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Techniques For Multiaxial Creep Testing

Author : D. J. Gooch
ISBN : 9789400934153
Genre : Science
File Size : 33.64 MB
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The design and assessment of modern high temperature plant demands an understanding of the creep and rupture behaviour of materials under multi axial stress states. Examples include thread roots in steam turbine casing bolts, branch connections in nuclear pressure vessels and blade root fixings in gas or steam turbine rotors. At one extreme the simple notch weakening/notch strengthening characterization of the material by circumferentially vee-notched uniaxial rupture tests, as specified in many national standards, may be sufficient. These were originally intended to model thread roots and their conservatism is such that they frequently are considered adequate for design purposes. At the other extreme full size or model component tests may be employed to determine the safety margins built into design codes. This latter approach is most commonly used for internally pressurized components, particularly where welds are involved. However, such tests are extremely expensive and the use of modern stress analysis techniques combined with a detailed knowledge of multiaxial properties offers a more economic alternative. Design codes, by their nature, must ensure conservatism and are based on a material's minimum specified properties. In the case of high temperature components the extension of life beyond the nominal design figure, say from 100000 to 200000 h, offers very significant economic benefits. However, this may require a more detailed understanding of the multiaxial behaviour of a specific material than was available at the design stage.
Category: Science

From Creep Damage Mechanics To Homogenization Methods

Author : Holm Altenbach
ISBN : 9783319194400
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 47.58 MB
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This volume presents a collection of contributions on materials modeling, which were written to celebrate the 65th birthday of Prof. Nobutada Ohno. The book follows Prof. Ohno’s scientific topics, starting with creep damage problems and ending with homogenization methods.
Category: Technology & Engineering

Unified Constitutive Laws Of Plastic Deformation

Author : A. S. Krausz
ISBN : 008054343X
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 67.74 MB
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High-technology industries using plastic deformation demand soundly-based economical decisions in manufacturing design and product testing, and the unified constitutive laws of plastic deformation give researchers aguideline to use in making these decisions. This book provides extensive guidance in low cost manufacturing without the loss of product quality. Each highly detailed chapter of Unified Constitutive Laws of Plastic Deformation focuses on a distinct set of defining equations. Topics covered include anisotropic and viscoplastic flow, and the overall kinetics and thermodynamics of deformation. This important book deals with a prime topic in materials science and engineering, and will be of great use toboth researchers and graduate students. Describes the theory and applications of the constitutive law of plastic deformation for materials testing Examines the constitutive law of plastic deformation as it applies to process and product design Includes a program on disk for the determination and development of the constitutive law of plastic deformation Considers economical design and testing methods
Category: Technology & Engineering

Multiaxial Fatigue And Deformation Testing Techniques

Author : Sreeramesh Kalluri
ISBN : 0803120451
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 70.43 MB
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Fourteen papers from the May 1995 symposium focus on the advances that new materials testing equipment and digital computers have made possible. Representative topics: testing facilities for multiaxial loading of tubular specimens, biaxial deformation experiments over multiple string regimes, charac
Category: Technology & Engineering

Materials For Advanced Power Engineering 1994

Author : D. Coutsouradis
ISBN : 0792330749
Genre : Power-plants
File Size : 44.66 MB
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The role of energy in the modern world goes beyond mere technology and economics to influence welfare, the environment, the quality of life and, in broad terms, civilization itself. Since the Industrial Revolution, energy conservation technology has been at the forefront of the innovation required to satisfy the needs of mankind and, more than any other, this technology has always depended on the performance of the materials used.
Category: Power-plants

Fatigue Testing And Analysis Of Results

Author : W. Weibull
ISBN : 9781483154169
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 37.44 MB
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Fatigue Testing and Analysis of Results discusses fundamental concepts of fatigue testing and results analysis. The book begins with a description of the symbols and nomenclature selected for the present book, mainly those proposed by the ASTM Committee E-9 on Fatigue. Fatigue testing methods are then discussed including routine tests, short-life and long-life tests, cumulative-damage tests, and abbreviated and accelerated tests. Separate chapters cover fatigue testing machines and equipment; instruments and measuring devices; and test pieces used in fatigue testing. The factors affecting test results are considered, including material, types of stressing, test machine, environment, and testing technique. The final two chapters cover the planning of test programs and the presentation of results. Test program planning involves the statistical design of a test series; specification and sampling of test pieces; and choice of test pieces, testing machines, and test conditions. The chief purpose of most fatigue tests is the experimental determination of the relation between the endurance and the magnitude of the applied stress range for the material and the specimen under consideration, and final results can be condensed into a table, graph, or analytical expression.
Category: Technology & Engineering

