THE ARCHAEOLOGY OF REGIONAL INTERACTION RELIGION WARFARE AND EXCHANGE ACROSS THE AMERICAN SOUTHWEST AND BEYOND PROCEEDINGS OF THE SOUTHWEST SYMPOSIUM

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The Archaeology Of Regional Interaction

Author : Michelle Hegmon
ISBN : 9780870819049
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 81.71 MB
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A collection of scholarly essays examines why and how styles, materials, conflicts, and religious ideas spread across the prehistoric Southwest.
Category: Social Science

Beyond Germs

Author : Catherine M. Cameron
ISBN : 9780816500246
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 31.83 MB
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"Beyond Germs challenges the hypothesis that the massive depopulation of the New World was primarily caused by diseases brought by Europeans, which scholars used for decades to explain the decimation of the indigenous peoples of North America. Contributors argue that blaming germs downplays the active role of Europeans in inciting wars, destroying livelihoods, and erasing identities"--Provided by publisher.
Category: Social Science

Hopi Oral Tradition And The Archaeology Of Identity

Author : Wesley Bernardini
ISBN : 9780816536412
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 60.17 MB
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As contemporary Native Americans assert the legacy of their ancestors, there is increasing debate among archaeologists over the methods and theories used to reconstruct prehistoric identity and the movement of social groups. This is especially problematic with respect to the emergence of southwestern tribes, which involved shifting populations and identities over the course of more than a thousand years. Wesley Bernardini now draws on an unconventional source, Hopi traditional knowledge, to show how hypotheses that are developed from oral tradition can stimulate new and productive ways to think about the archaeological record. Focusing on insights that oral tradition has to offer about general processes of prehistoric migration and identity formation, he describes how each Hopi clan acquired its particular identity from the experiences it accumulated on its unique migration pathway. This pattern of “serial migration” by small social groups often saw the formation of villages by clans that briefly came together and then moved off again independently, producing considerable social diversity both within and among villages. Using Anderson Mesa and Homol’ovi as case studies, Bernardini presents architectural and demographic data suggesting that the fourteenth century occupation of these regions was characterized by population flux and diversity consistent with the serial migration model. He offers an analysis of rock art motifs—focusing on those used as clan symbols—to evaluate the diversity of group identities, then presents a compositional analysis of Jeddito Yellow Ware pottery to evaluate the diversity of these groups’ eventual migration destinations. Evidence supporting serial migration greatly complicates existing notions of links between ancient and modern social groups, with important implications for the implementation of the Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act. Bernardini’s work clearly demonstrates that studies of cultural affiliation must take into account the fluid nature of population movements and identity in the prehistoric landscape. It takes a decisive step toward better understanding the major demographic change that occurred on the Colorado Plateau from 1275 to 1400 and presents a strategy for improving the reconstruction of cultural identity in the past.
Category: Social Science

Archaeology Without Borders

Author : Laurie D. Webster
ISBN : WISC:89097005441
Genre : History
File Size : 23.88 MB
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Offers a synthesis of early agricultural adaptations in the region, groundbreaking archaeological research on social identity, and data previously not readily available to English-speaking readers. The twenty-four essays discuss early agriculture, social identity, and cultural landscapes, as well as economic and social interactions within the area now encompassed by northern Mexico and the US Southwest. Contributors examining early agricultural adaptations offer models for understanding the transition to agriculture, explore relationships between the spread of agriculture and Uto-Aztecan migrations, and present data from Arizona, New Mexico, and Chihuahua. Contributors focusing on social identity discuss migration, enculturation, social boundaries, and ethnic identities. They draw on case studies that include diverse artefact classes -- rock art, lithics, architecture, murals, ceramics, cordage, sandals, baskets, faunal remains, and oral histories. Mexican scholars present data from Chihuahua, Durango, Zacatecas, Michoacan, Coahuila, and Nuevo Leon. They address topics including Spanish-indigenous conflicts, archaeological history, cultural landscapes, and interactions among Mesoamerica, northern Mexico, and the US Southwest.
Category: History

The Culture Of Flowers

Author : Jack Goody
ISBN : 0521414415
Genre : Nature
File Size : 24.28 MB
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An analysis of the symbolic and transactional uses of flowers in secular life and religious ritual from ancient Egypt to modern times.
Category: Nature

