THE EVOLUTION OF TECHNOLOGY CAMBRIDGE STUDIES IN THE HISTORY OF SCIENCE

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The Evolution Of Technology

Author : George Basalla
ISBN : 9781316101582
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 42.98 MB
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This book presents an evolutionary theory of technological change based upon recent scholarship in the history of technology and upon relevant material drawn from economic history and anthropology. It challenges the popular notion that technology advances by the efforts of a few heroic individuals who produce a series of revolutionary inventions owing little or nothing to the technological past. Therefore, the book's argument is shaped by analogies taken selectively from the theory of organic evolution, and not from the theory and practice of political revolution. Three themes appear, and reappear with variations, throughout the study. The first is diversity: an acknowledgment of the vast numbers of different kinds of made things (artifacts) that have long been available to humanity; the second is necessity: the belief that humans are driven to invent new artifacts in order to meet basic biological requirements such as food, shelter, and defense; and the third is technological evolution: an organic analogy that explains both the emergence of novel artifacts and their subsequent selection by society for incorporation into its material life without invoking either biological necessity or technological progress. Although the book is not intended to provide a strict chronological account of the development of technology, historical examples - including many of the major achievements of Western technology: the waterwheel, the printing press, the steam engine, automobiles and trucks, and the transistor - are used extensively to support its theoretical framework. The Evolution of Techology will be of interest to all readers seeking to learn how and why technology changes, including both students and specialists in the history of technology and science.
Category: Technology & Engineering

Dictionary Of The History Of Science

Author : William F. Bynum
ISBN : 9781400853410
Genre : Science
File Size : 75.75 MB
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For readers interested in the development of major scientific concepts and the role of science in the western world, here is the first conceptually organized historical dictionary of scientific thought. The purpose of the dictionary is to illuminate this history by providing a concise, single volume reference book of short historical accounts of the important themes, ideas, and discoveries of science. Its conceptual approach differentiates the dictionary from previous reference works such as books of scientific biography and makes it a convenient manual both for the general reader and for scientists interested in the origin of concepts in their own and other scientific fields. Originally published in 1982. The Princeton Legacy Library uses the latest print-on-demand technology to again make available previously out-of-print books from the distinguished backlist of Princeton University Press. These editions preserve the original texts of these important books while presenting them in durable paperback and hardcover editions. The goal of the Princeton Legacy Library is to vastly increase access to the rich scholarly heritage found in the thousands of books published by Princeton University Press since its founding in 1905.
Category: Science

Science And Technology In Contemporary China

Author : Varaprasad S. Dolla
ISBN : 9781107080379
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 30.91 MB
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"Discusses the conceptual framework of policy studies, the unfolding and widening horizons of science and technology in the global context and the Chinese historical evolution"--
Category: Business & Economics

War Peace And Prosperity In The Name Of God

Author : Murat Iyigun
ISBN : 9780226232287
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 64.86 MB
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Differences among religious communities have motivated—and continue to motivate—many of the deadliest conflicts in human history. But how did political power and organized religion become so thoroughly intertwined? And how have religion and religiously motivated conflicts affected the evolution of societies throughout history, from demographic and sociopolitical change to economic growth? War, Peace, and Prosperity in the Name of God turns the focus on the “big three monotheisms”—Judaism, Islam, and Christianity—to consider these questions. Chronicling the relatively rapid spread of the Abrahamic religions among the Old World, Murat Iyigun shows that societies that adhered to a monotheistic belief in that era lasted longer, suggesting that monotheism brought some sociopolitical advantages. While the inherent belief in one true god meant that these religious communities had sooner or later to contend with one another, Iyigun shows that differences among them were typically strong enough to trump disagreements within. The book concludes by documenting the long-term repercussions of these dynamics for the organization of societies and their politics in Europe and the Middle East.
Category: Business & Economics

Ancient Chinese Encyclopedia Of Technology

Author : Jun Wenren
ISBN : 9781136267871
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 38.41 MB
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This book presents the first translation into English of the full text of the Kaogong ji. This classic work, described by the great scholar of the history of Chinese science and technology Joseph Needham as "the most important document for the study of ancient Chinese technology", dates from the fifth century BC and forms part of the Zhouli (The Rites of the Zhou Dynasty), one of the great Confucian classics. The text itself describes the techniques of working and the technologies used by over twenty different kinds of craftsmen and artificers, such as metal workers, chariot makers, weapon makers, music instrument makers, potters and master builders. This edition, besides providing the full text in English, also provides a substantial introduction and other supporting explanatory material, over one hundred illustrations of ancient Chinese artefacts, and the original Chinese text itself.
Category: Social Science

