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The Engine Of Complexity

Author : John E. Mayfield
ISBN : 9780231535281
Genre : Science
File Size : 85.68 MB
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The concepts of evolution and complexity theory have become part of the intellectual ether permeating the life sciences, the social and behavioral sciences, and, more recently, management science and economics. In this book, John E. Mayfield elegantly synthesizes core concepts from multiple disciplines to offer a new approach to understanding how evolution works and how complex organisms, structures, organizations, and social orders can and do arise based on information theory and computational science. Intended for the intellectually adventuresome, this book challenges and rewards readers with a nuanced understanding of evolution and complexity that offers consistent, durable, and coherent explanations for major aspects of our life experiences. Numerous examples throughout the book illustrate evolution and complexity formation in action and highlight the core function of computation lying at the work's heart.
Category: Science

Was Ist Leben

Author : Peter Mersch
ISBN : 9783748185864
Genre : Science
File Size : 77.5 MB
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Alles Leben ist absolute und komparative Kompetenzverlustvermeidung. So lautet die physikalisch und systemisch begründbare Grundannahme der Systemischen Evolutionstheorie zum Verhalten von Lebewesen, mit der sich buchstäblich die gesamte belebte Welt rekonstruieren lässt, von den Überlebensstrategien einfachster Lebewesen über das Nachwuchsverhalten in modernen Zivilisationen und die Evolution der Technik bis hin zum Migrationsverhalten von Zuwanderern. Die Überlegungen und Ausführungen des Buches fußen maßgeblich auf Ideen, Erkenntnissen und Betrachtungen von Peter W. Atkins, Arieh Ben-Naim, Richard Dawkins, Murray Gell-Mann, Eva Jablonka, Daniel Kahneman, Paul Krugman, Erwin Schrödinger, Gerhard Vollmer und anderen. Das daraus resultierende evolutionäre Welt- und Menschenbild ist von Grund auf naturalistisch. Es kommt ohne die Annahme eines Welten- oder Menschenschöpfers aus. Und es steht im Widerspruch zu der in den Sozialwissenschaften auf breite Zustimmung stoßenden antibiologistischen Gleichheitsideologie. Eine Konsequenz aus der Grundannahme der Systemischen Evolutionstheorie ist nämlich, dass Gleichheit für Menschen von eher nachrangiger Bedeutung ist. Stattdessen möchten sie sich gemäß ihren natürlichen Potenzialen frei entfalten können und nicht gegenüber Vergleichsgruppen zurückfallen. Welt- und Menschenbilder gibt es allerdings viele. Die Vorteile des im Buch präsentierten evolutionären Modells sind sein enormes Erklärungspotenzial und dass es sich wie kaum ein anderes sowohl naturalistisch begründen als auch empirisch belegen lässt.
Category: Science

Innovative Computational Intelligence A Rough Guide To 134 Clever Algorithms

Author : Bo Xing
ISBN : 9783319034041
Genre : Computers
File Size : 70.66 MB
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The first notable feature of this book is its innovation: Computational intelligence (CI), a fast evolving area, is currently attracting lots of researchers’ attention in dealing with many complex problems. At present, there are quite a lot competing books existing in the market. Nevertheless, the present book is markedly different from the existing books in that it presents new paradigms of CI that have rarely mentioned before, as opposed to the traditional CI techniques or methodologies employed in other books. During the past decade, a number of new CI algorithms are proposed. Unfortunately, they spread in a number of unrelated publishing directions which may hamper the use of such published resources. These provide us with motivation to analyze the existing research for categorizing and synthesizing it in a meaningful manner. The mission of this book is really important since those algorithms are going to be a new revolution in computer science. We hope it will stimulate the readers to make novel contributions or even start a new paradigm based on nature phenomena. Although structured as a textbook, the book's straightforward, self-contained style will also appeal to a wide audience of professionals, researchers and independent learners. We believe that the book will be instrumental in initiating an integrated approach to complex problems by allowing cross-fertilization of design principles from different design philosophies. The second feature of this book is its comprehensiveness: Through an extensive literature research, there are 134 innovative CI algorithms covered in this book.
Category: Computers

The Evolutionary Complexity Of Endogenous Innovation

Author : Cristiano Antonelli
ISBN : 9781788113793
Genre :
File Size : 81.62 MB
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The notion of endogenous innovation as the outcome of the creative response of firms to out-of-equilibrium conditions is the cornerstone of the new evolutionary complexity. This book elaborates and applies the theoretical framework established in the author’s previous work Endogenous Innovation: The Economics of an Emergent System Property. This volume carefully explores the role of the reactivity of firms to out-of-equilibrium conditions. It also examines the quality of knowledge governance mechanisms in assessing the levels of externalities that define the likelihood of creative responses, as an alternative to adaptive responses.