Exploring Cause And Explanation

Author : Cynthia L. Herhahn
ISBN : 9781607324737
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 37.50 MB
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This 13th biennial volume of the Southwest Symposium highlights three distinct archaeological themes—historical ecology, demography, and movement—tied together through the consideration of the knowledge tools of cause and explanation. These tools focus discussion on how and why questions, facilitate assessing past and current knowledge of the Pueblo Southwest, and provide unexpected bridges across the three themes. For instance, people are ultimately the source of the movement of artifacts, but that statement is inadequate for explaining how artifact movement occurred or even why, at a regional scale, different kinds of movement are implicated at different times. Answering such questions can easily incorporate questions about changes in climate or in population density or size. Each thematic section is introduced by an established author who sets the framework for the chapters that follow. Some contributors adopt regional perspectives in which both classical regions (the central San Juan or lower Chama basins) and peripheral zones (the Alamosa basin or the upper San Juan) are represented. Chapters are also broad temporally, ranging from the Younger Dryas Climatic interval (the Clovis-Folsom transition) to the Protohistoric Pueblo world and the eighteenth-century ethnogenesis of a unique Hispanic identity in northern New Mexico. Others consider methodological issues, including the burden of chronic health afflictions at the level of the community and advances in estimating absolute population size. Whether emphasizing time, space, or methodology, the authors address the processes, steps, and interactions that affect current understanding of change or stability of cultural traditions. Exploring Cause and Explanation considers themes of perennial interest but demonstrates that archaeological knowledge in the Southwest continues to expand in directions that could not have been predicted fifty years ago. Contributors: Kirk C. Anderson, Jesse A. M. Ballenger, Jeffery Clark, J. Andrew Darling, B. Sunday Eiselt, Mark D. Elson, Mostafa Fayek, Jeffrey R. Ferguson, Severin Fowles, Cynthia Herhahn, Vance T. Holliday, Sharon Hull, Deborah L. Huntley, Emily Lena Jones, Kathryn Kamp, Jeremy Kulisheck, Karl W. Laumbach, Toni S. Laumbach, Stephen H. Lekson, Virginia T. McLemore, Frances Joan Mathien, Michael H. Ort, Scott G. Ortman, Mary Ownby, Mary M. Prasciunas, Ann F. Ramenofsky, Erik Simpson, Ann L. W. Stodder, Ronald H. Towner
Category: Social Science

The Collapse Of Complex Societies

Author : Joseph Tainter
ISBN : 052138673X
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 57.38 MB
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Dr Tainter describes nearly two dozen cases of collapse and reviews more than 2000 years of explanations. He then develops a new and far-reaching theory.
Category: Social Science

Foraging And Farming In The Eastern Woodlands

Author : C. Margaret Scarry
ISBN : 081301235X
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 60.12 MB
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"The latest thinking in Eastern Woodlands paleoethnobotany; a volume which belongs on the bookshelf of every archaeologist and paleoethnobotanist who is concerned with plants and culture in North America."--Deborah M. Pearsall, University of Missouri "The papers . . . provide succinct updates in a rapidly developing field [and] explore many facets of the cultural implications of plant remains, taking paleoethnobotanical interpretation in provocative new directions."--Gary W. Crawford, Erindale College Combining broad chronological syntheses and regionally specific case studies, this volume presents up-to-date findings about plant use by prehistoric and early historic peoples who lived in the Eastern Woodlands of North America. The contributors stress that current depictions of the subsistence strategies, settlement patterns, and social relations of these earliest Americans need to be reformulated to accommodate our new understanding of both the importance of native crops and the variability in peoples' foodways. Contents Introduction, by C. Margaret Scarry The Importance of Native Crops during the Late Archaic and Woodland Periods, by Richard A. Yarnell The Archaic Period and the Flotation Revolution, by Jefferson Chapman and Patty Jo Watson Early and Middle Woodland Period Paleoethnobotany, by Gayle J. Fritz Farmers of the Late Woodland, by Sissel Johannessen Variability in Mississippian Crop Production Strategies, by C. Margaret Scarry New Methods for Studying the Origins of New World Domesticates: The Squash Example, by Deena S. Decker-Walters Reanalysis of Seed Crops from Emge: New Implications for Late Woodland Subsistence-Settlement Systems, by Sandra L. Dunavan Plants and People: Cultural, Biological, and Ecological Responses to Wood Exploitation, by Lee A. Newsom Cultural Change and Subsistence: The Middle Woodland and Late Woodland Transition in the Mid-Ohio Valley, by Dee Anne Wymer Agricultural Risk and the Development of the Moundville Chiefdom, by C. Margaret Scarry Food, Dishes, and Society in the Mississippi Valley, by Sissel Johannessen Wood Overexploitation and the Collapse of Cahokia, by Neal H. Lopinot and William I. Woods Climate, Culture, and Oneota Subsistence in Central Illinois, by Frances B. King Old Customs and Traditions in New Terrain: Sixteenth- and Seventeenth-Century Archaeobotanical Data from La Florida, by Donna L. Ruhl C. Margaret Scarry is staff archaeologist at the Program for Cultural Resource Assessment at the University of Kentucky and coauthor of Reconstructing Historic Subsistence: With an Example from Sixteenth-Century Spanish Florida.
Category: Social Science

Surviving Sudden Environmental Change

Author : Jago Cooper
ISBN : 9781457117268
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 78.66 MB
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Archaeologists have long encountered evidence of natural disasters through excavation and stratigraphy. In Surviving Sudden Environmental Change, case studies examine how eight different past human communities—ranging from Arctic to equatorial regions, from tropical rainforests to desert interiors, and from deep prehistory to living memory—faced, and coped with, such dangers. Many disasters originate from a force of nature, such as an earthquake, cyclone, tsunami, volcanic eruption, drought, or flood. But that is only half of the story; decisions of people and their particular cultural lifeways are the rest. Sociocultural factors are essential in understanding risk, impact, resilience, reactions, and recoveries from massive sudden environmental changes. By using deep-time perspectives provided by interdisciplinary approaches, this book provides a rich temporal background to the human experience of environmental hazards and disasters. In addition, each chapter is followed by an abstract summarizing the important implications for today’s management practices and providing recommendations for policy makers. Publication supported in part by the National Science Foundation.
Category: Social Science