THE CHEMISTRY OF THERMAL FOOD PROCESSING PROCEDURES SPRINGERBRIEFS IN MOLECULAR SCIENCE
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Author : Maria Micali
ISBN : 9783319424637
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 43.92 MB
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This Brief reviews thermal processes in the food industry – pasteurization, sterilization, UHT processes, and others. It evaluates the effects on a chemical level and possible failures from a safety viewpoint, and discusses in how far the effects can be predicted. In addition, historical preservation techniques – smoking, addition of natural additives, irradiation, etc. – are compared with current industrial systems, like fermentation, irradiation, addition of food-grade chemicals. The Brief critically discusses storage protocols – cooling, freezing, etc. – and packing systems (modified atmosphere technology, active and intelligent packaging). Can undesired chemical effects on the food products be predicted? This Brief elucidates on this important question. On that basis, new challenges, that currently arise in the food sector, can be approached.
This Brief describes the chemical features of canned food products and gives background information on the technology of canning foods. It explains how canned foods are different from other packaged foods, and illustrates and discusses their unique properties, including risks and failures. Canned foods are usually considered to offer a particularly long shelf-life and durability. An understanding of their properties and influences on their durability is therefore of great importance in the industrial production, and this Brief offers a compact introduction to this topic. The authors focus on thermally-preserved foods. They explain that the right choice of thermal treatment method (e.g. pasteurisation, sterilisation) as well as process parameters (e.g. time, temperature) is additionally influenced by criteria such as pH, water content, the presence and concentration of fatty molecules, of calcium, etc. So-called ‘survival curves’ can help in determining the methodology of choice, and the Brief introduces the reader to this concept. The authors also address defects and failures. They introduce selected indicators, which can help identifying failures of the entire food/packaging system, and demonstrate how image and visual analysis can be applied in quality controls. The explanations and industrial production of canned foods are exemplified with the case of canned tomato sauces and beans.
This Brief presents a chemical perspective on frozen vegetables, also known as “ready-to-use” foods. It elucidates the chemical properties and modifications of vegetables from harvest and treatment to the end of their long shelf-life. Particular attention is given to the microbiological colonization of vegetables during the freezing treatments and to the chemical and physical modifications associated. The authors explore the undesired effects of this colonization through the lens of the antibiotic-resistant Staphylococci found in hermetically-package frozen vegetables. With this informative and instructive Brief, readers will understand the importance of the frozen storage technologies.
Author : Seyed Mohammed Bagher Hashemi
ISBN : 9781119149378
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 81.75 MB
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A guide to the use of essential oils in food, including information on their composition, extraction methods, and their antioxidant and antimicrobial applications Consumers’ food preferences are moving away from synthetic additives and preservatives and there is an increase demand for convenient packaged foods with long shelf lives. The use of essential oils fills the need for more natural preservativesto extend the shelf-life and maintaining the safety of foods. Essential Oils in Food Processing offers researchers in food science a guide to the chemistry, safety and applications of these easily accessible and eco-friendly substances. The text offers a review of essential oils components, history, source and their application in foods and explores common and new extraction methods of essential oils from herbs and spices. The authors show how to determine the chemical composition of essential oils as well as an explanation of the antimicrobial and antioxidant activity of these oils in foods. This resource also delves into the effect of essential oils on food flavor and explores the interaction of essential oils and food components. Essential Oils in Food Processing offers a: Handbook of the use of essential oils in food, including their composition, extraction methods and their antioxidant and antimicrobial applications Guide that shows how essential oils can be used to extend the shelf life of food products whilst meeting consumer demand for “natural” products Review of the use of essential oils as natural flavour ingredients Summary of relevant food regulations as pertaining to essential oils Academic researchers in food science, R&D scientists, and educators and advanced students in food science and nutrition can tap into the most recent findings and basic understanding of the chemistry, application, and safe us of essential oils in food processing.
