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Surface And Thin Film Analysis

Author : Gernot Friedbacher
ISBN : 9783527636938
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 49.46 MB
Format : PDF, ePub
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Surveying and comparing all techniques relevant for practical applications in surface and thin film analysis, this second edition of a bestseller is a vital guide to this hot topic in nano- and surface technology. This new book has been revised and updated and is divided into four parts - electron, ion, and photon detection, as well as scanning probe microscopy. New chapters have been added to cover such techniques as SNOM, FIM, atom probe (AP),and sum frequency generation (SFG). Appendices with a summary and comparison of techniques and a list of equipment suppliers make this book a rapid reference for materials scientists, analytical chemists, and those working in the biotechnological industry. From a Review of the First Edition (edited by Bubert and Jenett) "... a useful resource..." (Journal of the American Chemical Society)
Category: Technology & Engineering

Compendium Of Surface And Interface Analysis

Author : The Surface Science Society of Japan
ISBN : 9789811061561
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 69.8 MB
Format : PDF, Kindle
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This book concisely illustrates the techniques of major surface analysis and their applications to a few key examples. Surfaces play crucial roles in various interfacial processes, and their electronic/geometric structures rule the physical/chemical properties. In the last several decades, various techniques for surface analysis have been developed in conjunction with advances in optics, electronics, and quantum beams. This book provides a useful resource for a wide range of scientists and engineers from students to professionals in understanding the main points of each technique, such as principles, capabilities and requirements, at a glance. It is a contemporary encyclopedia for selecting the appropriate method depending on the reader's purpose.
Category: Technology & Engineering

Cvd Polymers

Author : Karen K. Gleason
ISBN : 9783527690282
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 58.33 MB
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The method of CVD (chemical vapor deposition) is a versatile technique to fabricate high-quality thin films and structured surfaces in the nanometer regime from the vapor phase. Already widely used for the deposition of inorganic materials in the semiconductor industry, CVD has become the method of choice in many applications to process polymers as well. This highly scalable technique allows for synthesizing high-purity, defect-free films and for systematically tuning their chemical, mechanical and physical properties. In addition, vapor phase processing is critical for the deposition of insoluble materials including fluoropolymers, electrically conductive polymers, and highly crosslinked organic networks. Furthermore, CVD enables the coating of substrates which would otherwise dissolve or swell upon exposure to solvents. The scope of the book encompasses CVD polymerization processes which directly translate the chemical mechanisms of traditional polymer synthesis and organic synthesis in homogeneous liquids into heterogeneous processes for the modification of solid surfaces. The book is structured into four parts, complemented by an introductory overview of the diverse process strategies for CVD of polymeric materials. The first part on the fundamentals of CVD polymers is followed by a detailed coverage of the materials chemistry of CVD polymers, including the main synthesis mechanisms and the resultant classes of materials. The third part focuses on the applications of these materials such as membrane modification and device fabrication. The final part discusses the potential for scale-up and commercialization of CVD polymers.
Category: Technology & Engineering

High Resolution Xas Xes

Author : Jacinto Sa
ISBN : 9781466592995
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 66.59 MB
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Photon-in-photon-out core level spectroscopy is an emerging approach to characterize the electronic structure of catalysts and enzymes, and it is either installed or planned for intense synchrotron beam lines and X-ray free electron lasers. This type of spectroscopy requires high-energy resolution spectroscopy not only for the incoming X-ray beam but also, in most applications, for the detection of the outgoing photons. Thus, the use of high-resolution X-ray crystal spectrometers whose resolving power ΔE/E is typically about 10–4, is mandatory. High-Resolution XAS/XES: Analyzing Electronic Structures of Catalysts covers the latest developments in X-ray light sources, detectors, crystal spectrometers, and photon-in-photon-out core level spectroscopy techniques. It also addresses photon-in-photon-out core level spectroscopy applications for the study of catalytic systems, highlighting hard X-ray measurements primarily due to probe high penetration, enabling in situ studies. This first-of-its-kind book: Discusses high-resolution X-ray emission spectroscopy (XES) and X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) in terms of time-resolved and surface enhancement Supplies an understanding of catalytic reactivity essential for capitalizing on core level X-ray spectroscopy at fourth-generation light sources (XFELs) Describes all spectrometers developed to perform core level X-ray spectroscopy, considering the advantages and disadvantages of each Details methods to elucidate aspects of catalysts under working conditions, such as active sites and molecule adsorption Introduces theoretical calculations of spectra and explores biological as well as heterogeneous catalysts Complete with guidelines and warnings for the use of this type of spectroscopy, High-Resolution XAS/XES: Analyzing Electronic Structures of Catalysts provides a comprehensive overview of the current state of this exciting field.
Category: Technology & Engineering

