THE COLLAPSE OF COMPLEX SOCIETIES NEW STUDIES IN ARCHAEOLOGY

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The Collapse Of Complex Societies

Author : Joseph Tainter
ISBN : 052138673X
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 40.15 MB
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Dr Tainter describes nearly two dozen cases of collapse and reviews more than 2000 years of explanations. He then develops a new and far-reaching theory.
Category: Social Science

Beyond Collapse

Author : Ronald K. Faulseit
ISBN : 9780809333998
Genre : History
File Size : 40.83 MB
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New approaches to collapsed complex societies. The Maya. The Romans. The great dynasties of ancient China. It is generally believed that these once mighty empires eventually crumbled and disappeared. A recent trend in archaeology, however, focusing on what happened during and after the decline of once powerful regimes has found social resilience and transformation instead of collapse. In Beyond Collapse: Archaeological Perspectives on Resilience, Revitalization, and Transformation in Complex Societies, editor Ronald K. Faulseit gathers scholars with diverse theoretical perspectives to interpret how ancient civilizations responded to various stresses, including environmental change, warfare, and the fragmentation of political institutions. Contributors discuss not only what makes societies collapse but also why some societies are resilient and others are not, as well as how societies reorganize after collapse. Putting in context issues we face today, such as climate change, social diversity, and the failure of modern states, Beyond Collapse is an essential volume for readers interested in humanenvironment interaction and in the collapse--and subsequent reorganization--of human societies.
Category: History

The Archaeology And Ethnohistory Of Araucanian Resilience

Author : Jacob J. Sauer
ISBN : 9783319092010
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 25.75 MB
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This volume examines the processes and patterns of Araucanian cultural development and resistance to foreign influences and control through the combined study of historical and ethnographic records complemented by archaeological investigation in south-central Chile. This examination is done through the lens of Resilience Theory, which has the potential to offer an interpretive framework for analyzing Araucanian culture through time and space. Resilience Theory describes “the capacity of a system to absorb disturbances and reorganize while undergoing change so as to still retain the same function.” The Araucanians incorporated certain Spanish material culture into their own, rejected others, and strategically restructured aspects of their political, economic, social, and ideological institutions in order to remain independent for over 350 years.
Category: Social Science

Emergence And Change In Early Urban Societies

Author : Linda Manzanilla
ISBN : 9781489918482
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 87.21 MB
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This book gives an overview of different factors involved in the emergence and change in early urban societies in fourth-millennium Mesopotamia and Egypt; pre-Shang China; Classie horizon Central Mexico, Oaxaca, and the Maya Area; and Middle Horizon societies in the Andean Region. These factors range from centralized storage and redistributive econo mies, agromanagerial models, mercantile network control, confliet and conquest, conversion of military commanders into administrators, political power through monumental cosmic reproduction, and elite power through ideological change. It discusses specific archaeological data useful in theoretieal construction. In the Introduction, a discussion of different developmental processes of urban societies is made. The Eastern Anatolian example emphasizes the role played by interregional exchange networks linking the Mesopotamian plains with the Syro-Anatolian regions. The emergence of an elite is related with the control of the movement of craft goods and raw materials, more than with the appropriation of subsistence goods. The Chinese example stresses the importance of conflict provoked by demographie pressures on resources. The Mesoamerican cases relate to vast urban developments and manu facturing centers, ideological importance of monumental planning, and changing behavior of elites. The Andean cases are related either to the transformation of theocratie leadership into military administrators oe to the agricultural intensification model.
Category: Social Science

Kollaps

Author : Jared Diamond
ISBN : 9783104034003
Genre : History
File Size : 59.29 MB
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Der Weltbestseller als erweiterte Neuausgabe! Die überwucherten Tempelruinen von Angkor Wat, die zerfallenden Pyramiden der Maya in Yucatan und die rätselhaften Moai-Statuen der Osterinsel – sie alle sind stille Zeugen von einstmals blühenden Kulturen, die irgendwann verschwanden. Doch was waren die Ursachen dafür? Jared Diamond zeichnet in seiner erweiterten, faszinierenden wie hochaktuellen Studie die Muster nach, die dem Untergang von Gesellschaften (oder ihrem Überleben) zugrunde liegen, und zeigt, was wir für unsere Zukunft daraus lernen können.
Category: History

