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Sustainable Carbon Materials From Hydrothermal Processes

Author : Maria-Magdalena Titirici
ISBN : 9781118622209
Genre : Science
File Size : 42.78 MB
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The production of low cost and environmentally friendly highperforming carbon materials is crucial for a sustainable future.Sustainable Carbon Materials from Hydrothermal Processesdescribes a sustainable and alternative technique to produce carbonfrom biomass in water at low temperatures, a process known asHydrothermal Carbonization (HTC). Sustainable Carbon Materials from Hydrothermal Processespresents an overview of this new and rapidly developing field,discussing various synthetic approaches, characterization of thefinal products, and modern fields of application for of sustainablecarbon materials. Topics covered include: • Green carbon materials • Porous hydrothermal carbons • HTC for the production of valuable carbon hybridmaterials • Functionalization of hydrothermal carbonmaterials • Characterization of HTC materials • Applications of HTC in modern nanotechnology: Energystorage, electrocatalysis in fuel cells, photocatalysis, gasstorage, water purification, sensors, bioapplications • Environmental applications of HTC technology: Biocharproduction, carbon sequestration, and waste conversion • Scale-up in HTC Sustainable Carbon Materials from Hydrothermal Processeswill serve as a comprehensive guide for students and newcomers inthe field, as well as providing a valuable source of informationfor researchers and investors looking for alternative technologiesto convert biomass into useful products.
Category: Science

Carbon Based Metal Free Catalysts

Author : Liming Dai
ISBN : 9783527811427
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 74.52 MB
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Offering comprehensive coverage of this hot topic, this two-volume handbook and ready reference treats a wide range of important aspects, from synthesis and catalytic properties of carbon materials to their applications as metal-free catalysts in various important reactions and industrial processes. Following a look at recent advances in the development of carbon materials as carbon-based metal-free catalysts, subsequent sections deal with a mechanistic understanding for the molecular design of efficient carbon-based metal-free catalysts, with a special emphasis on heteroatom-doped carbon nanotubes, graphene, and graphite. Examples of important catalytic processes covered include clean energy conversion and storage, environmental protection, and synthetic chemistry. With contributions from world-leading scientists, this is an indispensable source of information for academic and industrial researchers in catalysis, green chemistry, electrochemistry, materials science, nanotechnology, energy technology, and chemical engineering, as well as graduates and scientists entering the field.
Category: Technology & Engineering

Energie Aus Biomasse

Author : Martin Kaltschmitt
ISBN : 9783662474389
Genre : Science
File Size : 85.65 MB
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Dieses Standardwerk beschreibt umfassend die biologischen, physikalischen, chemischen und technischen Grundlagen einer Energiegewinnung aus Biomasse. Dies beinhaltet eine Beschreibung der verfügbaren Biomasseressourcen, eine Systematisierung möglicher Bereitstellungsketten und -techniken zur Verfügbarmachung der Biomassen an der jeweiligen Konversionsanlage und eine Darstellung der thermo-chemischen, der physikalisch-chemischen sowie derbiochemischen Umwandlungsmöglichkeiten in Bioenergieträger (z. B. Holzkohle, Biodiesel, Biogas) bzw. Bioenergie (d. h. Wärme, Strom). · Die thermo-chemische Biomasseumwandlung umfasst die Verbrennung biogener Festbrennstoffe in Klein- und Großanlagen zur Strom- und Wärmeerzeugung und – jeweils in der Gasatmosphäre – die Biomassevergasung u. a. zur Kraftstoffsynthese (z. B. Fischer-Tropsch-Diesel) sowie die schnelle und langsame Pyrolyse (d. h. Bioöl- und Holzkohleerzeugung). Zusätzlich wird auf die thermo-chemische Umwandlung in hydrothermaler Atmosphäre (z. B. hydrothermale Karbonisierung) eingegangen. · Die physikalisch-chemische Umwandlung beinhaltet die Pflanzenölerzeugung und die entsprechenden Umwandlungsmöglichkeiten in einen normenkonformen Biokraftstoff. · Unter einer biochemischen Umwandlung wird eine Alkoholherstellung als Kraftstoffkomponente und eine Biogaserzeugung als Brenn- und Kraftstoff verstanden. Im Vergleich zur 2. Auflage wurde die 3. Auflage vollständig überarbeitet, z. T. neu strukturiert, stark erweitert und an den aktuellen Stand des Wissens und der Technik angepasst. Hinzu gekommen sind u. a. die Bereitstellung von Algenbiomasse, hydrothermale Biomasseumwandlungsverfahren, innovative Optionen zur Pflanzenölhydrierung, die Butanolerzeugung und die Synthesegasfermentation sowie Verfahren zur Erzeugung von flüssigen und gasförmigen Biokraftstoffen aus Biogas. Das Buch bietet einen umfassenden Überblick der naturwissenschaftlichen Grundlagen und des aktuellen Standes der Technik. Den Herausgebern ist es gelungen, unter Mitarbeit einer Vielzahl kompetenter Fachleute ein umfassendes Werk mit allen wesentlichen Möglichkeiten einer Energiegewinnung aus Biomasse "aus einem Guss" zu erarbeiten. Die Zielgruppen Das Buch wendet sich an Studierende, Anlagenbetreiber, Berater, Wissenschaftler sowie interessierte Laien.
Category: Science

