THE HISTORY AND SEDIMENTOLOGY OF ANCIENT REEF SYSTEMS

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The History And Sedimentology Of Ancient Reef Systems

Author : George D. Stanley Jr.
ISBN : 9781461512196
Genre : Science
File Size : 31.48 MB
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From the Preface: The chapters of this book contain contributions from an international group of specialists. They address some important themes in both modern and ancient reef systems. Some chapters contain `snapshots' of reefs of particular intervals, while others touch on relevant themes of both modern and ancient reefs - themes that weave their way through reefs of all ages. This book opens and sets the stage with an introduction to both modern and ancient reefs and reef ecosystems. This chapter is also intended as a basic introduction for students, general geologists, and professionals or others who may be unfamiliar with reefs and reef ecosystems. The chapter addresses the living coral reef ecosystem, stressing among other relevant factors, the importance of ecological and physical interactions between the organisms and their environment. The chapter also addresses mass extinction and provides a general overview of the history of reefs.
Category: Science

Coral Bleaching

Author : Madeleine J. H. van Oppen
ISBN : 9783540697756
Genre : Science
File Size : 28.91 MB
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One of the most dire consequences of global climate change for coral reefs is the increased frequency and severity of mass coral bleaching events. This volume provides information on the causes and consequences of coral bleaching for coral reef ecosystems, from the level of individual colonies to ecosystems and at different spatial scales, as well as a detailed analysis of how it can be detected and quantified. Future scenarios based on modelling efforts and the potential mechanisms of acclimatisation and adaptation are reviewed. The much more severe coral bleaching events experienced on Caribbean coral reefs (compared with those of the Indo-Pacific) are discussed, as are the differences in bleaching susceptibility and recovery that have been observed on smaller geographic scales.
Category: Science

Quaternary Coral Reef Systems

Author : Lucien F. Montaggioni
ISBN : 0080932762
Genre : Science
File Size : 56.98 MB
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This book presents both state-of-the art knowledge from Recent coral reefs (1.8 million to a few centuries old) gained since the eighties, and introduces geologists, oceanographers and environmentalists to sedimentological and paleoecological studies of an ecosystem encompassing some of the world's richest biodiversity. Scleractinian reefs first appeared about 300 million years ago. Today coral reef systems provide some of the most sensitive gauges of environmental change, expressing the complex interplay of chemical, physical, geological and biological factors. The topics covered will include the evolutionary history of reef systems and some of the main reef builders since the Cenozoic, the effects of biological and environmental forces on the zonation of reef systems and the distribution of reef organisms and on reef community dynamics through time, changes in the geometry, anatomy and stratigraphy of reef bodies and systems in relation to changes in sea level and tectonics, the distribution patterns of sedimentary (framework or detrital) facies in relation to those of biological communities, the modes and rates of reef accretion (progradation, aggradation versus backstepping; coral growth versus reef growth), the hydrodynamic forces controlling water circulation through reef structures and their relationship to early diagenetic processes, the major diagenetic processes affecting reef bodies through time (replacement and diddolution, dolomitization, phosphatogenesis), and the record of climate change by both individual coral colonies and reef systems over the Quaternary. * state-of-the-art knowledge from Recent corals reefs * introduction to sedimentological and paleoecological studies of an ecosystems encompassing some of the world's richest biodiversity. * authors are internationally regarded authorities on the subject * trustworthy information
Category: Science

Reef Evolution

Author : Rachel Wood
ISBN : 0198577842
Genre : Science
File Size : 44.73 MB
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If one does not understand the biology of the coral reef, one does not understand the reef at all. So, using more than 250 illustrations and specially drawn ecological reconstructions of reef communities, Rachel Wood provides a unique evolutionary approach to the understanding of ancient coral reef ecosystems. Marine organisms have aggregated to form reefs for over 3.5 billion years--creating the largest biologically constructed feature on earth, some visible from space. However, their study has been largely descriptive. Reef Evolution, documents the fundamental biological processes and innovations which have molded the evolution of reef ecosystems and given rise to the highly complex communities found today. The appearance of clonality, the acquisition of photosymbiosis, and the radiation of predator groups are all discussed in depth. Data from the fossil record documents the evolutionary development of reef ecosystems. Although reefs only occupy a small percentage of the oceans, their importance to the marine environment is many-faceted and global. They create harbors and allow the development of shallow basins with associated mangrove or seagrass communities; they protect coastlines from erosion; are involved in the regulation of atmospheric carbon, which in turn contributes to climate control. can provide extensive oil and gas reservoirs. From a biological standpoint, however, the great significance of reefs lies in their ability to generate and maintain a substantial proportion of tropical marine biodiversity. This unique interdisciplinary approach provides students and researchers in evolution, marine biology, ecology, paleontology, biodiversity, and geology with a text that will allow them to truly understand the biological innovations which have molded the evolution of coral reefs and given rise to the highly complex communities found today.
Category: Science

