THE ECONOMICS OF WATER DEMANDS NATURAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT AND POLICY

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The Economics Of Water Demands

Author : Steven Renzetti
ISBN : 9781461508656
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 31.74 MB
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This book arose out of a paper that I wrote for the World Bank at the request of Ariel Dinar, the editor for the series in which this volume appears. I began that paper by pointing to the growing importance of demand-side considerations in water resources: "The provision of potable water is one of government's oldest functions with evidence of this activity stretching back thousands of years. During much of that time, water demands were taken as exogenously given and the principle task of authorities was defined as an engineering one: how to supply a given quantity of water at least cost. In recent years, however, concerns have arisen from observations of excessive water use, degraded water quality and continued inadequate service for many, especially the very poor. As a result of these and other concerns, there is a growing effort to view water resource allocation from a perspective that incorporates consumers' preferences along with supply constraints into management plans. " (Renzetti, 2000, p. 123). The purpose of this volume is to examine, in greater detail than was possible in that article, what is known regarding the economic characteristics of the demand for water. Thus, this book is meant to be an extended critical review of the state of the art.
Category: Business & Economics

Economics Of Water Resources From Regulation To Privatization

Author : Nicolas Spulber
ISBN : 9789401583213
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 38.80 MB
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The purpose of this book is to develop a general economic model which integrates the quantity and quality issues of water resource management and to provide, along with a detailed criticism of the policy instruments now in use, alternative proposals concerning the efficient allocation and distribution of water. In particular we treat water as a multi-product commodity where the market plays a major role in determining water quality-discriminant pricing and its value to the user. We examine the process of moving from administrative allocation and regulation to privatization of the water industry as the key element in promoting effective competition and in providing economic incentives for greater efficiency. Water quantity and quality, considered independently of each other, have been the subject of numerous studies during the last twenty years. Let us recall briefly the most outstanding among them. A variety of models have been constructed concerning the optimal scheduling and sequence of water-supply projects: dynamic programming for solving multi-bjective functions in water resource development; planning models for coordinating regional water-resource supply and demand, etc. Other studies have devised water-quality management models, including multi-period design of regional or municipal wastewater systems; cost-allocation methods to induce effluent dischargers to participate in regional water systems; models to predict the quality of effluent (in particular, whether it meets certain established standards); models for finding optimal waste-removal policies at each of the polluting sources, and so on.
Category: Business & Economics

Water Resource Economics

Author : Ronald C. Griffin
ISBN : 9780262334037
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 88.27 MB
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Economics brings powerful insights to water management, but most water professionals receive limited training in it. The second edition of this text offers a comprehensive development of water resource economics that is accessible to engineers and natural scientists as well as to economists. The goal is to build a practical platform for understanding and performing economic analysis using both theoretical and empirical tools. Familiarity with microeconomics or natural resource economics is helpful, but all the economics needed is presented and developed progressively in the text.The book focuses on the scarcity of water quantity (rather than on water quality). The author presents the economic theory of resource allocation, recognizing the peculiarities imposed by water, and then goes on to treat a range of subjects including conservation, groundwater depletion, water law, policy analysis, cost--benefit analysis, water marketing, privatization, and demand and supply estimation. Added features of this updated edition include a new chapter on water scarcity risk (with climate change and necessary risk tools introduced progressively) and new risk-attentive material elsewhere in the text; sharper treatment of block rates and pricing doctrine; expanded attention to contemporary literature and issues; and new appendixes on input--output analysis, water footprinting and virtual water, and cost allocation. Each chapter ends with a summary and exercises.
Category: Business & Economics