Organic Waste Recycling Technology Management And Sustainability

Author : Chongrak Polprasert
ISBN : 9781780408200
Genre : Science
File Size : 50.24 MB
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This fourth edition of Organic Waste Recycling is fully updated with new material to create a comprehensive and accessible textbook: - New chapter on constructed wetlands for wastewater and faecal sludge stabilization. - New sections on: waste recycling vs. climate change and water; faecal sludge and its characteristics; hydrothermal carbonization technology; up-to-date environmental criteria and legislation and environmental risk assessment. - New case studies with emphasis on practices in both developed and developing countries have been included, along with more exercises at the end of chapters to help the readers understand the technical principles and their application. - Novel concepts and strategies of waste management are presented. - Up-to-date research findings and innovative technologies of waste recycling program are provided. This textbook is intended for undergraduate and graduate students majoring in environmental sciences and engineering as well as researchers, professionals and policy makers who conduct research and practices in the related fields. It is essential reading for experts in environmental science and engineering and sustainable waste reuse and recycling in both developed and developing countries.
Category: Science

Porous Carbon Materials From Sustainable Precursors

Author : Robin J White
ISBN : 9781782624431
Genre : Science
File Size : 47.42 MB
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Porous carbon materials are at the heart of many applications, including renewable energy storage and generation, due to their superior physical properties and availability. The environmentally-friendly production of these materials is crucial for a sustainable future. This book focuses on the transformation of sustainable precursors into functional, porous carbonaceous materials via the two most significant approaches: Starbon® and Hydrothermal Carbonisation. Covering cutting-edge research and emerging areas, chapters cover applications of porous carbon materials in catalysis and separation science as well as in energy science. Moreover, the challenges of characterization of these materials and their commercialization are explained by worldwide experts. The content will be accessible and valuable to post-graduate students and senior researchers alike and it will serve as a significant reference for academics and industrialists working in the areas of materials science, catalysis and separation science.
Category: Science

Water For Energy And Fuel Production

Author : Yatish T. Shah
ISBN : 9781482216196
Genre : Science
File Size : 51.69 MB
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Water, in all its forms, may be the key to an environmentally friendly energy economy. Water is free, there is plenty of it, plus it carries what is generally believed to be the best long-term source of green energy—hydrogen. Water for Energy and Fuel Production explores the many roles of water in the energy and fuel industry. The text not only discusses water’s use as a direct source of energy and fuel—such as hydrogen from water dissociation, methane from water-based clathrate molecules, hydroelectric dams, and hydrokinetic energy from tidal waves, off-shore undercurrents, and inland waterways—but also: Describes water’s benign application in the production of oil, gas, coal, uranium, biomass, and other raw fuels, and as an energy carrier in the form of hot water and steam Examines water’s role as a reactant, reaction medium, and catalyst—as well as steam’s role as a reactant—for the conversion of raw fuels to synthetic fuels Explains how supercritical water can be used to convert fossil- and bio-based feedstock to synthetic fuels in the presence and absence of a catalyst Employing illustrative case studies and commercial examples, Water for Energy and Fuel Production demonstrates the versatility of water as a provider of energy and fuel, conveying the message that as energy demand and environmental concerns grow, so should our vigilance in pursuing the role of water in the energy landscape.
Category: Science

One Step Hydrothermal Growth Of Carbon Nanofibers And Insitu Assembly Of Ag Nanowire Carbon Nanofiber Ag Nanoparticles Ternary Composites For Efficient Photocatalytic Removal Of Organic Pollutants

