this ancient mother tongue, and how did they manage to spread it around the globe? Until now their identity has remained a tantalizing mystery to linguists, archaeologists, and even Nazis seeking the roots of the Aryan race. The Horse, the Wheel, and Language lifts the veil that has long shrouded these original Indo-European speakers, and reveals how their domestication of horses and use of the wheel spread language and transformed civilization. Linking prehistoric archaeological remains with the development of language, David Anthony identifies the prehistoric peoples of central Eurasia's steppe grasslands as the original speakers of Proto-Indo-European, and shows how their innovative use of the ox wagon, horseback riding, and the warrior's chariot turned the Eurasian steppes into a thriving transcontinental corridor of communication, commerce, and cultural exchange. He explains how they spread their traditions and gave rise to important advances in copper mining, warfare, and patron-client political institutions, thereby ushering in an era of vibrant social change. Anthony also describes his fascinating discovery of how the wear from bits on ancient horse teeth reveals the origins of horseback riding. The Horse, the Wheel, and Language solves a puzzle that has vexed scholars for two centuries--the source of the Indo-European languages and English--and recovers a magnificent and influential civilization from the past.
Category: Social Science

The Lost World Of Old Europe

Author : David W. Anthony
ISBN : 0691143889
Genre : History
File Size : 48.84 MB
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In the prehistoric Copper Age, long before cities, writing, or the invention of the wheel, Old Europe was among the most culturally rich regions in the world. Its inhabitants lived in prosperous agricultural towns. The ubiquitous goddess figurines found in their houses and shrines have triggered intense debates about women's roles. The Lost World of Old Europe is the accompanying catalog for an exhibition at New York University's Institute for the Study of the Ancient World. This superb volume features essays by leading archaeologists as well as breathtaking color photographs cataloguing the objects, some illustrated here for the first time. The heart of Old Europe was in the lower Danube valley, in contemporary Bulgaria and Romania. Old European coppersmiths were the most advanced metal artisans in the world. Their intense interest in acquiring copper, Aegean shells, and other rare valuables gave rise to far-reaching trading networks. In their graves, the bodies of Old European chieftains were adorned with pounds of gold and copper ornaments. Their funerals were without parallel in the Near East or Egypt. The exhibition represents the first time these rare objects have appeared in the United States. An unparalleled introduction to Old Europe's cultural, technological, and artistic legacy, The Lost World of Old Europe includes essays by Douglass Bailey, John Chapman, Cornelia-Magda Lazarovici, Ioan Opris and Catalin Bem, Ernst Pernicka, Dragomir Nicolae Popovici, Michel Séfériadès, and Vladimir Slavchev.
Category: History

Das R Tsel Der Donauzivilisation

Author : Harald Haarmann
ISBN : 9783406622113
Genre : History
File Size : 24.99 MB
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In den letzten Jahren haben Archäologen immer mehr Belege dafür gefunden, dass es zwischen dem 6. und dem 4. Jahrtausend v. Chr. auf dem Balkan eine Hochkultur gab, die bereits vor den Mesopotamiern die Schrift kannte. Harald Haarmann führt in diesem Buch erstmals umfassend in diese bisher unbekannte, in vielem noch rätselhafte alteuropäische Kultur ein. Er beschreibt Handelswege und Siedlungen, Kunst und Handwerk, Mythologie und Schrift der Donauzivilisation, geht ihren Ursprüngen am Schwarzen Meer nach und zeigt auf, welchen Einfluss sie auf die Kultur der griechischen Antike und des Vorderen Orients hatte.
Category: History

Die Erfindung Der G Tter

Author : Gerhard Bott
ISBN : 9783735729804
Genre : Religion
File Size : 78.79 MB
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Basierend auf jüngsten natur- und kulturwissenschaftlichen Erkenntnissen legt der Autor eine ideologie-kritische Untersuchung und Revision der herrschenden Lehre unserer »Ur-Geschichte« und der Entwicklung des »Glaubens« vor: »Die Erfindung der Götter« männlichen Geschlechts beginnt erst im Neolithikum, vor etwa 10.000 Jahren, d.h. im letzten Zehntel unserer Kulturgeschichte, die vor 100.000 Jahren mit der Totenbestattung ihren Anfang nahm. Es geht darum, die sozialen Verhältnisse jener Zeit zu begreifen; denn sie bilden die Voraussetzung für die Erfindung von Götter – Familien und für die Entwicklung und Durchsetzung einer mythologisch verfaßten Politischen Theologie, die das angebliche Wollen und Wirken, die Macht und die Herrschaft der von den Priester-Königen erfundenen Gottheiten beschreibt und Gehorsam einfordert. Die sozialen Verhältnisse werden jeweils auf den Himmel projiziert: Im Paläolithikum wurde das All repräsentiert durch eine selbstentstandene UR-GÖTTIN. wie dies sogar noch die griechische GAIA war. Erst im Neolithikum erscheint in der Heiligen Hochzeit neben dieser UR-MUTTER der männliche Fruchtbarkeits – Gott, der anfangs nur als ihr Sohn gedacht und mythographiert werden kann: Eine Mutter-Sohn-Theologie folgt auf die als mono-genetisch vorgestellte Grosse Mutter. Wie ihr SOHN als »Stier seiner Mutter« allmählich aufsteigt zum Vegetations- Regen-, Donner-, Sonnen- und Himmels-Gott, bis er schließlich als omnipotenter GOTT-VATER den Thron der »Mutter aller Götter« besteigt und, ohne die Göttin, sogar allein zeugt, ist das Thema des Buches. Es widerlegt das patriarchale Wunschdenken, und die Irrlehre einer dadurch kontaminierten Kulturwissenschaft, es habe »von Natur aus« »schon immer« einen dominanten UR-VATER gegeben, »auf Erden wie im Himmel«.
Category: Religion