Natural Resources Technology Economics Policy

Author : U. Aswathanarayana
ISBN : 9780203123997
Genre : Science
File Size : 29.98 MB
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Natural resources management has two principal dimensions : Science-illuminated (earth, space, hydrological, pedological, information, etc. sciences) management of local resources (waters, soils, bioresources, minerals, rocks, sediments, etc.) in an ecologically-sustainable manner, and Value-addition through processing of natural products, through the application of technology is most marked in the case of some mineral products. The wellness of a community is dependent upon the security of food, water, environment and energy. Such a security is best realised through science-illuminated (earth, space, hydrological, pedological, information) management of local resources (waters, soils, bioresources, minerals, rocks, sediments, etc.) in an ecologically-sustainable and people-participatory manner, plus value-addition through processing of natural products. Moreover, the addition of value may increase a community’s wealth by advanced technologies, trading, exchange of knowledge, etc. Moreover, activities, employment and many other things come along with the availability of natural resources, which will require and affect policy. This volume provides guidelines for the implementation of technological, economical and policy advances in dealing with various aspects of natural resources. It is intended for researchers, professionals and students in environmental and earth sciences, mining, geography, sociology, economics and for policy makers and investors searching for potential in the natural resources industry. Ideal for consultation in combination with the editor's related publications Green Energy: Technology, Economics and Policy, Energy Portfolios and Food and Water Security.
Category: Science

Water Use Management And Planning In The United States

Author : Stephen A. Thompson
ISBN : 0080520820
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 39.72 MB
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Water Use Management, and Planning in the United States is designed with new college classes on water resources in mind. It provides information on hydrology, biology, geology, economics, and geography along with historical water policies and regional regulations. The text reflects the transdisciplinary nature of water resources management, moving between descriptive discussions and quantitative analysis to bridge the social and physical sciences. Also providedare frequent case studies and examples to illustrate real-world applications, and includes sidebars throughout to reinforce major points. This book is a result of the authors years of teaching, giving a prescription for an intelligent integrated systemsapproach to water resources management. Classroom tested Quantitative analyses are accompanied by worked examples Frequent case studies highlight important applications Sidebars reinforce major points and provide parenthetical information
Category: Technology & Engineering

Redefining Diversity And Dynamics Of Natural Resources Management In Asia Volume 1

Author : Ganesh Shivakoti
ISBN : 9780128104705
Genre : Science
File Size : 22.57 MB
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Redefining Diversity and Dynamics of Natural Resources Management in Asia, Volumes 1-4 brings together scientific research and policy issues across various topographical area in Asia to provide a comprehensive overview of the issues facing the region. Sustainable Natural Resources Management in Dynamic Southeast Asia, Volume 1, pulls together regional experts in the field to look specifically at sustainability issues across the region, to see what has been implemented, what the impacts have been, and what other options are available. In the race to be a developed region, many Southeast Asian countries have foregone natural resources through haphazard use. As a result, the people are faced with numerous environmental challenges, particularly deforestation and forest degradation, biodiversity loss and ecosystem degradation, reduction in soil quality, and decreases in the quantity of available water. Community-based forest management is the involvement of local communities in the protection, conservation and management of public forests to prevent degradation through sustainable practices while still responding to the basic social and economic needs of local populations. When the people who depend on forest resources for their livelihoods are jointly responsible for managing and protecting them, they tend to do so in a more sustainable manner by focusing on the long-term benefits rather than the immediate short-term gains. However, when tenure rights are weak, unclear, or insecure, or offer limited benefits, people are incited in extracting more immediate benefits, resulting in suboptimal forest management and the reduction of carbon stocks. Features case studies that cover issues such as rising levels of deforestation, forest degradation, regional food security, ecosystem degradation, biodiversity loss, conflicts over natural resource use, water management issues, and impacts on local communities Includes contributions from local researchers who are dealing with these issues first hand, and on a daily basis Includes a comparative review on REDD+ implementation in different communities Focuses on sustainability issues across the region
Category: Science

