SYNTHETIC

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Synthetic Biology Engineering Complexity And Refactoring Cell Capabilities

Author : Pablo Carbonell
ISBN : 9782889196852
Genre :
File Size : 72.72 MB
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One of the key features of biological systems is complexity, where the behavior of high level structures is more than the sum of the direct interactions between single components. Synthetic Biologists aim to use rational design to build new systems that do not already exist in nature and that exhibit useful biological functions with different levels of complexity. One such case is metabolic engineering, where, with the advent of genetic and protein engineering, by supplying cells with chemically synthesized non-natural amino acids and sugars as new building blocks, it is now becoming feasible to introduce novel physical and chemical functions and properties into biological entities. The rules of how complex behaviors arise, however, are not yet well understood. For instance, instead of considering cells as inert chassis in which synthetic devices could be easily operated to impart new functions, the presence of these systems may impact cell physiology with reported effects on transcription, translation, metabolic fitness and optimal resource allocation. The result of these changes in the chassis may be failure of the synthetic device, unexpected or reduced device behavior, or perhaps a more permissive environment in which the synthetic device is allowed to function. While new efforts have already been made to increase standardization and characterization of biological components in order to have well known parts as building blocks for the construction of more complex devices, also new strategies are emerging to better understand the biological dynamics underlying the phenomena we observe. For example, it has been shown that the features of single biological components [i.e. promoter strength, ribosome binding affinity, etc] change depending on the context where the sequences are allocated. Thus, new technical approaches have been adopted to preserve single components activity, as genomic insulation or the utilization of prediction algorithms able to take biological context into account. There have been noteworthy advances for synthetic biology in clinical technologies, biofuel production, and pharmaceuticals production; also, metabolic engineering combined with microbial selection/adaptation and fermentation processes allowed to make remarkable progress towards bio-products formation such as bioethanol, succinate, malate and, more interestingly, heterologous products or even non-natural metabolites. However, despite the many progresses, it is still clear that ad hoc trial and error predominates over purely bottom-up, rational design approaches in the synthetic biology community. In this scenario, modelling approaches are often used as a descriptive tool rather than for the prediction of complex behaviors. The initial confidence on a pure reductionist approach to the biological world has left space to a new and deeper investigation of the complexity of biological processes to gain new insights and broaden the categories of synthetic biology. In this Research Topic we host contributions that explore and address two areas of Synthetic Biology at the intersection between rational design and natural complexity: (1) the impact of synthetic devices on the host cell, or "chassis" and (2) the impact of context on the synthetic devices. Particular attention will be given to the application of these principles to the rewiring of cell metabolism in a bottom-up fashion to produce non-natural metabolites or chemicals that should eventually serve as a substitute for petrol-derived chemicals, and, on a long-term view, to provide economical, ecological and ethical solutions to today’s energetic and societal challenges.
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Heterogeneous Catalysis For The Synthetic Chemist

Author : Robert L. Augustine
ISBN : 0824790219
Genre : Science
File Size : 82.17 MB
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This work delineates the effect of different reaction variables on the outcome of heterogeneously catalyzed reactions, and explains how to optimize the product yield of specific compounds. Metal catalysis, simple and complex oxides, zeolites and clays are discussed, both as catalysts and as potential supports for catalytically active metals.
Category: Science

Synthetic Chemistry Of Stable Nitroxides

Author : L. B. Volodarsky
ISBN : 0849345901
Genre : Science
File Size : 40.16 MB
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This important book is devoted to covering the synthetic aspects of nitroxide chemistry. The problems of application and physicochemical properties of nitroxides are considered in the context of the choice of necessary radical structures, convenient precursors, and strategy of the synthesis. The book offers comparisons of the concrete classes of nitroxides to help reveal the structural peculiarities and synthetic abilities of compounds of different classes. It also summarizes data on the magneto-structural correlation for the metal complexes with 3-imidazoline nitroxides and considers the ways in which the molecular design of 2- and 3-dimensional heterospin compounds is capable of magnetic phase transfer in a ferromagnetic state. The book will be a significant reference for chemists, biochemists, spectroscopists, and other users of nitroxides, spin labels, probes, and paramagnetic ligands.
Category: Science

Synthetic Biology Part B

Author : Chris Voigt
ISBN : 9780123851215
Genre : Mathematics
File Size : 45.17 MB
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Synthetic biology encompasses a variety of different approaches, methodologies and disciplines, and many different definitions exist. This Volume of Methods in Enzymology has been split into 2 Parts and covers topics such as Measuring and Engineering Central Dogma Processes, Mathematical and Computational Methods and Next-Generation DNA Assembly and Manipulation. Encompasses a variety of different approaches, methodologies and disciplines Split into 2 parts and covers topics such as measuring and engineering central dogma processes, mathematical and computational methods and next-generation DNA assembly and manipulation
Category: Mathematics

