THE GREAT ESCAPE HEALTH WEALTH AND THE ORIGINS OF INEQUALITY

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The Great Escape

Author : Angus Deaton
ISBN : 9781400847969
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 77.25 MB
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The world is a better place than it used to be. People are healthier, wealthier, and live longer. Yet the escapes from destitution by so many has left gaping inequalities between people and nations. In The Great Escape, Angus Deaton--one of the foremost experts on economic development and on poverty--tells the remarkable story of how, beginning 250 years ago, some parts of the world experienced sustained progress, opening up gaps and setting the stage for today's disproportionately unequal world. Deaton takes an in-depth look at the historical and ongoing patterns behind the health and wealth of nations, and addresses what needs to be done to help those left behind. Deaton describes vast innovations and wrenching setbacks: the successes of antibiotics, pest control, vaccinations, and clean water on the one hand, and disastrous famines and the HIV/AIDS epidemic on the other. He examines the United States, a nation that has prospered but is today experiencing slower growth and increasing inequality. He also considers how economic growth in India and China has improved the lives of more than a billion people. Deaton argues that international aid has been ineffective and even harmful. He suggests alternative efforts--including reforming incentives to drug companies and lifting trade restrictions--that will allow the developing world to bring about its own Great Escape. Demonstrating how changes in health and living standards have transformed our lives, The Great Escape is a powerful guide to addressing the well-being of all nations.
Category: Business & Economics

Author : 安格斯‧迪頓(Angus Deaton)
ISBN : 9789570846409
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 70.25 MB
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貝爾經濟學獎得主代表著作 迪頓(Angus Deaton)關心全球窮人,要他們過好日子 他分析為何人類獲得有史以來最好的生活水準 深入探討因此而產生的貧富差距及不平等現象 諾貝爾頒獎委員會說:迪頓把應用經濟學發揮得淋漓盡致! 比爾蓋茲、普林斯頓大學校長艾斯格魯柏、賓州大學普列斯頓教授、耶魯大學波吉教授、《紐約時報》、《金融郵報》、《商業世界》、《金融時報》、《彭博資訊新聞》、《經濟與政治周刊》、《商業經濟學》、《富比士》雜誌、《周日泰晤士報》等大力推薦 比爾‧蓋茲(Bill Gates): 如果你想了解為何人類的整體福祉隨著時間而快速進步,一定要讀本書。 ※ ※ ※ 現今人們變得更富裕、更健康、更長壽 然而當大量人口脫離貧窮後 人與人、國與國之間卻形成極大的不平等! 2015年諾貝爾經濟學獎得主、世界首屈一指的發展經濟與貧窮研究學家──迪頓 探討各國增進健康、財富的舊有和現行模式 提出援助落後國家展開大脫逃的具體作法。 迪頓在《財富大逃亡:健康、財富與不平等的起源》一書中闡述某些影響廣大的創新與不易克服的障礙,例如,人類一方面擁有了疫苗、抗生素、防蟲措施和潔淨水源,一方面必須對抗大饑荒、愛滋病和文明疾病。除了檢視美國歷經長期繁榮之後成長步調趨緩、貧富差距漸增的情況,也提到印度與中國的經濟成長如何改善十多億人口的生活。有鑑於國際援助成效不彰,甚至有害無益,迪頓在書末倡議採取替代措施,包括對製藥公司提供新誘因、取消貿易限制等,讓開發中國家也能展開大脫逃。 迪頓撰寫本書的主旨在討論全球的健康與財富,不僅聚焦於現代,也回顧人類發展的歷程。 首先,探討人類的健康發展史、數十萬年前的狩獵與採集生活為何影響現代人的健康,以及人類從十八世紀開始努力降低死亡率如何奠定現代的健康進步模式。十九世紀末,細菌致病論的發展與採納,為另一波爆炸性的進步奠定基礎,同時也打開另一道鴻溝,使得富國與窮國人民的存活率出現極大差距。 二次大戰結束後,全球加快腳步研究醫療方法,以便拉近自十八世紀開始形成的健康鴻溝。其間獲得許多重大成就,例如運用抗生素、防蟲措施、疫苗注射和乾淨水源,讓數百萬孩童免於死亡。雖然窮國與富國平均壽命差距縮小,但還不夠接近,且全球曾遭遇某些可怕的障礙,例如1958至1961年間人為因素造成的中國大饑荒,以及若干非洲國家近年流行的愛滋病,徹底摧毀了人類對抗死神的三十年進步成果。目前還有許多國家缺乏適當的常設醫護系統、大量孩童因生在「錯」的國家而難逃一死、某些地區還有孩童嚴重營養不良,以印度最出名。 富國和窮國的死亡率差距未能加速拉近的理由之一是,雖然富國的死亡率持續下降,但對成人比較有利,孩童受惠較少。也談到富國死亡率降低的趨勢、男女平均壽命不斷趨近的原因、吸菸扮演的要角,以及心臟病治癒率大於癌症治癒率的因素。 其次,討論物質生活水準。美國的經濟狀況既特殊且極端(例如所得不均的程度),但其他富裕國家也不遑多讓。二次大戰後,經濟成長為美國帶來新的榮景,使得貧窮人口(尤其是非洲裔和年長者)顯著減少。1970年代以前,美國曾是全球重要經濟楷模,此後成長持續減慢,所得差距因富人激增而持續加大。這種不平等有其光明面,例如教育、創新和創意獲得的報償高於往昔;但也顯示出黑暗面,由於美國是金權國家,導致國民的幸福受到政治和經濟的威脅。 全球貧窮人口自1980年開始減少,堪稱人類史上規模最大、速度最快的一次脫逃行動,主因在於人口最多的中國和印度經濟成長表現非凡,改變了十幾億人口的生活。目前全球的生活水準雖然遠勝過1960年代悲觀者預測的情況,但仍有約十億人口三餐不濟;許多人已經逃脫,也有不少人被遺棄。 再次,提出大家應該和不該採取的行動。我們幸運地生在「對」的國家,因此應該善盡道德義務,協助全球減少貧窮和疾病;已經掙脫貧窮和疾病的人,必須幫助依然受困者。很多人認為我們應該以提供外援的方式,以及透過多國政府(大都設有官方援助機構)、世界銀行和世界衛生組織等國際組織,或是在各國國內或國際上營運的非政府救援組織,來履行這些道德義務。但是,如果這類援助會破壞某些國家的成長機會(這正是我的看法),我們就沒有理由抱著「應該做些什麼」的觀念繼續提供救濟,而應該停止援助。過去五十年,援助對於經濟成長和減少貧窮到底功過如何?值得質疑。 最後,迪頓提出一個問題:我們是否渴望展開大脫逃行動,為現今世界創造幸福與快樂。《財富大逃亡》剖析健康與生活水準的提升如何改變我們的生活,是討論所有國家幸福議題的重要指南。
Category: Business & Economics

