TEUTOBURG FOREST AD 9 THE DESTRUCTION OF VARUS AND HIS LEGIONS CAMPAIGN

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Teutoburg Forest Ad 9

Author : Michael McNally
ISBN : 1846035813
Genre : History
File Size : 47.32 MB
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Osprey's study of one of the most important battles of the long-elasting Germanic Wars (113 BC - 439 AD). Arminius, a young member of the Cheruscan tribe under the Roman Empire felt that Rome could be beaten in battle and that such a victory would guarantee the freedom of the Germans as a confederation of independent tribes, led by the Cheruscans, who would - in turn - be led by him. Throughout AD 8 and the early part of AD 9, Arminius used his position under the governor of Germania Inferior well, ostensibly promoting Rome whilst in reality welding the tribes together in an anti-Roman alliance, agreeing with his confederates that they would wait until the Roman garrison had moved to their summer quarters and then rise up against the invaders. With the arrival of September, the time soon came for the Roman troops to return to their stations along the Rhine and as they marched westwards through the almost impenetrable Teutoburg Forest, Arminius sprang his trap. In a series of running battles in the forest, Varus' army, consisting of three Roman Legions (XVII, XVIII and XIX) and several thousand auxiliaries - a total of roughly 20,000 men - was destroyed. The consequences for Rome were enormous - the province of Germania was now virtually undefended and Gaul was open to a German invasion which although it never materialized, led a traumatized Augustus to decree that, henceforth, the Rhine would remain the demarcation line between the Roman world and the German tribes, in addition to which the destroyed legions were never re-formed or their numbers reused in the Roman Army: after AD 9, the sequence of numbers would run from I to XVI and then from XX onwards, it was as if the three legions had never existed.
Category: History

Rome S Greatest Defeat

Author : Adrian Murdoch
ISBN : 9780752494555
Genre : History
File Size : 30.97 MB
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Over four days at the beginning of September AD 9, half of Rome's Western army was ambushed in a German forest and annihilated. Three legions, three cavalry units and six auxiliary regiments—some 25,000 men—were wiped out. It dealt a body blow to the empire's imperial pretensions and was Rome's greatest defeat. No other battle stopped the Roman empire dead in its tracks. From the moment of the Teutoburg Forest disaster, the Rhine, rather than the Elbe as the Romans had hoped, became the limit of the civilized world. Rome's expansion in northern Europe was checked and Rome anxiously patrolled the Rhineland borders, awaiting further uprisings from Germania. Although one of the most significant and dramatic battles in European history, this is also one that has been largely overlooked. Drawing on primary sources and a vast wealth of new archeological evidence, Adrian Murdoch brings to life the battle itself, the historical background, and the effects of the Roman defeat as well as exploring the personalities of those who took part.
Category: History

Mons Graupius Ad 83

Author : Duncan B Campbell
ISBN : 1846039266
Genre : History
File Size : 48.62 MB
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Osprey's Campaign title for the battle at Mons Graupius (83 AD), which was a decisive conflict between Rome and Britain. In AD 77, Roman forces under Agricola marched into the northern reaches of Britain in an attempt to pacify the Caledonian tribesman. For seven years, the Romans marched and battled across what is now Scotland. Finally, in AD 83, they fought the final battle at Mons Graupius where 10,000 Caledonians were slaughtered from only 360 Roman dead. It proved the high-water mark of Roman power in Britain. Following unrest elsewhere in the empire, the north of Scotland was abandoned and Rome's forces began their long retreat. Never again would Roman arms stand on the edge of the known world.
Category: History