Ultra High Temperature Mechanical Testing

Author : R. D. Lohr
ISBN : STANFORD:36105018252408
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 78.55 MB
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The research and development of advanced materials for high-temperature applications requires special test methods, procedures and equipment. This recent book presents in-depth information on the subject prepared by leading high-temperature materials testing specialists from Europe, Japan and the U.S. The 18 illustrated reports cover key topics in the areas of equipment, theory, test design, test specimens, procedures, applications and test results interpretation and utility. A wealth of test data is included for various materials. The primary focus is on ceramic matrix composite materials. Other materials applications include intermetallics, refractories, and monolithic materials. The text includes numerous diagrams, flow charts and photographs which illustrate equipment, procedures and test specimens. The many tables and graphs provide test results and properties data for a variety of high temperature materials.
Category: Technology & Engineering

The Hot Universe

Author : Katsuji Koyama
ISBN : 9789401149709
Genre : Science
File Size : 50.67 MB
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The present decade is opening new frontiers in high-energy astrophysics. After the X-ray satellites in the 1980's, including Einstein, Tenma, EXOSAT and Ginga, several satellites are, or will soon be, simultaneously in orbit offering spectacular advances in X-ray imaging at low energies (ROSATj Yohkoh) as well as at high energies (GRANAT), in spectroscopy with increased bandwidth (ASCAj SAX), and in timing (XTE). While these satellites allow us to study atomic radiation from hot plasmas or energetic electrons, other satellites study nuclear radiation at gamma-ray energies (CGRO) associated with radioactivity or spallation reactions. These experiments show that the whole universe is emitting radiation at high energies, hence we call it the "hot universe. " The hot universe, preferentially emitting X- and gamma-rays, provides us with many surprises and much information. A symposium "The Hot Universe" was held in conjunction with the XXIIIrd General Assembly of the International Astronomical Union, at Kyoto on August 26-30 in 1997. The proceedings are organized as follows. Synthetic view of "the hot universe" is discussed in Section 1, "Plasma and Fresh Nucleosynthesis Phenomena". Timely discussions on the strategy for future missions "Future Space Program" are found in Section 2. Then the contents are divided into two major subjects: the compact objects and thin hot diffuse plasmas. Section 3 is devoted to the category of compact objects which includes white dwarfs, neutron stars, and gravitationally collapsed objects: stellar mass black holes or active galactic nuclei.
Category: Science

Design For Creep

Author : Royston Kenneth Penny
ISBN : 0412590409
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 24.1 MB
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Our rationale for the second edition remains the same as for the first edition, which appeared over twenty years ago. This is to offer simplified, useful and easily understood methods for dealing with the creep of components operating under conditions met in practice. When the first edition was written, we could not claim that the methods which were introduced were well-tried. They were somewhat conjectural, although firmly based, but not sufficiently well devel oped. Since that time, the Reference Stress Methods (RSM) introduced in the book have received much scrutiny and development. The best recognition we could have of the original methods is the fact that they are now firmly embedded in codes of practice. Hopefully, we have now gone a long way towards achieving our original objectives. There are major additions to this second edition which should help to justify our claims. These include further clarification regarding Reference Stress Methods in Chapter 4. There are also new topics which depend on RSM in varying degrees: • Creep fracture is covered in Chapter 7, where methods for assessing creep crack initiation and crack growth are fully described. This chapter starts with a review of the basic concepts of fracture mechanics and follows with useful, approximate methods, compatible with the needs of design for creep and the availability of standard data. • Creep/fatigue interactions and environmental effects appear in Chapter 8.
Category: Technology & Engineering

Creep And Relaxation Of Nonlinear Viscoelastic Materials

Author : William N. Findley
ISBN : 9780486145174
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 58.4 MB
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DIVPioneering presentation of basic theory, experimental methods and results, solution of boundary value problems. Six appendices. Updated bibliography. /div
Category: Technology & Engineering