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Sustaining Employment And Wage Gains In Brazil

Author : Joana Silva
ISBN : 9781464806452
Genre : Education
File Size : 44.89 MB
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Continued social and economic progress in Brazil will depend on high employment, sustained labor productivity and income growth, and opportunities for the poor and disadvantaged to upgrade their own productivity and convert it into sustainable incomes.
Category: Education

Oecd Economic Surveys Brazil 2018

Author : OECD
ISBN : 9789264290501
Genre :
File Size : 81.26 MB
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Strong growth and remarkable social progress over the past two decades have made Brazil one of the world’s leading economies, despite the deep recession that the economy is now emerging from. However, inequality remains high and fiscal accounts have deteriorated substantially, calling for ...

World Development Report 2016

Author : World Bank Group
ISBN : 9781464806728
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 23.72 MB
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Digital technologies are spreading rapidly, but digital dividends--the broader benefits of faster growth, more jobs, and better services--are not. If more than 40 percent of adults in East Africa pay their utility bills using a mobile phone, why can’t others around the world do the same? If 8 million entrepreneurs in China--one third of them women--can use an e-commerce platform to export goods to 120 countries, why can’t entrepreneurs elsewhere achieve the same global reach? And if India can provide unique digital identification to 1 billion people in five years, and thereby reduce corruption by billions of dollars, why can’t other countries replicate its success? Indeed, what’s holding back countries from realizing the profound and transformational effects that digital technologies are supposed to deliver? Two main reasons. First, nearly 60 percent of the world’s population are still offline and can’t participate in the digital economy in any meaningful way. Second, and more important, the benefits of digital technologies can be offset by growing risks. Startups can disrupt incumbents, but not when vested interests and regulatory uncertainty obstruct competition and the entry of new firms. Employment opportunities may be greater, but not when the labor market is polarized. The internet can be a platform for universal empowerment, but not when it becomes a tool for state control and elite capture. The World Development Report 2016 shows that while the digital revolution has forged ahead, its 'analog complements'--the regulations that promote entry and competition, the skills that enable workers to access and then leverage the new economy, and the institutions that are accountable to citizens--have not kept pace. And when these analog complements to digital investments are absent, the development impact can be disappointing. What, then, should countries do? They should formulate digital development strategies that are much broader than current information and communication technology (ICT) strategies. They should create a policy and institutional environment for technology that fosters the greatest benefits. In short, they need to build a strong analog foundation to deliver digital dividends to everyone, everywhere.
Category: Business & Economics

Wage Inequality In Latin America

Author : Julián Messina
ISBN : 9781464810404
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 34.42 MB
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What caused the decline in wage inequality of the 2000s in Latin America? Looking to the future, will the current economic slowdown be regressive? Wage Inequality in Latin America: Understanding the Past to Prepare for the Future addresses these two questions by reviewing relevant literature and providing new evidence on what we know from the conceptual, empirical, and policy perspectives. The answer to the fi rst question can be broken down into several parts, although the bottom line is that the changes in wage inequality resulted from a combination of three forces: (a) education expansion and its eff ect on falling returns to skill (the supply-side story); (b) shifts in aggregate domestic demand; and (c) exchange rate appreciation from the commodity boom and the associated shift to the nontradable sector that changed interfi rm wage diff erences. Other forces had a non-negligible but secondary role in some countries, while they were not present in others. These include the rapid increase of the minimum wage and a rapid trend toward formalization of employment, which played a supporting role but only during the boom. Understanding the forces behind recent trends also helps to shed light on the second question. The analysis in this volume suggests that the economic slowdown is putting the brakes on the reduction of inequality in Latin America and will likely continue to do so—but it might not actually reverse the region’s movement toward less wage inequality.
Category: Business & Economics

The Jobs Of Tomorrow

Author : Mark A. Dutz
ISBN : 9781464812231
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 43.5 MB
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While adoption of new technologies is understood to enhance long-term growth and average per-capita incomes, its impact on lower-skilled workers is more complex and merits clarification. Concerns abound that advanced technologies developed in high-income countries would inexorably lead to job losses of lower-skilled, less well-off workers and exacerbate inequality. Conversely, there are countervailing concerns that policies intended to protect jobs from technology advancement would themselves stultify progress and depress productivity. This book squarely addresses both sets of concerns with new research showing that adoption of digital technologies offers a pathway to more inclusive growth by increasing adopting firms’ outputs, with the jobs-enhancing impact of technology adoption assisted by growth-enhancing policies that foster sizable output expansion. The research reported here demonstrates with economic theory and data from Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia and Mexico that lower-skilled workers can benefit from adoption of productivity-enhancing technologies biased towards skilled workers, and often do. The inclusive jobs outcomes arise when the effects of increased productivity and expanding output overcome the substitution of workers for technology. While the substitution effect replaces some lower-skilled workers with new technology and more highly-skilled labor, the output effect can lead to an increase in the total number of jobs for less-skilled workers. Critically, output can increase sufficiently to increase jobs across all tasks and skill types within adopting firms, including jobs for lower-skilled workers, as long as lower-skilled task content remains complementary to new technologies and related occupations are not completely automated and replaced by machines. It is this channel for inclusive growth that underlies the power of pro-competitive enabling policies and institutions—such as regulations encouraging firms to compete and policies supporting the development of skills that technology augments rather than replaces—to ensure that the positive impact of technology adoption on productivity and lower-skilled workers is realized.
Category: Technology & Engineering