Give Me Back My Legions

Author : Harry Turtledove
ISBN : 1429967080
Genre : Fiction
File Size : 69.63 MB
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Bestselling author Harry Turtledove turns his attention to an epic battle that pits three Roman legions against Teutonic barbarians in a thrilling novel of Ancient Rome: Give Me Back My Legions! Publius Quinctilius Varus, a Roman politician, is summoned by the Emperor, Augustus Caesar. Given three legions and sent to the Roman frontier east of the Rhine, his mission is to subdue the barbarous German tribes where others have failed, and bring their land fully under Rome's control. Arminius, a prince of the Cherusci, is playing a deadly game. He serves in the Roman army, gaining Roman citizenship and officer's rank, and learning the arts of war and policy as practiced by the Romans. What he learns is essential for the survival of Germany, for he must unite his people against Rome before they become enslaved by the Empire and lose their way of life forever. An epic battle is brewing, and these two men stand on opposite sides of what will forever be known as The Battle of the Teutoberg Forest—a ferocious, bloody clash that will change the course of history.
Category: Fiction

The Battle That Stopped Rome

Author : Peter S. Wells
ISBN : 0393326438
Genre : History
File Size : 67.63 MB
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A chronicle of the defeat of the Roman army by German barbarian forces cites the contributions of a Roman traitor that led to the brutal deaths of three Roman legions during the Battle of Teutoburg Forest and caused the Roman empire to cease its expansion, noting the battle's ongoing impact on cultural borders today. Reprint. 15,000 first printing.
Category: History

Quest For The Lost Roman Legions

Author : Tony Clunn
ISBN : 9781611210088
Genre : History
File Size : 56.98 MB
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In 9 A.D., the 17th, 18th, & 19th Roman legions and their auxiliary troops under the command of Publius Quinctilius Varus vanished in the boggy wilds of Germania. They died singly and by the hundreds over several days in a carefully planned ambush led by Arminius--a Roman-trained German warrior adopted and subsequently knighted by the Romans, but determined to stop Rome's advance east beyond the Rhine River. By the time it was over, some 25,000 men, women, and children were dead and the course of European history had been forever altered. "Quinctilius Varus, give me back my legions!" Emperor Augustus agonized aloud when he learned of the devastating loss. As the decades slipped past, the location of the Varus defeat, one of the Western world's most important battlefields, was lost to history. It remained so for two millenia. Fueled by an unshakeable curiosity and burning interest in the story, a British Major named J. A. S. (Tony) Clunn delved into the nooks and crannies of times past. By sheer persistence and good luck, he turned the foundation of German national history on its ear. Convinced the running battle took place north of Osnabruck, Germany, Clunn set out to prove his point. His discovery of large numbers of Roman coins in the late 1980s, followed by a flood of thousands of other artifacts (including weapons and human remains), ended the mystery once and for all. Archaeologists and historians across the world agreed. Today, a multi-million dollar state-of-the-art museum houses and interprets these priceless historical treasures on the very site Varus's legions were lost. The Quest for the Lost Roman Legions, now available in trade paperback, is a masterful retelling of Clunn's search to discover the Varus battlefield. His well-paced, carefully conceived, and vivid writing style makes for a compelling read from the first page to the last, as he alternates between his incredible modern quest, and the ancient tale of the Roman occupation of Germany (based upon actual finds from the battlefield) that ultimately ended so tragically in the peat bogs of Kalkriese. About the Author: Tony Clunn joined the army at age 15, and at 17 joined the 3rd Royal Tank Regiment. After 22 years of Regimental service he took a Queen's commission for a further ten years and retired in the late 1990s with the rank of Major. He is employed by the British Army in Osnabruck and serves as a consultant at Kalkriese. In 1996, Clunn was presented with the Member of the Royal Order of the British Empire by Queen Elizabeth II; The German Order of Merit in 1997; and the German Medal of Honor in 1999.
Category: History

