THE EVOLUTION OF HUMAN SOCIETIES FROM FORAGING GROUP TO AGRARIAN STATE SECOND EDITION

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The Evolution Of Human Societies

Author : Allen W. Johnson
ISBN : 0804740321
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 31.37 MB
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Combining original theoretical ideas and interpretation with ethnographic evidence, Johnson and Earle seek to describe and account for the development of complex human societies. A wealth of case studies are referred to throughout and these are used to support arguments for the proposed causes, mechanisms and patterns of change and for the factors involved, such as technological change, population growth, warfare, the exchange of goods. This second edition sees a complete re-writing of the theoretical chapters, taking account of recent research, plus a new chapter on changes since the Industrial Revolution and the globalisation of society.
Category: Social Science

How Chiefs Come To Power

Author : Timothy K. Earle
ISBN : 0804728569
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 73.54 MB
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This book is basically about power-how people came to acquire it and the implications that contrasting paths to power had for the development of societies. Earle argues that chiefdoms, being a regional polity with governance over a population of a few thousand to tens of thousands of people, and with some social stratification, possessed the same fundamental dynamics as those of states, and that the origin of states is to be understood in the emergence and development of chiefdoms. His arguments are developed by three case studies-Denmark during the Neolithic and early Bronze Age (2300-1300) BC, the high Andes of Peru from the early chiefdoms through the Inka conquest (AD 500-1534), and Hawai'i from early settlement to its incorporation in the world economy (AD 800-1824). After summarizing the cultural history of the three societies over a thousand years, he considers the sources of chiefly power-the economy, military power and ideology-and how these sources were linked together.
Category: Social Science

Bronze Age Economics

Author : Timothy Earle
ISBN : 9780429981623
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 23.23 MB
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This integrated collection of new and newly revised essays by archaeologist Timothy Earle represents both a personal journey and a growing synthesis of how political economies emerged in human societies. Drawing in detail on the cases of chiefdoms in Hawaii, the Andes, and Denmark, Bronze Age Economics documents how intensification of economies, surplus mobilization, and controlled distribution of both staple and prestige goods fundamentally drove the political evolutionary processes that prefigured states. Representing as it does the trajectory of Earles lifework, this book fairly encapsulates the history of processual archaeology and social evolutionary theory over the past quarter century.
Category: Social Science

Neolithic

Author : Susan McCarter
ISBN : 9781134220397
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 57.57 MB
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This excellent introductory textbook describes and explains the origins of modern culture– the dawn of agriculture in the Neolithic area. Written in an easy-to-read style, this lively and engaging book familiarises the reader with essential archaeological and genetic terms and concepts, explores the latest evidence from scientific analyses as varied as deep sea coring, pollen identification, radiometric dating and DNA research, condensing them into an up-to-date academic account, specifically written to be clear even the novice reader. Focusing primarily on sites in southwest Asia, Neolithic addresses questions such as: Which plants and animals were the first to be domesticated, and how? How did life change when people began farming? What were the first villages like? What do we know about the social, political and religious life of these newly founded societies? What happened to human health as a result of the Neolithic Revolution? Lavishly illustrated with almost a hundred images, this enjoyable book is an ideal introduction both for students of archaeology and for general readers interested in our past.
Category: Social Science

Human Nature And The Evolution Of Society

Author : Stephen K. Sanderson
ISBN : 9780429979590
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 62.41 MB
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If evolution has changed humans physically, has it also affected human behavior? Drawing on evolutionary psychology, sociobiology, and human behavioral ecology, Human Nature and the Evolution of Society explores the evolutionary dynamics underlying social life.In this introduction to human behavior and the organization of social life, Stephen K. Sanderson discusses traditional subjects like mating behavior, kinship, parenthood, status-seeking, and violence, as well as important topics seldom included in books of this type, especially gender, economies, politics, foodways, race and ethnicity, and the arts. Examples and research on a wide range of human societies, both industrial and nonindustrial, are integrated throughout. With chapter summaries of key points, thoughtful discussion questions, and important terms defined within the text, the result is a broad-ranging and comprehensive consideration of human society, thoroughly grounded in an evolutionary perspective.
Category: Social Science