Antifragile

Author : Nassim Nicholas Taleb
ISBN : 9780718197902
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 29.59 MB
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Nassim Nicholas Taleb, the bestselling author of The Black Swan and one of the foremost thinkers of our time, reveals how to thrive in an uncertain world. Just as human bones get stronger when subjected to stress and tension, many things in life benefit from stress, disorder, volatility, and turmoil. What Taleb has identified and calls antifragile are things that not only gain from chaos but need it in order to survive and flourish. In The Black Swan, Taleb showed us that highly improbable and unpredictable events underlie almost everything about our world. Here Taleb stands uncertainty on its head, making it desirable, even necessary. The antifragile is beyond the resilient or robust. The resilient resists shocks and stays the same; the antifragile gets better and better. What's more, the antifragile is immune to prediction errors and protected from adverse events. Why is the city-state better than the nation-state, why is debt bad for you, and why is what we call "efficient" not efficient at all? Why do government responses and social policies protect the strong and hurt the weak? Why should you write your resignation letter before starting on the job? How did the sinking of the Titanic save lives? The book spans innovation by trial and error, life decisions, politics, urban planning, war, personal finance, economic systems and medicine, drawing on modern street wisdom and ancient sources. Antifragile is a blueprint for living in a Black Swan world. Erudite, witty, and iconoclastic, Taleb's message is revolutionary: the antifragile, and only the antifragile, will make it. Nassim Nicholas Taleb has devoted his life to problems of uncertainty, probability, and knowledge and has led three careers around this focus, as a businessman-trader, a philosophical essayist, and an academic researcher. Although he now spends most of his time working in intense seclusion in his study, in the manner of independent scholars, he is currently Distinguished Professor of Risk Engineering at New York University's Polytechnic Institute. His main subject matter is "decision making under opacity," that is, a map and a protocol on how we should live in a world we don't understand. His books Fooled by Randomness and The Black Swan have been published in thirty-three languages. Taleb believes that prizes, honorary degrees, awards, and ceremonialism debase knowledge by turning it into a spectator sport.
Category: Business & Economics

After Collapse

Author : Glenn M. Schwartz
ISBN : 0816529361
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 61.64 MB
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From the Euphrates Valley to the southern Peruvian Andes, early complex societies have risen and fallen, but in some cases they have also been reborn. Prior archaeological investigation of these societies has focused primarily on emergence and collapse. This is the first book-length work to examine the question of how and why early complex urban societies have reappeared after periods of decentralization and collapse. Ranging widely across the Near East, the Aegean, East Asia, Mesoamerica, and the Andes, these cross-cultural studies expand our understanding of social evolution by examining how societies were transformed during the period of radical change now termed Òcollapse.Ó They seek to discover how societal complexity reemerged, how second-generation states formed, and how these re-emergent states resembled or differed from the complex societies that preceded them. The contributors draw on material culture as well as textual and ethnohistoric data to consider such factors as preexistent institutions, structures, and ideologies that are influential in regeneration; economic and political resilience; the role of social mobility, marginal groups, and peripheries; and ethnic change. In addition to presenting a number of theoretical viewpoints, the contributors also propose reasons why regeneration sometimes does not occur after collapse. A concluding contribution by Norman Yoffee provides a critical exegesis of ÒcollapseÓ and highlights important patterns found in the case histories related to peripheral regions and secondary elites, and to the ideology of statecraft. After Collapse blazes new research trails in both archaeology and the study of social change, demonstrating that the archaeological record often offers more clues to the Òdark agesÓ that precede regeneration than do text-based studies. It opens up a new window on the past by shifting the focus away from the rise and fall of ancient civilizations to their often more telling fall and rise. CONTRIBUTORS Bennet Bronson, Arlen F. Chase, Diane Z. Chase, Christina A. Conlee, Lisa Cooper, Timothy S. Hare, Alan L. Kolata, Marilyn A. Masson, Gordon F. McEwan, Ellen Morris, Ian Morris, Carlos Peraza Lope, Kenny Sims, Miriam T. Stark, Jill A. Weber, Norman Yoffee
Category: Social Science

Caborn Welborn

Author : David Pollack
ISBN : STANFORD:36105114310530
Genre : History
File Size : 58.93 MB
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Caborn-Welborn, a late Mississippian (A.D. 1400-1700) farming society, developed following the collapse of the Angel chiefdom (A.D. 1000-1400). David Pollack examines the ways in which that new society reconstructed social, political and economic relationships from the remnants of the Angel chiefdom.
Category: History

Cerro Danush

Author : Ronald K. Faulseit
ISBN : 0915703823
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 85.18 MB
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Monte Albán was the capital of the Valley of Oaxaca, Mexico, ca. 500 B.C.¿A.D. 600, but once its control began to wane, other sites filled the political vacuum. Archaeologists have long awaited a meticulous excavation of one of these sites¿which would help us better understand the process that transformed second-tier sites into a series of polities or señoríos that competed with each other for centuries. This new book reports in detail on Ronald Faulseit's excavations at the site of Dainzú-Macuilxóchitl in the Valley of Oaxaca. His 2007¿2010 mapping and excavation seasons focused on the Late Classic (A.D. 600¿900) and Early Postclassic (A.D. 900¿1300). The spatial distributions of surface artifacts¿collected during the intensive mapping and systematic surface collecting¿on residential terraces at Cerro Danush are analyzed to evaluate evidence for craft production, ritual, and abandonment at the community level. This community analysis is complemented by data from the comprehensive excavation of a residential terrace, which documents diachronic patterns of behavior at the household level. The results from Faulseit¿s survey and excavations are evaluated within the theoretical frameworks of political cycling and resilience theory. Faulseit concludes that resilient social structures may have helped orchestrate reorganization in the dynamic political landscape of Oaxaca after the political collapse of Monte Albán.
Category: Social Science