Roman Legionary

Author : Ross Cowan
ISBN : 1841766003
Genre : Biography & Autobiography
File Size : 80.45 MB
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The period 31 BC-AD 43 saw the greatest expansion of the Roman Empire. In 31 BC Octavian defeated Antony at the battle of Actium and remodelled the semi-professional Roman army into a permanent force of 28 legions. Octavian became the first emperor (Augustus) and under his leadership the legions conquered northern Spain, all Europe south of the Danube line and Germany west of the Elbe. The legionaries exemplified the heroic culture of the Roman world and this title takes a behind-the-scenes look at their lives, training, weaponry and tactics, including the bloody massacre of the Teutoberg forest.
Category: Biography & Autobiography

Four Days In September

Author : Jason R Abdale
ISBN : 9781473860889
Genre : History
File Size : 52.36 MB
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For twenty years, the Roman Empire conquered its way through modern-day Germany, claiming all lands from the Rhine to the Elbe. However, when at last all appeared to be under control, a catastrophe erupted that claimed the lives of 10,000 legionnaires and laid Rome’s imperial ambitions for Germania into the dust. In late September of 9 AD, three Roman legions, while marching to suppress a distant tribal rebellion, were attacked in a four-day battle with the Germanic barbarians. The Romans, under the leadership of the province’s governor, Publius Quinctilius Varus, were taken completely by surprise, betrayed by a member of their own ranks: the German officer and secret rebel leader, Arminius. The defeat was a heavy blow to both Rome’s military and its pride. Though the disaster was ruthlessly avenged soon afterwards, later attempts at conquering the Germans were half-hearted at best. Four days in September thoroughly examines the ancient sources and challenges the hypotheses of modern scholars to present a clear picture of the prelude to the battle, the fighting itself and its aftermath.
Category: History

Adrianopole Ad 378

Author : Simon MacDowall
ISBN : 027598835X
Genre : History
File Size : 77.40 MB
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"Scarcely one third of the entire army escaped. Never, except in the battle of Cannae, had there been so destructive a slaughter recorded in our annals." Thus the Roman historian Ammianus Marcellinus recorded the battle of Adrianople, 9 August AD 378, which spelled the beginning of the end of the Roman Empire. Such a crushing Roman defeat by Gothic cavalry proved to the Empire, as well as to the Goths themselves, that the migratory barbarians were a force to be reckoned with. Valens, the Emperor of the East, was killed along with up to 40,000 Roman soldiers. Simon MacDowall tells the story of the misguided Roman plans to attack, the lack of adequate scouting that resulted in the surprise attack of Gothic cavalry, and puts forward the most recent theories as to the true location of the battlefield.
Category: History

Philippi 42 Bc

Author : Si Sheppard
ISBN : 1846032652
Genre : History
File Size : 39.69 MB
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Immortalized in Shakespeare's play on the life and death of Julius Caesar, the battle of Philippi was the final battle between the forces of Mark Antony and Octavian against the forces of Caesar's assassins Brutus and Longinus during the Roman civil wars that took place in the 40s and 30s BC. Si Sheppard takes a detailed look at the campaign that was waged around the Macedonian city of Philipi. The first engagement on the 3rd of October was indecisive as Octavian's forces were routed by those of Brutus, but Cassius' camp was captured by Mark Antony's men; wrongly fearing that Brutus was dead and that all was lost for his cause, Cassius committed suicide - depriving the Republicans of their most gifted commander. In the meantime, the Republicans' naval forces had managed to intercept and destroy the supply ships of the Triumvirs in the Adriatic, a serious blow to Octavian and Mark Anthony. Expertly detailing the changing fates of the opposing sides, their successes and failures illustrated in a range of maps, the book then turns to the final stages of the campaign. As the Triumvirs' forces slowly moved their fieldworks towards their enemies' positions, Brutus, ignorant of the destruction of Calvinus's fleet and seeing few other options available to him, decided to give battle. In the bloody and close combat, legionary fought legionary amid great slaughter, until Brutus' forces were finally routed and his camp overrun. Brutus fled and committed suicide the following day. The Republican movement crushed, Rome now rested in the hands of the Second Triumvirate. This is the history of the Philippi campaign that sounded the final death knell for the Republican movement.
Category: History