Achieving World Class Education In Brazil

Author : Barbara Bruns
ISBN : 9780821388556
Genre : Education
File Size : 39.14 MB
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Over the past 15 years, Brazil has introduced a consistent program of reforms of its education system, progressively aligning the educational attainment of its labor force with that of other middle income countries and introducing advanced student assessment and monitoring systems.
Category: Education

Fostering Skills In Cameroon

Author : Shobhana Sosale
ISBN : 9781464807633
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 36.60 MB
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Cameroon has strong goals for its growth and development. By 2035, it aims to be an emerging economy. The country’s medium-term goals are focused on alleviating poverty, consolidating democracy, and achieving national unity—while respecting diversity. This report contributes substantively to the Government’s vision on Strategy for Growth and Employment, putting human development and employment at center stage. Cameroon faces three main challenges: • Developing more robust formal and informal employment opportunities by strengthening human development. • Increasing productivity in agriculture, mining, and key value chains (timber, tourism, and information and communication technology). • Advancing growth by investing in infrastructure and improving the business climate and regional integration. The Strategy sets a target for reducing underemployment from 76 percent of the workforce to 50 by 2020 by creating tens of thousands of formal jobs. But based on results from the first two years of its implementation, the strategy is far from achieving that target. This report is meant to support Cameroon’s efforts to build the skills of its workers. This report reaches conclusions and offers policy recommendations to answer six questions: • What has been the trajectory of Cameroon’s economic growth? Which sectors have contributed to growth? • What jobs are being created? • What types of skills are being used in the sectors where the highest percentages of the population are employed? • What are the demand and supply barriers to skills? • Which policies and institutions are in play? Are they sufficient? • What needs to or could be reformed? Cameroon has good prospects for moving to middle-income status. It can create a more dynamic, responsive workforce. But a new strategy is required. It can be done.This report proposes new directions and provides recommendations. Outcomes are expected. Work has never been easy. But many have been working—and Cameroon can work.
Category: Social Science

Improving Skills Development In The Informal Sector

Author : Arvil V. Adams
ISBN : 9780821399699
Genre : Education
File Size : 44.52 MB
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This book uses household surveys in five countries of Sub-Saharan Africa to describe employment off the farm in the region s growing informal sector and assesses how different forms of education and training, including apprenticeships, influence choices in employment and earnings.
Category: Education

Education And Skills For Inclusive Growth Green Jobs And The Greening Of Economies In Asia

Author : Rupert Maclean
ISBN : 9789811065590
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 87.11 MB
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This book presents an overview of the main research findings and case studies concerning education and skills for inclusive growth, green jobs and the greening of economies. Focusing on India, Indonesia, Sri Lanka and Viet Nam, it discusses government and business sector responses to these issues and how Technical and Vocational Education and Training (TVET) systems and institutions are addressing both the renewal of curricula in the context of green growth dynamics, and patterns of training and skills development to meet demands. In addition, the book examines cross-country issues, concerns and prospects regarding education and skills for inclusive growth and green jobs for the four countries. These include critical themes and issues in the selected industry sectors triggering a demand for green jobs in the region; how industry is responding to those demands; areas impeding the transition from traditional to green practices; the importance of skills development; the role of TVET in addressing industry needs; and reasons for the slow response of TVET to green skills.While other studies conducted in Asia – and internationally - on the same topic have largely relied on secondary sources, this study conducted by the Asian Development Bank and the Education University of Hong Kong (ADB-EdUHK) is unique in that the findings, conclusions and recommendations reported on are based on primary data. As part of the study, TVET providers, business enterprises, policy makers and practitioners were surveyed using questionnaires and face-to-face interviews. In addition, workshops were held in each of the four countries to ascertain the views of key stakeholders in government, nongovernment organisations, members of the international development community, TVET providers and members of the business sector.The book also provides summaries of the case studies undertaken for India, Indonesia, Sri Lanka and Viet Nam. This book is open access under a CC BY license
Category: Business & Economics

Building The Skills For Economic Growth And Competitiveness In Sri Lanka

Author : Halil Dundar
ISBN : 9781464801587
Genre : Education
File Size : 69.45 MB
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Despite armed internal conflict and the global financial crisis, Sri Lanka has made remarkable progress in recent years, enjoying healthy economic growth and substantially reducing poverty. Moreover, Sri Lankans are the best-educated people in South Asia, with widespread access and high completion rates in primary and secondary education. Economic growth and structural changes in the economy, however, make skills development imperative as Sri Lanka implements its plan - the Mahinda Chintana (MC) - to become a regional hub in strategic economic areas. Yet skills shortages and mismatches are widespread, and firms with undereducated employees and a shortage of skilled labour are less productive. An effective skills development system will help diversify the economy; improve labour productivity and competitiveness; give the country the flexibility it needs to compete effectively in the global economy; and further reduce poverty. As Sri Lanka moves from a factor-driven to an efficiency-driven economy, its workforce is shrinking even as demand for skills - especially sophisticated skills - is rising. Unfortunately, Sri Lanka has been slow to expand technical and vocational education and training (TVET) and tertiary education. Responsibility for TVET is fragmented; the system is supply-driven; there is a shortage of reliable information on labour market skills demand and supply; employers are sidelined; and the resources invested are not linked to performance. The MC recognises the severity of the skills constraint and highlights the importance of investing in workforce skills to raise both productivity and competitiveness. This report analyses skills demand and supply in Sri Lanka and scrutinises how skills are formed, the factors shaping skills demand, and the responsiveness of the system. Finally, it offers suggestions for how skills development can be improved so that Sri Lanka can meet its economic growth and poverty reduction goals.
Category: Education