Computational Genetic Regulatory Networks Evolvable Self Organizing Systems

Author : Johannes F. Knabe
ISBN : 9783642302961
Genre : Computers
File Size : 58.18 MB
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Genetic Regulatory Networks (GRNs) in biological organisms are primary engines for cells to enact their engagements with environments, via incessant, continually active coupling. In differentiated multicellular organisms, tremendous complexity has arisen in the course of evolution of life on earth. Engineering and science have so far achieved no working system that can compare with this complexity, depth and scope of organization. Abstracting the dynamics of genetic regulatory control to a computational framework in which artificial GRNs in artificial simulated cells differentiate while connected in a changing topology, it is possible to apply Darwinian evolution in silico to study the capacity of such developmental/differentiated GRNs to evolve. In this volume an evolutionary GRN paradigm is investigated for its evolvability and robustness in models of biological clocks, in simple differentiated multicellularity, and in evolving artificial developing 'organisms' which grow and express an ontogeny starting from a single cell interacting with its environment, eventually including a changing local neighbourhood of other cells. These methods may help us understand the genesis, organization, adaptive plasticity, and evolvability of differentiated biological systems, and may also provide a paradigm for transferring these principles of biology's success to computational and engineering challenges at a scale not previously conceivable.
Category: Computers

Complexity And The Economy

Author : W. Brian Arthur
ISBN : 9780199334315
Genre : Psychology
File Size : 90.37 MB
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Economics is changing. In the last few years it has generated a number of new approaches. One of the most promising - complexity economics - was pioneered in the 1980s and 1990s by a small team at the Santa Fe Institute. Economist and complexity theorist W. Brian Arthur led that team, and in this book he collects many of his articles on this new approach. The traditional framework sees behavior in the economy as in an equilibrium steady state. People in the economy face well-defined problems and use perfect deductive reasoning to base their actions on. The complexity framework, by contrast, sees the economy as always in process, always changing. People try to make sense of the situations they face using whatever reasoning they have at hand, and together create outcomes they must individually react to anew. The resulting economy is not a well-ordered machine, but a complex evolving system that is imperfect, perpetually constructing itself anew, and brimming with vitality. The new vision complements and widens the standard one, and it helps answer many questions: Why does the stock market show moods and a psychology? Why do high-tech markets tend to lock in to the dominance of one or two very large players? How do economies form, and how do they continually alter in structure over time? The papers collected here were among the first to use evolutionary computation, agent-based modeling, and cognitive psychology. They cover topics as disparate as how markets form out of beliefs; how technology evolves over the long span of time; why systems and bureaucracies get more complicated as they evolve; and how financial crises can be foreseen and prevented in the future.
Category: Psychology

Thinking In Complexity

Author : Klaus Mainzer
ISBN : 9783540722281
Genre : Science
File Size : 75.51 MB
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This new edition also treats smart materials and artificial life. A new chapter on information and computational dynamics takes up many recent discussions in the community.
Category: Science

Applications Of Evolutionary Computation

Author : Cecilia Di Chio
ISBN : 9783642122385
Genre : Computers
File Size : 21.96 MB
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Evolutionary Computation (EC) techniques are e?cient, nature-inspired me- ods based on the principles of natural evolution and genetics. Due to their - ciency and simple underlying principles, these methods can be used for a diverse rangeofactivitiesincludingproblemsolving,optimization,machinelearningand pattern recognition. A large and continuously increasing number of researchers and professionals make use of EC techniques in various application domains. This volume presents a careful selection of relevant EC examples combined with a thorough examination of the techniques used in EC. The papers in the volume illustrate the current state of the art in the application of EC and should help and inspire researchers and professionals to develop e?cient EC methods for design and problem solving. All papers in this book were presented during EvoApplications 2010, which included a range of events on application-oriented aspects of EC. Since 1998, EvoApplications — formerly known as EvoWorkshops— has provided a unique opportunity for EC researchers to meet and discuss application aspects of EC and has been an important link between EC research and its application in a variety of domains. During these 12 years, new events have arisen, some have disappeared,whileothershavematuredtobecomeconferencesoftheirown,such as EuroGP in 2000, EvoCOP in 2004, and EvoBIO in 2007. And from this year, EvoApplications has become a conference as well.
Category: Computers

Evolutionary Computation In Bioinformatics

Author : Gary Fogel
ISBN : 1558607978
Genre : Computers
File Size : 56.21 MB
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This book offers a definitive resource that bridges biology and evolutionary computation. The authors have written an introduction to biology and bioinformatics for computer scientists, plus an introduction to evolutionary computation for biologists and for computer scientists unfamiliar with these techniques.
Category: Computers

Complexity From Microscopic To Macroscopic Scales Coherence And Large Deviations

Author : A.T. Skjeltorp
ISBN : 9789401004190
Genre : Science
File Size : 52.64 MB
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Many mesoscopic systems display `adaptive' behaviour - changes in some physical property that results from a small change in an internal or external driving force. There is a kind of progression in adaptive phenomena, from quantum mesoscopics to complex, evolved cooperative systems and large scale events like turbulence. The field of mesoscopic magnetism, especially quantum coherence and quantum tunnelling in spin systems, and the coupling between mesoscopic magnetism and mesoscopic transport is currently a very active area of solid state physics. `Dephasing' is an important concept in mesoscopic systems like these. A basic question is the limit at which quantum mechanics breaks down and what it can be replaced with. Another interesting crossover is that between complexity and large excursions or events, with turbulence as a prototype example. The book also contains a discussion of finance. Qualitatively speaking, turbulence and financial markets are apparently similar, so our understanding of turbulence may be relevant to understanding price fluctuations.
Category: Science