The Creation Of Inequality

Author : Kent Flannery
ISBN : 9780674064973
Genre : History
File Size : 85.4 MB
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Flannery and Marcus demonstrate that the rise of inequality was not simply the result of population increase, food surplus, or the accumulation of valuables but resulted from conscious manipulation of the unique social logic that lies at the core of every human group. Reversing the social logic can reverse inequality, they argue, without violence.
Category: History

Guns Germs And Steel The Fates Of Human Societies

Author : Jared Diamond
ISBN : 9780393609295
Genre : History
File Size : 43.27 MB
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"Fascinating.... Lays a foundation for understanding human history."—Bill Gates In this "artful, informative, and delightful" (William H. McNeill, New York Review of Books) book, Jared Diamond convincingly argues that geographical and environmental factors shaped the modern world. Societies that had had a head start in food production advanced beyond the hunter-gatherer stage, and then developed religion --as well as nasty germs and potent weapons of war --and adventured on sea and land to conquer and decimate preliterate cultures. A major advance in our understanding of human societies, Guns, Germs, and Steel chronicles the way that the modern world came to be and stunningly dismantles racially based theories of human history. Winner of the Pulitzer Prize, the Phi Beta Kappa Award in Science, the Rhone-Poulenc Prize, and the Commonwealth club of California's Gold Medal.
Category: History

A Theory Of The State

Author : Yoram Barzel
ISBN : 0521000645
Genre : Political Science
File Size : 56.12 MB
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The Emergence of Protection and Third-Party Enforcement; The State and the Enforcement of Agreements; Third-Party Enforcement and the State; The Choice among Enforcement Forms; Anonymous Exchange, Mixed Enforcement, and Vertical Integration; Jurisdictional Issues; Collective Action and Collective Decisions; Tying the Protector's Hands: The Agreement between Subjects and Protector; The Emergence of Legal Institutions Legal Rights; The State's Enhancement of Market Trade; The Size and Scope of the State; The Character of the State Merger and Local Autonomy; The Distinction between "Legitima te" and "Criminal" States; Power, Violent Conflict, and Political Evolution; The time parth of change under dictatorships and under Rule-of-Law Regimes; Recapitulation and an Epilogue.
Category: Political Science

Organizing Bronze Age Societies

Author : Timothy Earle
ISBN : 0521748356
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 32.50 MB
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The Bronze Age was a formative period in European history when the organization of landscapes, settlements, and economy reached a new level of complexity. This book presents the first in-depth, comparative study of household, economy, and settlement in three micro-regions: the Mediterranean (Sicily), Central Europe (Hungary), and Northern Europe (South Scandinavia). The results are based on ten years of fieldwork in a similar method of documentation, and scientific analyses were used in each of the regional studies, making controlled comparisons possible. The new evidence demonstrates how differences in settlement organization and household economies were counterbalanced by similarities in the organized use of the landscape in an economy dominated by the herding of large flocks of sheep and cattle. The eight chapters in this book provide a new, contextualized understanding of the social and economic complexity of the Bronze Age. Its innovative theoretical and methodological approaches will be of relevance to all researchers of landscape and settlement history.
Category: Social Science

Foragers Farmers And Fossil Fuels

Author : Ian Morris
ISBN : 9781400865512
Genre : History
File Size : 43.35 MB
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Most people in the world today think democracy and gender equality are good, and that violence and wealth inequality are bad. But most people who lived during the 10,000 years before the nineteenth century thought just the opposite. Drawing on archaeology, anthropology, biology, and history, Ian Morris explains why. Fundamental long-term changes in values, Morris argues, are driven by the most basic force of all: energy. Humans have found three main ways to get the energy they need—from foraging, farming, and fossil fuels. Each energy source sets strict limits on what kinds of societies can succeed, and each kind of society rewards specific values. But if our fossil-fuel world favors democratic, open societies, the ongoing revolution in energy capture means that our most cherished values are very likely to turn out not to be useful any more. Foragers, Farmers, and Fossil Fuels offers a compelling new argument about the evolution of human values, one that has far-reaching implications for how we understand the past—and for what might happen next. Originating as the Tanner Lectures delivered at Princeton University, the book includes challenging responses by classicist Richard Seaford, historian of China Jonathan Spence, philosopher Christine Korsgaard, and novelist Margaret Atwood.
Category: History