Author :
ISBN : OCLC:1032199164
Genre :
File Size : 88.13 MB
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Abstract: The growth of Ag [email protected] [email protected] nanoparticles (denoted as Ag [email protected]@Ag NPs) is achieved by a one-step, template-free hydrothermal method using Ag3 PO4 -AgCl as the catalyst precursor and naturally available glucose as the carbon source. In the hydrothermal process, freshly prepared AgCl together with the active Ag 0 particles produced by the Ag3 PO4 –glucose redox reaction cocatalyzes the growth of tubular CNFs and leads to in situ assembly of the coaxial one-dimensional nanostructure of Ag [email protected], with ultrasmall Ag NPs well dispersed outside. The structure and composition are characterized using various advanced microscopic and spectroscopic techniques. The fabricated Ag [email protected]@Ag NPs composite displays superb catalytic activities for the photodegradation of the organic pollutant methylene blue under visible light, which is contributed by the excellent adsorption ability of CNFs as well as the unique electron transport property afforded by the synergistic effect between Ag NW-Ag NP and conductive CNF. Coupled with economical, environmentally friendly synthetic process, sustainability of precursor, and versatility of material, the novel ternary composite developed in this study paves a new way for the fabrication of other carbon material-based hybrids to improve heterogeneous catalysis and solar-driven photocatalytic applications. Graphical abstract:

Sustainable Solutions For Modern Economies

Author : Rainer Höfer
ISBN : 9781847559050
Genre : Science
File Size : 64.31 MB
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Limited supplies of fossil fuels and concerns about global warming have created a strong desire to solve the resource issue in the age "beyond petroleum". This reference book, from the "Green Chemistry Series", contains the essential areas of green chemistry and sustainability in modern economies. It is the first book to outline the contribution of chemistry, and of renewable chemical or biological resources, to the sustainability concept and to the potential resolution of the world's energy problems. It describes the current status of technical research, and industrial application, as well as the potential of biomass as a renewable resource for energy generation in power stations, as alternative fuels, and for various uses in chemistry. It outlines the historical routes of the sustainability concept and specifies sustainability in metrics, facts and figures. The book is written by European experts from academia, industry and investment banking who are world leaders in research and technology regarding sustainability, alternative energies and renewable resources. The sustainability aspects covered include: * consumer behaviour and demands, lifestyles and mega trends, and their impact on innovation in the industry * consumer industry requirements and their impact on suppliers * emerging paradigm changes in raw material demand, availability, sourcing, and logistics * the contribution of the industry to restore the life support systems of the Earth * socially responsible banking and investment * sustainability metrics The book highlights the potential of the different forms of renewable raw materials including: * natural fats and oils * plant-based biologically active ingredients * industrial starch * sucrose * natural rubber * wood * natural fibres It also covers the actual status of biomass usage for green energy generation, green transportation, green chemistry and sustainable nutrition and consumer goods, and it depicts the potentials of green solvents and white biotechnology for modern synthesis and manufacturing technologies. The book is aimed at technical and marketing people in industry, universities and institutions as well as readers in administrations and NGOs. The book will also be of value to the worldwide public interested in sustainability issues and strategies as well as others interested in the practical means that are being used to reduce the environmental impact of chemical processes and products, to further eco-efficiency, and to advance the utilization of renewable resources.
Category: Science

Application Of Hydrothermal Reactions To Biomass Conversion

Author : Fangming Jin
ISBN : 9783642544583
Genre : Science
File Size : 56.98 MB
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This book reviews the recent advances in hydrothermal conversion of biomass into chemicals and fuels, and consists of 15 chapters. It introduces the properties of high-temperature water, the merits of hydrothermal conversion of biomass, and some novel hydrothermal conversion processes, mainly including hydrothermal production of value-added products, hydrothermal gasification, hydrothermal liquefaction and hydrothermal carbonization. This book introduces a new concept for counteracting the imbalance in the carbon cycle, which is caused by the rapid consumption of fossil fuels in anthropogenic activities in combination with the slow formation of fossil fuels. Accordingly, the book is useful in conveying a fundamental understanding of hydrothermal conversion of biomass in the carbon cycle so that a contribution can be made to achieving sustainable energy and environment. It is also interesting to a wide readership in various fields including chemical, geologic and environmental science and engineering. Fangming Jin is a Distinguished Professor at the School of Environmental Science & Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, China
Category: Science