Economics And Consumer Behavior

Author : Angus Deaton
ISBN : 0521296765
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 29.37 MB
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The idea of duality has proved to be a powerful device in modern work on the economics of consumer behaviour. The authors have used duality to provide an integrated and accessible treatment of this subject. The book focuses on applications of the theory to welfare economics and econometric analysis. The book begins with four chapters that provide a self-contained presentation of the basic theory and its use in applied econometrics. These chapters also include elementary extensions of the theory to labour supply, durable goods, the consumption function, and rationing. The rest of the book is divided into three parts. In the first of these the authors discuss restrictions on choice and aggregation problems. The next part consists of chapters on consumer index numbers; household characteristics, demand, and household welfare comparisons; and social welfare and inequality. The last part extends the coverage of consumer behaviour to include the quality of goods and household production theory, labour supply and human capital theory, the consumption function and intertemporal choice, the demand for durable goods, and choice under uncertainty.
Category: Business & Economics

Finance And Development December 2013

Author : International Monetary Fund. External Relations Dept.
ISBN : 9781475543476
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 71.49 MB
Format : PDF
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For the latest thinking about the international financial system, monetary policy, economic development, poverty reduction, and other critical issues, subscribe to Finance & Development (F&D). This lively quarterly magazine brings you in-depth analyses of these and other subjects by the IMF’s own staff as well as by prominent international experts. Articles are written for lay readers who want to enrich their understanding of the workings of the global economy and the policies and activities of the IMF.
Category: Business & Economics

Rediscovering Social Economics

Author : Roger D. Johnson
ISBN : 9783319512655
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 57.18 MB
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This book argues that economists need to reengage with societal issues, such as justice and fairness in distribution, that inevitably arise when discussing the basic economic problem of unlimited human wants and finite resources. Approaching the problem through a history of economic thought, Johnson reexamines Adam Smith’s contributions to show how they reach beyond neoclassical models that are too simplistic to reflect the growing interdependencies of market economies. He breaks down supposedly value-free neoclassical postulates to expose normative assumptions about economics and justice, demonstrating, for example, that the concept of market equilibrium is problematic because need-based behavior can produce involuntary unemployment even when a competitive labor market achieves equilibrium.
Category: Business & Economics