Current Issues In The Economics Of Water Resource Management

Author : Panos Pashardes
ISBN : 9789401599849
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 55.65 MB
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The marginal price elasticities estimated by Martinez-Espineira conforms to expectation. The price specification that accounts for the changing proportion of water users in each block yields a higher elasticity (-0. 47) compared to the spec ification ignoring this feature of the data. However, this difference is not found to be statistically significant, a result attributed to the low power of the test (small sample size limiting the accuracy of estimates). In conclusion, the paper provides a theoretically correct price specification for demand functions under block pricing and aggregate data. The empirical findings in the paper, however, are not conclusive and further empirical work using more data and alternative (nonlinear) demand functions, is needed to show the practical implications of the arguments put forward by the Martinez-Espineira's paper. Static empirical consumer demand functions estimated with aggregate data are well known to suffer form serial correlation and other statistical problems asso ciated with misspecified dynamics. These dynamics arise because consumers do not react immediately to a change in prices due to their largely predetermined lifestyle. In the case of demand for water, for example, current purchases can be largely predetermined due to commitments arising from past purchases such as swimming pools, bathtubs, dishwashing machines, etc. Muellbauer and Pashardes (1992) show that the autoregressive nature of consumer demand data can be cap tured in a theoretically consistent manner by incorporating intertemporal aspects of consumer behaviour in the model through habit formation and durability.
Category: Business & Economics

Water Resources Allocation

Author : Phoebe Koundouri
ISBN : 9048198259
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 39.64 MB
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The dilemma facing Cyprus—that of limited water supplies (both in terms of quantity and quality) in the face of steadily increasing water demand, coupled with a fragmented institutional structure of the water sector—is characteristic of most arid and semi-arid countries all over the world. Another common characteristic of Cyprus is that the water management administrative boundaries there do not coincide with the hydrological ones, while the ongoing political problem of the island creates significant administration problems.
Category: Business & Economics

The Economics Of Water Management In Southern Africa

Author : Glenn-Marie Lange
ISBN : 9781847203021
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 44.11 MB
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This book presents a valuable new tool for water management water resource accounting which significantly advances the economic analysis of water. Water resource accounts integrate detailed information about water supply and use with national income accounts to show the economic use of water, costs and tariffs paid, and the economic value of water for different economic uses. Based on the UN s handbook for environmental accounting, this book describes the implementation and policy application of water accounts in three African countries Botswana, Namibia and South Africa and discusses how they have been used by water managers. The book compares water use across the three countries, explaining the differences in water resources and water policy. In addition to the comprehensive outline of physical and monetary water accounts for each country, the authors provide an extensive discussion of water valuation as well as addressing a number of issues of regional importance, including water accounting for an international river basin and the impact of trade on each country s water use. By demonstrating the usefulness of water resource accounts, this book makes a major contribution to the literature on water economics and management, sustainable development, and to the development of environmental accounting in general. The Economics of Water Management in Southern Africa will appeal to a wide readership including: environmental and development economists NGOs concerned with sustainable development environmental advocacy groups professionals (economists and environmentalists) working in Africa on water and sustainable development issues water professionals national accounts experts and statisticians.
Category: Business & Economics

Handbook Of Bioenergy Economics And Policy

Author : Madhu Khanna
ISBN : 1441903690
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 25.41 MB
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Concerns about energy security, uncertainty about oil prices, declining oil reserves, and global climate change are fueling a shift towards bioenergy as a renewable alternative to fossil fuels. Public policies and private investments around the globe are aiming to increase local capacity to produce biofuels. A key constraint to the expansion of biofuel production is the limited amount of land available to meet the needs for fuel, feed, and food in the coming decades. Large-scale biofuel production raises concerns about food versus fuel tradeoffs, about demands for natural resources such as water, and about potential impacts on environmental quality. The book is organized into five parts. The introductory part provides a context for the emerging economic and policy challenges related to bioenergy and the motivations for biofuels as an energy source. The second part of the handbook includes chapters that examine the implications of expanded production of first generation biofuels for the allocation of land between food and fuel and for food/feed prices and trade in biofuels as well as the potential for technology improvements to mitigate the food vs. fuel competition for land. Chapters in the third part examine the infrastructural and logistical challenges posed by large scale biofuel production and the factors that will influence the location of biorefineries and the mix of feedstocks they use. The fourth part includes chapters that examine the environmental implications of biofuels, their implications for the design of policies and the unintended environmental consequences of existing biofuel policies. The final part presents economic analysis of the market, social welfare, and distributional effects of biofuel policies.
Category: Business & Economics