Chemical Vapour Deposition Of Sp2 Hybridised Boron Nitride

Author : Mikhail Chubarov
ISBN : 9789175191935
Genre :
File Size : 29.56 MB
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The aim of this work was to develop a chemical vapour deposition process and understand the growth of sp2 hybridised Boron Nitride (sp2-BN). Thus, the growth on different substrates together with the variation of growth parameters was investigated in details and is presented in the papers included in this thesis. Deposited films of sp2-BN were characterised with the purpose to determine optimal deposition process parameters for the growth of high crystal quality thin films with further investigations of chemical composition, morphology and other properties important for the implementation of this material towards electronic, optoelectronic devices and devices based on graphene/BN heterostructures. For the growth of sp2-BN triethyl boron and ammonia were employed as B and N precursors, respectively. Pure H2 as carrier gas is found to be necessary for the growth of crystalline sp2-BN. Addition of small amount of silane to the gas mixture improves the crystalline quality of the growing sp2-BN film. It was observed that for the growth of crystalline sp2-BN on c-axis oriented ?-Al2O3 a thin and strained AlN buffer layer is needed to support epitaxial growth of sp2-BN, while it was possible to deposit rhombohedral BN (r-BN) on various polytypes of SiC without the need for a buffer layer. The growth temperature suitable for the growth of crystalline sp2-BN is 1500 °C. Nevertheless, the growth of crystalline sp2-BN was also observed on ?-Al2O3 with an AlN buffer layer at a lower temperature of 1200 °C. Growth at this low temperature was found to be hardly controllable due to the low amount of Si that is necessary at this temperature and its accumulation in the reaction cell. When SiC was used as a substrate at the growth temperature of 1200 °C, no crystalline sp2-BN was formed, according to X-ray diffraction. Crystalline structure investigations of the deposited films showed formation of twinned r-BN on both substrates used. Additionally, it was found that the growth on ?-Al2O3 with an AlN buffer layer starts with the formation of hexagonal BN (h-BN) for a thickness of around 4 nm. The formation of h-BN was observed at growth temperatures of 1200 °C and 1500 °C on ?-Al2O3 with AlN buffer layer while there were no traces of h-BN found in the films deposited on SiC substrates in the temperature range between 1200 °C and 1700 °C. As an explanation for such growth behaviour, reproduction of the substrate crystal stacking is suggested. Nucleation and growth mechanism are investigated and presented in the papers included in this thesis.

Characterization Of Polymer Blends

Author : Sabu Thomas
ISBN : 9783527645619
Genre : Science
File Size : 85.83 MB
Format : PDF
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Filling the gap for a reference dedicated to the characterization of polymer blends and their micro and nano morphologies, this book provides comprehensive, systematic coverage in a one-stop, two-volume resource for all those working in the field. Leading researchers from industry and academia, as well as from government and private research institutions around the world summarize recent technical advances in chapters devoted to their individual contributions. In so doing, they examine a wide range of modern characterization techniques, from microscopy and spectroscopy to diffraction, thermal analysis, rheology, mechanical measurements and chromatography. These methods are compared with each other to assist in determining the best solution for both fundamental and applied problems, paying attention to the characterization of nanoscale miscibility and interfaces, both in blends involving copolymers and in immiscible blends. The thermodynamics, miscibility, phase separation, morphology and interfaces in polymer blends are also discussed in light of new insights involving the nanoscopic scale. Finally, the authors detail the processing-morphology-property relationships of polymer blends, as well as the influence of processing on the generation of micro and nano morphologies, and the dependence of these morphologies on the properties of blends. Hot topics such as compatibilization through nanoparticles, miscibility of new biopolymers and nanoscale investigations of interfaces in blends are also addressed. With its application-oriented approach, handpicked selection of topics and expert contributors, this is an outstanding survey for anyone involved in the field of polymer blends for advanced technologies.
Category: Science