The History Of Central Asia

Author : Christoph Baumer
ISBN : 9781780760605
Genre : History
File Size : 66.76 MB
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An illustrated history of one of the most compelling and mysterious regions on earth. It is a unique travelogue and resource and will appeal to scholars and students of antiquity, history, archaeology and religious studies. The epic plains and arid deserts of Central Asia have witnessed some of the greatest migrations, as well as many of the most transformative developments, in the history of civilization. Christoph Baumer's ambitious treatment of the region charts the 3000-year drama of Scythians and Sarmatians; Soviets and transcontinental Silk Roads; trade routes and the transmission of ideas across the steppes; and, the breathless and brutal conquests of Alexander the Great and Chinghiz Khan.
Category: History

The Silk Road A Very Short Introduction

Author : James A. Millward
ISBN : 9780199323852
Genre : History
File Size : 72.81 MB
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The phrase "silk road" evokes vivid scenes of merchants leading camel caravans across vast stretches to trade exotic goods in glittering Oriental bazaars, of pilgrims braving bandits and frozen mountain passes to spread their faith across Asia. Looking at the reality behind these images, this Very Short Introduction illuminates the historical background against which the silk road flourished, shedding light on the importance of old-world cultural exchange to Eurasian and world history. On the one hand, historian James A. Millward treats the silk road broadly, to stand in for the cross-cultural communication between peoples across the Eurasian continent since at least the Neolithic era. On the other, he highlights specific examples of goods and ideas exchanged between the Mediterranean, Persia, India, and China, along with the significance of these exchanges. While including silks, spices, and travelers' tales of colorful locales, the book explains the dynamics of Central Eurasian history that promoted Silk Road interactions--especially the role of nomad empires--highlighting the importance of the biological, technological, artistic, intellectual, and religious interchanges across the continent. Millward shows that these exchanges had a profound effect on the old world that was akin to, if not on the scale of, modern globalization. He also disputes the idea that the silk road declined after the collapse of the Mongol empire or the opening of direct sea routes from Europe to Asia, showing how silk road phenomena continued through the early modern and modern expansion of the Russian and Chinese states across Central Asia. Millward concludes that the idea of the silk road has remained powerful, not only as a popular name for boutiques and restaurants, but also in modern politics and diplomacy, such as U.S. Secretary of State Hilary Clinton's "Silk Road Initiative" for India, Pakistan, and Afghanistan.
Category: History

The Oxford Handbook Of Environmental History

Author : Andrew C. Isenberg
ISBN : 9780199394470
Genre : Science
File Size : 46.72 MB
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The field of environmental history emerged just decades ago but has established itself as one of the most innovative and important new approaches to history, one that bridges the human and natural world, the humanities and the sciences. With the current trend towards internationalizing history, environmental history is perhaps the quintessential approach to studying subjects outside the nation-state model, with pollution, global warming, and other issues affecting the earth not stopping at national borders. With 25 essays, this Handbook is global in scope and innovative in organization, looking at the field thematically through such categories as climate, disease, oceans, the body, energy, consumerism, and international relations.
Category: Science

The Global Prehistory Of Human Migration

Author : Immanuel Ness
ISBN : 9781118970584
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 45.59 MB
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Previously published as the first volume of The Encyclopedia of Global Human Migration, this work is devoted exclusively to prehistoric migration, covering all periods and places from the first hominin migrations out of Africa through the end of prehistory. Presents interdisciplinary coverage of this topic, including scholarship from the fields of archaeology, anthropology, genetics, biology, linguistics, and more Includes contributions from a diverse international team of authors, representing 17 countries and a variety of disciplines Divided into two sections, covering the Pleistocene and Holocene; each section examines human migration through chapters that focus on different regional and disciplinary lenses
Category: Social Science