TECHNIQUES FOR VIRTUAL PALAEONTOLOGY ANALYTICAL METHODS IN EARTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE

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Techniques For Virtual Palaeontology

Author : Mark Sutton
ISBN : 9781118591253
Genre : Science
File Size : 78.19 MB
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Virtual palaeontology, the use of interactive three-dimensional digital models as a supplement or alternative to physical specimens for scientific study and communication, is rapidly becoming important to advanced students and researchers. Using non-invasive techniques, the method allows the capture of large quantities of useful data without damaging the fossils being studied Techniques for Virtual Palaeontology guides palaeontologists through the decisions involved in designing a virtual palaeontology workflow and gives a comprehensive overview, providing discussions of underlying theory, applications, historical development, details of practical methodologies, and case studies. Techniques covered include physical-optical tomography (serial sectioning), focused ion beam tomography, all forms of X-ray CT, neutron tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, optical tomography, laser scanning, and photogrammetry. Visualization techniques and data/file formats are also discussed in detail. Readership: All palaeontologists and students interested in three-dimensional visualization and analysis. New Analytical Methods in Earth and Environmental Science Because of the plethora of analytical techniques now available, and the acceleration of technological advance, many earth scientists find it difficult to know where to turn for reliable information on the latest tools at their disposal, and may lack the expertise to assess the relative strengths or limitations of a particular technique. This new series will address these difficulties by providing accessible introductions to important new techniques, lab and field protocols, suggestions for data handling and interpretation, and useful case studies. The series represents an invaluable and trusted source of information for researchers, advanced students and applied earth scientists wishing to familiarise themselves with emerging techniques in their field. All titles in this series are available in a variety of full-colour, searchable eBook formats. Titles are also available in an enhanced eBook edition which may include additional features such as DOI linking, high resolution graphics and video.
Category: Science

Techniques For Virtual Palaeontology Enhanced Edition

Author : Mark Sutton
ISBN : 9781118786680
Genre : Science
File Size : 84.95 MB
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Virtual palaeontology, the use of interactive three-dimensional digital models as a supplement or alternative to physical specimens for scientific study and communication, is rapidly becoming important to scientists and researchers in the field. Using non-invasive techniques, the method allows the capture of large quantities of useful data without damaging the fossils being studied Techniques for Virtual Palaeontology guides palaeontologists through the decisions involved in designing a virtual palaeontology workflow and gives a comprehensive overview, providing discussions of underlying theory, applications, historical development, details of practical methodologies, and case studies. Techniques covered include physical-optical tomography (serial sectioning), focused ion beam tomography, all forms of X-ray CT, neutron tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, optical tomography, laser scanning, and photogrammetry. Visualization techniques and data/file formats are also discussed in detail. Readership: All palaeontologists and students interested in three-dimensional visualization and analysis. New Analytical Methods in Earth and Environmental Science Because of the plethora of analytical techniques now available, and the acceleration of technological advance, many earth scientists find it difficult to know where to turn for reliable information on the latest tools at their disposal, and may lack the expertise to assess the relative strengths or limitations of a particular technique. This new series will address these difficulties by providing accessible introductions to important new techniques, lab and field protocols, suggestions for data handling and interpretation, and useful case studies. The series represents an invaluable and trusted source of information for researchers, advanced students and applied earth scientists wishing to familiarise themselves with emerging techniques in their field. This enhanced e-book offers the following features: Full colour and high quality graphics Full searchability Internal links to glossaries, cross-references, figures and tables and other pedagogy External links to websites, including DOI linking for references and further reading
Category: Science

Genomic Approaches In Earth And Environmental Sciences

Author : Gregory Dick
ISBN : 9781118708262
Genre : Science
File Size : 56.37 MB
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The first comprehensive synthesis of genomic techniques in earth sciences The past 15 years have witnessed an explosion of DNA sequencing technologies that provide unprecedented insights into biology. Although this technological revolution has been driven by the biomedical sciences, it also offers extraordinary opportunities in the earth and environmental sciences. In particular, the application of "omics" methods (genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics) directly to environmental samples offers exciting new vistas of complex microbial communities and their roles in environmental and geochemical processes. This unique book fills the gap where there exists a lack of resources and infrastructure to educate and train geoscientists about the opportunities, approaches, and analytical methods available in the application of omic technologies to problems in the geosciences. Genomic Approaches in Earth and Environmental Sciences begins by covering the role of microorganisms in earth and environmental processes. It then goes on to discuss how omics approaches provide new windows into geobiological processes. It delves into the DNA sequencing revolution and the impact that genomics has made on the geosciences. The book then discusses the methods used in the field, beginning with an overview of current technologies. After that it offers in-depth coverage of single cell genomics, metagenomics, metatranscriptomics, metaproteomics, and functional approaches, before finishing up with an outlook on the future of the field. The very first synthesis of an important new family of techniques Shows strengths and limitations (both practical and theoretical) of the techniques Deals with both theoretical and laboratory basics Shows use of techniques in a variety of applications, including various aspects of environmental science, geobiology, and evolution Genomic Approaches in Earth and Environmental Sciences is a welcome addition to the library of all earth and environmental scientists and students working within a wide range of subdisciplines.
Category: Science