Chemical Analysis

Author : Francis Rouessac
ISBN : 9781118681879
Genre : Science
File Size : 30.39 MB
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Completely revised and updated, Chemical Analysis: Second Edition is an essential introduction to a wide range of analytical techniques and instruments. Assuming little in the way of prior knowledge, this text carefully guides the reader through the more widely used and important techniques, whilst avoiding excessive technical detail. Provides a thorough introduction to a wide range of the most important and widely used instrumental techniques Maintains a careful balance between depth and breadth of coverage Includes examples, problems and their solutions Includes coverage of latest developments including supercritical fluid chromatography and capillary electrophoresis
Category: Science

Handbook Of Advanced Chromatography Mass Spectrometry Techniques

Author : Michal Holcapek
ISBN : 9780128117330
Genre : Science
File Size : 81.62 MB
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Handbook of Advanced Chromatography /Mass Spectrometry Techniques is a compendium of new and advanced analytical techniques that have been developed in recent years for analysis of all types of molecules in a variety of complex matrices, from foods to fuel to pharmaceuticals and more. Focusing on areas that are becoming widely used or growing rapidly, this is a comprehensive volume that describes both theoretical and practical aspects of advanced methods for analysis. Written by authors who have published the foundational works in the field, the chapters have an emphasis on lipids, but reach a broader audience by including advanced analytical techniques applied to a variety of fields. Handbook of Advanced Chromatography / Mass Spectrometry Techniques is the ideal reference for those just entering the analytical fields covered, but also for those experienced analysts who want a combination of an overview of the techniques plus specific and pragmatic details not often covered in journal reports. The authors provide, in one source, a synthesis of knowledge that is scattered across a multitude of literature articles. The combination of pragmatic hints and tips with theoretical concepts and demonstrated applications provides both breadth and depth to produce a valuable and enduring reference manual. It is well suited for advanced analytical instrumentation students as well as for analysts seeking additional knowledge or a deeper understanding of familiar techniques. Includes UHPLC, HILIC, nano-liquid chromatographic separations, two-dimensional LC-MS (LCxLC), multiple parallel MS, 2D-GC (GCxGC) methodologies for lipids analysis, and more Contains both practical and theoretical knowledge, providing core understanding for implementing modern chromatographic and mass spectrometric techniques Presents chapters on the most popular and fastest-growing new techniques being implemented in diverse areas of research
Category: Science

Cluster Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry

Author : Christine M. Mahoney
ISBN : 9781118589243
Genre : Science
File Size : 63.13 MB
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Explores the impact of the latest breakthroughs in cluster SIMS technology Cluster secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) is a high spatial resolution imaging mass spectrometry technique, which can be used to characterize the three-dimensional chemical structure in complex organic and molecular systems. It works by using a cluster ion source to sputter desorb material from a solid sample surface. Prior to the advent of the cluster source, SIMS was severely limited in its ability to characterize soft samples as a result of damage from the atomic source. Molecular samples were essentially destroyed during analysis, limiting the method's sensitivity and precluding compositional depth profiling. The use of new and emerging cluster ion beam technologies has all but eliminated these limitations, enabling researchers to enter into new fields once considered unattainable by the SIMS method. With contributions from leading mass spectrometry researchers around the world, Cluster Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry: Principles and Applications describes the latest breakthroughs in instrumentation, and addresses best practices in cluster SIMS analysis. It serves as a compendium of knowledge on organic and polymeric surface and in-depth characterization using cluster ion beams. It covers topics ranging from the fundamentals and theory of cluster SIMS, to the important chemistries behind the success of the technique, as well as the wide-ranging applications of the technology. Examples of subjects covered include: Cluster SIMS theory and modeling Cluster ion source types and performance expectations Cluster ion beams for surface analysis experiments Molecular depth profiling and 3-D analysis with cluster ion beams Specialty applications ranging from biological samples analysis to semiconductors/metals analysis Future challenges and prospects for cluster SIMS This book is intended to benefit any scientist, ranging from beginning to advanced in level, with plenty of figures to help better understand complex concepts and processes. In addition, each chapter ends with a detailed reference set to the primary literature, facilitating further research into individual topics where desired. Cluster Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry: Principles and Applications is a must-have read for any researcher in the surface analysis and/or imaging mass spectrometry fields.
Category: Science