Unique Urbanity

Author : Tara Brabazon
ISBN : 9789812872692
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 48.97 MB
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This book investigates small cities - cities and towns that are not well known or internationally branded, but are facing structural economic and social issues after the Global Financial Crisis. They need to invent, develop and manage new reasons for their existence. The strengths and opportunities are often underplayed when compared to larger cities. These small cities do not have the profile of New York, London, Tokyo or Cairo, or second-tier cities like San Francisco, Manchester, Osaka or Alexandria. This book traces the current state of the creative industries literature after the GFC, but with a specific focus. The specific – and worsening – conditions in third-tier cities are logged. The social and economic challenges within these regions are great, particularly with regard to health and health services, education, employment, social mobility and physical activity. This is not a study that merely diagnoses problems but raises strategies for third-tier cities to create both a profile and growth. The current research field is synthesized to reveal how cities are defined, constituted, developed and, in many cases, suffering decline. There is an imperative to build relationships with other urban environments. The book enters these under-discussed locations and reveal the scarred layering of injustice, signified by depopulation, dis-investment, economic decline and a reduction in public services for health, transportation and education, while also developing specific and innovative models for improvement. The vista summoned in Unique Urbanity is international, with strong attention to trans-local strategies that offer wide relevance, currency and opportunities for policy makers. While third-tier cities are often hidden, marginalized, invisible or demeaned, Unique Urbanity shows that innovation, imagination and creativity can emerge in small places.
Category: Social Science

The Reproach Of Hunger

Author : David Rieff
ISBN : 9781439123881
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 54.83 MB
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In a groundbreaking book based on six years of reporting, leading expert on humanitarian aid and development David Rieff offers a review of whether the end of extreme poverty and widespread hunger are within our reach. Some of the most brilliant scientists, world politicians, and development experts agree that the eradication of hunger is an essential task for the new millennium. Yet in the last decade, the prices of wheat, soy and rice have soared. This has condemned the hundreds of millions of the world's population who live on less than one dollar per day to a state of hunger and insecurity. Rieff searches for the causes of this food security crisis, as well as what lies behind the failures to respond to disaster: failures to address climate change, poor governance, and misguided optimism. Rieff cautions against the increased privatization of aid, as well as the interventions of celebrity campaigners, whose business-led solutions rob development of political urgency. He dismisses the idle hope of Bill Gates and Warren Buffett that food scarcity can be solved by technological innovation alone, The path ahead, Rieff reminds us, demands we rethink the fundamental causes of the world's grotesque inequalities and understand that what is at stake is a political challenge we are failing to confront.--Adapted from book jacket.
Category: Business & Economics

Billionaires

Author : Darrell M. West
ISBN : 9780815725817
Genre : Political Science
File Size : 25.64 MB
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Meet the Billionaires: the 1,645 men and women who control a massive share of global assets worth $6.5 trillion. Darrell West reveals what the other 99.99998% of us need to know. With rich anecdotes and personal narratives, West goes inside the world of the ultra wealthy. Meet U.S. billionaires such as Sheldon Adelson, Michael Bloomberg, David and Charles Koch, George Soros, Tom Steyer, and Donald Trump—as well as international billionaires from around the globe. The growing political engagement of this small supra-wealthy group raises important questions about influence, transparency, and government performance, and West lays bare the wealthification of politics, including: • How billionaires can block appointments and legislation they don't like • Why the supra-wealthy moved into policy advocacy and referenda at the state level • Why billionaires run for office in more than a dozen countries around the world
Category: Political Science

Challenging Religious Studies

Author : John Atherton
ISBN : 9780334046493
Genre : Religion
File Size : 32.9 MB
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This book represents a breakthrough in our understanding and development of the practices, ethics and theories of religious studies through engagement with the world of daily life and its breath-taking transformation since 1800, as revealed particularly in living standards, life expectancy and subjective wellbeing. Together with the equally disturbing growth of inequalities between and within nations, this constitutes the profound paradox of development. What is of particular interest is the book’s rigorous treatment of the question why religion is better at delivering greater subjective wellbeing and how it does so. To build such arguments always involves engaging with key related disciplines, experiences and practices, including economics, psychology, sociology and economic history. But it will also increasingly offer religion the opportunity to participate in such developments but always and increasingly through collaboration with other such disciplines and experiences, and always with the objective of furthering the greater wellbeing of all people in and through their environments.
Category: Religion

Essays In The Theory And Measurement Of Consumer Behaviour In Honour Of Sir Richard Stone

Author : Angus Deaton
ISBN : 0521067553
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 56.25 MB
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The eleven papers in this volume show work in the theory and measurement of consumer behaviour. The eminent contributors offer papers ranging from theory to econometrics, from Engel curves to labour supply and fertility, and from consumer demand in England to consumer behaviour in the USSR. These papers were written and collected for this volume to honour Sir Richard Stone on the occasion of his retirement from his chair at the University of Cambridge.
Category: Business & Economics