Carbonate Sedimentology And Sequence Stratigraphy

Author : Wolfgang Schlager
ISBN : 9781565761162
Genre : Science
File Size : 26.8 MB
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Carbonate Sedimentology and Sequence Stratigraphy - Sedimentology and stratigraphy are neighbors yet distinctly separate entities within the earth sciences. Sedimentology searches for the common traits of sedimentary rocks regardless of age as it reconstructs environments and processes of deposition and erosion from the sediment record. Stratigraphy, by contrast, concentrates on changes with time, on measuring time and correlating coeval events. Sequence stratigraphy straddles the boundary between the two fields. This book, dedicated to carbonate rocks, approaches sequence stratigraphy from its sedimentologic background. This book attempts to communicate by combining different specialities and different lines of reasoning, and by searching for principles underlying the bewildering diversity of carbonate rocks. It provides enough general background, in introductory chapters and appendices, to be easily digestible for sedimentologists and stratigraphers as well as earth scientists at large
Category: Science

Deep Sea Sediments

Author : Heiko Hüneke
ISBN : 9780444530004
Genre : NATURE
File Size : 62.5 MB
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'Deep-Sea Sediments' focuses on the sedimentary processes operating within the various modern and ancient deep-sea environments. The chapters track the way of sedimentary particles from continental erosion or production in the marine realm, to transport into the deep sea, to final deposition on the sea floor.
Category: NATURE

American Paleontologist

Author :
ISBN : STANFORD:36105115002912
Genre : Paleontology
File Size : 72.94 MB
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Category: Paleontology

Reef Diagenesis

Author : J.H. Schroeder
ISBN : 9783642828126
Genre : Science
File Size : 43.80 MB
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1 2 J. H. SCHROEDER and B. H. PURSER 1 Introduction A symposium convened during the Vth International Coral Reef Congress in Papeete, Tahiti, 1985, encouraged the editors to assemble this volume of case studies by participating and, especially, by nonparticipating scientists. An attempt was made to include case studies from various regions and geological periods, carried out on various scales from regional to ultrastructural. We hope to present an overall view of reef diagenesis. Although the volume focuses on reef diagenesis, fields also to be considered are biology, paleontology, and sedimentary facies distribution, as they provide the context and, to some extent, encompass the determinants of diagenetic processes. The scope has been limited to reef diagenesis because we feel that reefs have relatively clearly defined geometries, which facilitate the evaluation of diagenetic trends and the definition of diagenetic models. On the other hand, their many different components make reefs somewhat more complex than other deposits, and this creates difficulties in deciphering diagenetic histories; the study of reefs, therefore, is not the simplest manner of solving the many problems relating to carbonate diagenesis. An additional reason for evaluating reef diagenesis is the reservoir potential of these carbonate bodies. To illustrate the point, in the recent collection of 35 case studies of carbonate reservoirs (Roehl and Choquette 1985), reefs were involved in 15. The emphasis on porosity development in many studies of the present volume is therefore not of mere academic interest.
Category: Science

Origin Of Carbonate Sedimentary Rocks

Author : Noel P. James
ISBN : 9781118652671
Genre : Science
File Size : 41.51 MB
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This textbook provides an overview of the origin and preservation of carbonate sedimentary rocks. The focus is on limestones and dolostones and the sediments from which they are derived. The approach is general and universal and draws heavily on fundamental discoveries, arresting interpretations, and keystone syntheses that have been developed over the last five decades. The book is designed as a teaching tool for upper level undergraduate classes, a fundamental reference for graduate and research students, and a scholarly source of information for practicing professionals whose expertise lies outside this specialty. The approach is rigorous, with every chapter being designed as a separate lecture on a specific topic that is encased within a larger scheme. The text is profusely illustrated with all colour diagrams and images of rocks, subsurface cores, thin sections, modern sediments, and underwater seascapes. Additional resources for this book can be found at: www.wiley.com/go/james/carbonaterocks
Category: Science