Synthetic And Structured Assets

Author : Erik Banks
ISBN : 9780470031537
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 60.81 MB
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Organized along product lines, the book will analyze many of the original classes of structured assets, including mortgage- and asset-backed securities and strips, as well as the newest structured and synthetic instruments, including exchange-traded funds, credit derivative-based collateralized debt obligations, total return swaps, contingent convertibles, and insurance-linked securities. Two introductory chapters will outline the scope of the market, key definitions, participant motivations/goals, economics of structuring and synthetic replication, and the central "building blocks" used in the creation of synthetic/structured assets (including on-balance sheet assets and liabilities, derivatives, shelf registration debt programs, private placements, trusts, and special purpose entities). Eight product chapters will then examine the main instruments of the marketplace: mortgage- and asset-backed securities, stripped/reconstituted government securities, collateralized debt obligations, structured notes, insurance-linked securities, exchange-traded funds, convertible bond variations, and derivatives/synthetic asset replication. Each product chapter will contain product descriptions, structural features (e.g., trading conventions, settlement), arbitrage/investment drivers, and various worked examples and diagrams that emphasize practical investment and risk applications; financial mathematics will be kept to a minimum. A concluding chapter will review the essential risk, legal, regulatory, and accounting features of synthetic and structured assets in the world's major markets.
Category: Business & Economics

Handbook Of Synthetic Antioxidants

Author : Lester Packer
ISBN : 0824798104
Genre : Science
File Size : 41.81 MB
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Emphasizes the efficacy of synthetically occurring compounds in the management of free radical-mediated illnesses. The text details the design, development and delivery of therapeutic antioxidants used in the treatment of pathophysiological disorders, from amylotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and multiple sclerosis (MS) to Alzheimer's disease.
Category: Science

Liquid Chromatography Of Natural Pigments And Synthetic Dyes

Author : Tibor Cserháti
ISBN : 0080465765
Genre : Science
File Size : 50.65 MB
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This latest volume in the series entitled Liquid Chromatography of Natural Pigments and Synthetic Dyes presents an overview of the latest developments in the field while critically evaluating this method of analysis and providing comparisons of the various liquid chromatographic separation techniques that are currently available. Natural pigments and synthetic dyes are extensively used in various fields of everyday life including food production, textile industry, paper production, agricultural practice and research and water science and technology. Besides their capacity for increasing the marketability of products, natural pigments have shown advantageous biological activity as antioxidants and anticancer agents. On the negative side, synthetic pigments have a significant impact on the environment and can cause adverse toxicological side effects. Both pigment classes exhibit considerable structural diversity. As the stability of the pigments against hydrolysis, oxidation and other environmental and technological conditions is markedly different, the exact determination of the pigment composition may help for the prediction of the shelf-life of products and the assessment of the influence of technological steps on the pigment fractions resulting in more consumer friend processing methods. Furthermore, the qualitative determination and identification of the pigments may contribute to the establishment of the provenance of the product. The unique separation capacity of liquid chromatographic (LC) techniques makes it a method of preference for the analysis of pigments in any complicated accompanying matrices. * an overview of the latest developments in the field * a critical evaluation of results from this form of analysis * a comparison of the various LC (liquid chromatographic) separation techniques * future trends in the LC analysis of pigments
Category: Science

Chemical Synthetic Biology

Author : Pier Luigi Luisi
ISBN : 1119990300
Genre : Science
File Size : 75.28 MB
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Chemistry plays a very important role in the emerging field of synthetic biology. In particular, chemical synthetic biology is concerned with the synthesis of chemical structures, such as proteins, that do not exist in nature. With contributions from leading international experts, Chemical Synthetic Biology shows how chemistry underpins synthetic biology. The book is an essential guide to this fascinating new field, and will find a place on the bookshelves of researchers and students working in synthetic chemistry, synthetic and molecular biology, bioengineering, systems biology, computational genomics, and bioinformatics.
Category: Science

Synthetic Dreams

Author : Kim Knox
ISBN : 9781426893308
Genre : Fiction
File Size : 54.87 MB
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Vynessa Somerton was just a girl when she learned about true evil. An encounter with the tyrannical Corporation scarred her body and exiled her to the crime-ridden S-District. Now an adult, Vyn creates glamours, worn by those who visit a virtual playground to live synthetic dreams. She's tried to stay unnoticed by the Corporation, but her latest invention has brought their agents to her door. Paul Cross works for the Corporation, but he's been plotting their downfall since they took his brother and replaced him with an imposter. Paul has a plan to get his brother back, but he's going to need Vyn and her invention to carry it out. Vyn agrees to help Paul, but their alliance shatters the barriers she's put up to protect herself, tempting her to give in to desire. Just as Vyn starts to trust Paul and believe he wants her, scars and all, the Corporation prepares for its final move. Can Vyn trust Paul completely, or has he been using her all along? 34,000 words
Category: Fiction

Synthetic Biology

Author : Markus Schmidt
ISBN : 9048126789
Genre : Medical
File Size : 60.39 MB
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Synthetic biology is becoming one of the most dynamic new fields of biology, with the potential to revolutionize the way we do biotechnology today. By applying the toolbox of engineering disciplines to biology, a whole set of potential applications become possible ranging very widely across scientific and engineering disciplines. Some of the potential benefits of synthetic biology, such as the development of low-cost drugs or the production of chemicals and energy by engineered bacteria are enormous. There are, however, also potential and perceived risks due to deliberate or accidental damage. Also, ethical issues of synthetic biology just start being explored, with hardly any ethicists specifically focusing on the area of synthetic biology. This book will be the first of its kind focusing particularly on the safety, security and ethical concerns and other relevant societal aspects of this new emerging field. The foreseen impact of this book will be to stimulate a debate on these societal issues at an early stage. Past experiences, especially in the field of GM-crops and stem cells, have shown the importance of an early societal debate. The community and informed stakeholders recognize this need, but up to now discussions are fragmentary. This book will be the first comprehensive overview on relevant societal issues of synthetic biology, setting the scene for further important discussions within the scientific community and with civil society.
Category: Medical