The Cambridge History Of Science Fiction

Author : Gerry Canavan
ISBN : 9781316733011
Genre : Literary Criticism
File Size : 72.35 MB
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The first science fiction course in the American academy was held in the early 1950s. In the sixty years since, science fiction has become a recognized and established literary genre with a significant and growing body of scholarship. The Cambridge History of Science Fiction is a landmark volume as the first authoritative history of the genre. Over forty contributors with diverse and complementary specialties present a history of science fiction across national and genre boundaries, and trace its intellectual and creative roots in the philosophical and fantastic narratives of the ancient past. Science fiction as a literary genre is the central focus of the volume, but fundamental to its story is its non-literary cultural manifestations and influence. Coverage thus includes transmedia manifestations as an integral part of the genre's history, including not only short stories and novels, but also film, art, architecture, music, comics, and interactive media.
Category: Literary Criticism

Science Between Europe And Asia

Author : Feza Günergun
ISBN : 9048199689
Genre : Science
File Size : 23.84 MB
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This book explores the various historical and cultural aspects of scientific, medical and technical exchanges that occurred between central Europe and Asia. A number of papers investigate the printing, gunpowder, guncasting, shipbuilding, metallurgical and drilling technologies while others deal with mapping techniques, the adoption of written calculation and mechanical clocks as well as the use of medical techniques such as pulse taking and electrotherapy. While human mobility played a significant role in the exchange of knowledge, translating European books into local languages helped the introduction of new knowledge in mathematical, physical and natural sciences from central Europe to its periphery and to the Middle East and Asian cultures. The book argues that the process of transmission of knowledge whether theoretical or practical was not a simple and one-way process from the donor to the receiver as it is often admitted, but a multi-dimensional and complex cultural process of selection and transformation where ancient scientific and local traditions and elements. The book explores the issue from a different geopolitical perspective, namely not focusing on a singular recipient and several points of distribution, namely the metropolitan centres of science, medicine, and technology, but on regions that are both recipients and distributors and provides new perspectives based on newly investigated material for historical studies on the cross scientific exchanges between different parts of the world.
Category: Science

Science And Technology In World History

Author : James Edward McClellan
ISBN : 0801883598
Genre : History
File Size : 42.32 MB
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Tracing historical relationship from the dawn of civilization through the twentieth century, the authors argue that technology as "applied science" emerged relatively, as industry and governments began funding scientific research. They explore the emergence of Europe and the United States as a scientific and technological power.
Category: History

Rethinking The Fabric Of Geology

Author : Victor R. Baker
ISBN : 9780813725024
Genre : Cartography
File Size : 39.67 MB
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"The 50 years since the publication of 'Fabric of Geology,' edited by C.C. Albritton Jr., have seen immense changes in both geology and philosophy of science. 'Rethinking the Fabric of Geology' explores a number of philosophical issues in geology, ranging from its nature as a historical science to implications for geological education"--Provided by publisher.
Category: Cartography

Science And Religion

Author : John Hedley Brooke
ISBN : 0521283744
Genre : Science
File Size : 84.53 MB
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In this 1991 volume, John Hedley Brooke offers an introduction and critical guide to one of the most fascinating and enduring issues in the development of the modern world: the relationship between scientific thought and religious belief. It is common knowledge that in western societies there have been periods of crisis when new science has threatened established authority. The trial of Galileo in 1633 and the uproar caused by Darwin's Origin of Species (1859) are two of the most famous examples. Taking account of recent scholarship in the history of science, Brooke takes a fresh look at these and similar episodes, showing that science and religion have been mutually relevant in so rich a variety of ways that no simple generalizations are possible. A special feature of the book is that Brooke stands back from general theses affirming 'conflict' or harmony', which have so often served partisan interests. His object is to reveal the subtlety, complexity, and diversity of the interaction as it has taken place in the past and in the twentieth century.
Category: Science