This Brief reviews the chemistry behind the production of yoghurt through acidification of milk. It quantifies the changes in physical and chemical properties of yoghurt during fermentation with microbial organisms (such as Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus). It has been found that this symbiosis has an optimal development at a temperature of ca. 45°C with the transformation of lactose into lactic acid and small amounts of acetaldehyde, diacetyl and volatile acids. This Brief explains the chemical and physical results of the fermentation process, such as precipitation of proteins and the acid coagulation of milk with a clot formation in the final semi-solid mass. The Brief sheds light on the accomplishments of the fermenting organisms: they are responsible for the biochemical reactions of carbohydrate metabolism, proteolysis, lipolysis and flavour production in the process of yoghurt production. It also briefly reviews formulations and food additives used in the modern yoghurt producing industry.
This Brief explains and discusses honey and its production from a chemical perspective. It outlines why honey is a special and unique food, being produced by bees from the nectar of plants or from secretions of living parts of plants. Although glucose and fructose are the main constituents of honey, its overall composition is far from being simple or uniform: other substances such as organic acids, enzymes, or minerals are found in varying amounts. In this Brief, the author addresses the factors that influence the composition of the honey as well as the consequences that the composition has on properties such as color, crystallization, density, viscosity, or the refractive index. This Brief also introduces some of the most commonly used quality parameters for the determination of ageing and/or overheating: 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) and diastase. Other recently proposed constituents for quality parameters are also mentioned, e.g. 1,2 dicarbonyl compounds (3 deoxyglucosone, methylglyoxal, glyoxal) and furosine, also named 2-furoylmethyl lysine.
This Brief is devoted to clean drinking water, which is (one of) the most important asset(s) in the food and beverage industry. In the present time of increasing water scarcity in many areas of the world, supply of clean water especially in the production and packaging chain of foods and beverages, is a crucial issue. This Brief hence outlines why functioning purification and reuse systems for wastewater are becoming more and more interesting and promising technologies in solving the challenge. Readers find in this Brief an introduction to different innovative treatment methodologies. The authors discuss key parameters (such as the water volume to be treated, types and chemical and physico-chemical characteristics of pollutants, but also the intended use of the recycled water) and present various methodologies, such as separation or concentration systems, centrifugation, evaporation, filtration, flotation, gravity separation, membrane techniques, aerobic and anaerobic biological treatments, as well as combined or hybrid systems. Selected specific methods are presented in detail, specifically a new adsorption method for the removal of metal ions.
With the unprecedented increase in the world’s population, the need for different foodprocessing techniques becomes extremely important. And with the increase in awareness of and demand for food quality, processed products with improved quality and better taste that are safe are also important aspects that need to be addressed. In this volume, experts examine the use of different technologies for food processing. They look at technology with ways to preserve nutrients, eliminate anti-nutrients and toxins, add vitamins and minerals, reduce waste, and increase productivity. Topics include, among others: • applications of ohmic heating • cold plasma in food processing • the role of biotechnology in the production of fermented foods and beverages • the use of modification of food proteins using gamma irradiation • edible coatings to restrain migration of moisture, oxygen, and carbon dioxide • natural colorants, as opposed to synthetic coloring, which may have toxic effects • hurdle technology in the food industry • the unrecognized potential of agro-industrial waste
Author : Rajeev K. Singla
ISBN : 9783319769233
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 59.41 MB
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This Brief provides an overview of different analytical methods and techniques for the qualitative and quantitative evaluation of Maillard Reactions and their reaction products in foods during processing and storage. Reliable methodology for the investigation of Maillard Reactions and their products are of utmost importance in food analysis: since Maillard Reactions can on the one hand be desirable and advantageous, influencing the colors, flavors and odors of food products, they can on the other hand also produce detrimental compounds afflicting the consumers’ health (e.g. furfurals, furosine, or acrylamide). This Brief introduces different analytical methods, which can be used to investigate and characterize Maillard Reactions and their products in foods, including for example capillary electrophoresis, high performance liquid chromatography, gas chromatography with mass spectrometric detection, UV-VIS spectrophotometry, fluorescence, electronic nose, gravimetric systems, and many more. The chapters exemplify how the analytical techniques can be applied for assessing and evaluating different Maillard Reaction products in foods. Readers will find basic information, as well as practical hints and guidelines for application in their own laboratory.