Environmental Applications Of Digital Terrain Modeling

Author : John P. Wilson
ISBN : 9781118938171
Genre : Science
File Size : 63.47 MB
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A digital elevation model (DEM) is a digital representation of ground surface topography or terrain. It is also widely known as a digital terrain model (DTM). A DEM can be represented as a raster (a grid of squares) or as a vector based triangular irregular network (TIN). DEMs are commonly built using remote sensing techniques, but they may also be built from land surveying. DEMs are used often in geographic information systems, and are the most common basis for digitally-produced relief maps. The terrain surface can be described as compromising of two different elements; random and systematic. The random (stochastic) elements are the continuous surfaces with continuously varying relief. It would take an endless number of points to describe exactly the random terrain shapes, but these can be described in practice with a network of point. It is usual to use a network that creates sloping triangles or regular quadrants. This book examines how the methods and data sources used to generate DEMs and calculate land surface parameters have changed over the past 25 years. The primary goal is to describe the state-of-the-art for a typical digital terrain modeling workflow that starts with data capture, continues with data preprocessing and DEM generation, and concludes with the calculation of one or more primary and secondary land surface parameters. Taken as a whole, this book covers the basic theory behind the methods, the instrumentation, analysis and interpretation that are embedded in the modern digital terrain modeling workflow, the strengths and weaknesses of the various methods that the terrain analyst must choose among, typical applications of the results emanating from these terrain modeling workflows, and future directions. This book is intended for researchers and practitioners who wish to use DEMs, land surface parameters, land surface objects and landforms in environmental projects. The book will also be valuable as a reference text for environmental scientists who are specialists in related fields and wish to integrate these kinds of digital terrain workflows and outputs into their own specialized work environments.
Category: Science

Modern Analytical Geochemistry

Author : Robin Gill
ISBN : 9781317894711
Genre : Science
File Size : 84.86 MB
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A comprehensive handbook of analytical techniques in geochemistry which provides the student and the professional with an understanding of the wide spectrum of different analytical methods that can be applied to Earth and environmental materials, together with a critical appreciation of their relative merits and limitations.
Category: Science

Environmental Sciences

Author : K J Gregory
ISBN : 9780857023124
Genre : Science
File Size : 85.95 MB
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Unique in the reference literature, this Companion provides students with an introduction to all the major concepts and contemporary issues in the environmental sciences. The text is divided into six sections (Environmental Sciences, Environments, Paradigms and Concepts, Processes and Dynamic, Scales and Techniques, Environmental Issues), with over 200 entries alphabetically organized and authored by key names in the environmental science disciplines. Entries are concise, informative, richly visual and fully referenced and cross referenced. They introduce key concepts and processes that are included in the index, cite relevant websites, and reflect the latest thinking.
Category: Science

Quaternary Dating Methods

Author : Mike Walker
ISBN : 9781118700099
Genre : Science
File Size : 62.94 MB
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This introductory textbook introduces the basics of dating, the range of techniques available and the strengths and limitations of each of the principal methods. Coverage includes: the concept of time in Quaternary Science and related fields the history of dating from lithostratigraphy and biostratigraphy the development and application of radiometric methods different methods in dating: radiometric dating, incremental dating, relative dating and age equivalence Presented in a clear and straightforward manner with the minimum of technical detail, this text is a great introduction for both students and practitioners in the Earth, Environmental and Archaeological Sciences. Praise from the reviews: "This book is a must for any Quaternary scientist." SOUTH AFRICAN GEOGRAPHICAL JOURNAL, September 2006 “…very well organized, clearly and straightforwardly written and provides a good overview on the wide field of Quaternary dating methods…” JOURNAL OF QUATERNARY SCIENCE, January 2007
Category: Science

Machine Learning Methods In The Environmental Sciences

Author : William W. Hsieh
ISBN : 9780521791922
Genre : Computers
File Size : 71.65 MB
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A graduate textbook that provides a unified treatment of machine learning methods and their applications in the environmental sciences.
Category: Computers

Biominerals And Fossils Through Time

Author : Jean-Pierre Cuif
ISBN : 9780521874731
Genre : Nature
File Size : 42.55 MB
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Fossils are essential to the reconstruction of the evolution of life and episodes in Earth history. Fossil skeletal material serves as the repository of chemical data widely used in the reconstruction of the Earth's climate-ocean system at various time scales. Knowledge of biomineralization - the processes associated with the formation of mineralized biological structures - is essential to properly evaluate data derived from fossils. Additionally, knowledge of biomineralization is critical to the understanding of major events in the evolution of faunas, such as the original appearance of skeletons and some major extinction events. This is the first book to concentrate on aspects of biomineralization through Earth history. The book emphasizes skeletal formation and fossilization in a geologic framework in order to understand evolution, relationships between fossil groups, and the use of biomineral materials as geochemical proxies for understanding ancient oceans and climates. Approaching the subject from this viewpoint allows the authors to link the biotic, physical, and chemical realms. The focus is on shells and skeletons of calcareous organisms, although the broader impacts of these processes on other elements are also addressed, especially their roles in the global chemical cycles of carbon and silicon. The book explores the fine structures and mode of growth of the characteristic crystalline units, taking advantage of the most recent physical methodological advances. It is richly illustrated and will be of great interest to advanced students and researchers in paleontology, Earth history, evolution, sedimentary geology, geochemistry, and materials science.
Category: Nature

Value Of Information In The Earth Sciences

Author : Jo Eidsvik
ISBN : 9781316432129
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 45.49 MB
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Gathering the right kind and the right amount of information is crucial for any decision-making process. This book presents a unified framework for assessing the value of potential data gathering schemes by integrating spatial modelling and decision analysis, with a focus on the Earth sciences. The authors discuss the value of imperfect versus perfect information, and the value of total versus partial information, where only subsets of the data are acquired. Concepts are illustrated using a suite of quantitative tools from decision analysis, such as decision trees and influence diagrams, as well as models for continuous and discrete dependent spatial variables, including Bayesian networks, Markov random fields, Gaussian processes, and multiple-point geostatistics. Unique in scope, this book is of interest to students, researchers and industry professionals in the Earth and environmental sciences, who use applied statistics and decision analysis techniques, and particularly to those working in petroleum, mining, and environmental geoscience.
Category: Technology & Engineering