STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION OF MOUNTAIN ECOSYSTEMS IN JAPAN BIODIVERSITY AND VULNERABILITY TO CLIMATE CHANGE ECOLOGICAL RESEARCH MONOGRAPHS

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Structure And Function Of Mountain Ecosystems In Japan

Author : Gaku Kudo
ISBN : 9784431559542
Genre : Science
File Size : 85.21 MB
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The purpose of this book is to summarize new insights on the structure and function of mountain ecosystems and to present evidence and perspectives on the impact of climate change on biodiversity. This volume describes overall features of high-mountain ecosystems in Japan, which are characterized by clear seasonality and snow-thawing dynamics. Individual chapters cover a variety of unique topics, namely, vegetation dynamics along elevations, the physiological function of alpine plants, the structure of flowering phenology, plant–pollinator interactions, the geographical pattern of coniferous forests, terrestrial–aquatic linkage in carbon dynamics, and the community structure of bacteria in mountain lake systems. High-mountain ecosystems are characterized by unique flora and fauna, including many endemic and rare species. On the other hand, the systems are extremely vulnerable to environmental change. The biodiversity is maintained by the existence of spatiotemporally heterogeneous habitats along environmental gradients, such as elevation and snowmelt time. Understanding the structure and function of mountain ecosystems is crucial for the conservation of mountain biodiversity and the prediction of the climate change impacts.The diverse studies and integrated synthesis presented in this book provide readers with a holistic view of mountain ecosystems. It is a recommended read for anyone interested in mountain ecosystems and alpine plants, including undergraduate and graduate students studying ecology, field workers involved in conservational activity in mountains, policymakers planning ecosystem management of protected areas, and researchers of general ecology. In particular, this book will be of interest to ecologists of countries who are not familiar with Japanese mountain ecosystems, which are characterized by humid summers, cold winters, and the snowiest climate in the world.
Category: Science

Ecosystem Services Biodiversity And Environmental Change In A Tropical Mountain Ecosystem Of South Ecuador

Author : Jörg Bendix
ISBN : 9783642381379
Genre : Science
File Size : 80.56 MB
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An interdisciplinary research unit consisting of 30 teams in the natural, economic and social sciences analyzed biodiversity and ecosystem services of a mountain rainforest ecosystem in the hotspot of the tropical Andes, with special reference to past, current and future environmental changes. The group assessed ecosystem services using data from ecological field and scenario-driven model experiments, and with the help of comparative field surveys of the natural forest and its anthropogenic replacement system for agriculture. The book offers insights into the impacts of environmental change on various service categories mentioned in the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (2005): cultural, regulating, supporting and provisioning ecosystem services. Examples focus on biodiversity of plants and animals including trophic networks, and abiotic/biotic parameters such as soils, regional climate, water, nutrient and sediment cycles. The types of threats considered include land use and climate changes, as well as atmospheric fertilization. In terms of regulating and provisioning services, the emphasis is primarily on water regulation and supply as well as climate regulation and carbon sequestration. With regard to provisioning services, the synthesis of the book provides science-based recommendations for a sustainable land use portfolio including several options such as forestry, pasture management and the practices of indigenous peoples. In closing, the authors show how they integrated the local society by pursuing capacity building in compliance with the CBD-ABS (Convention on Biological Diversity - Access and Benefit Sharing), in the form of education and knowledge transfer for application.
Category: Science

The Biodiversity Observation Network In The Asia Pacific Region

Author : Shin-ichi Nakano
ISBN : 9784431540328
Genre : Science
File Size : 78.4 MB
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Biological diversity is important for ecosystem function and services, which in turn is essential for human well-being. Under the Convention on Biological Diversity, international efforts have been made to achieve a significant reduction in the current rate of biodiversity loss. The loss continues, however. The Asia-Pacific region includes both developing countries with high biodiversity and developed countries with sophisticated data collection and analyses, but only limited information about the status quo of biodiversity in this region has been available. Many Asia-Pacific countries have rapidly grown their economies and social infrastructures, causing a loss of biodiversity and requiring an urgent mandate to achieve a balance between development and conservation in the region. In December 2009, scientists successfully organized the Asia-Pacific Biodiversity Observation Network in the region, to establish a network for research and monitoring of ecosystems and biodiversity and to build a cooperative framework. The present volume is the first collection of information on biodiversity in the Asia-Pacific and represents a quantum step forward in science that optimizes the synergy between development and biodiversity conservation.
Category: Science

The Tropical Mountain Forest

Author : Stephan Robbert Gradstein
ISBN : 1931968799
Genre : Science
File Size : 21.66 MB
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Tropical mountain forests are very rich in species and are generally considered as hotspots of biodiversity. They are also of great ecological importance as sources of water and other ecosystem services for millions of people living in the tropics. However, these valuable forest ecosystems are now increasingly being fragmented, reduced, and disturbed by human interventions. This book originated from a lecture series on the tropical mountain forest organized by the Göttingen Centre of Biodiversity and Ecology and held at the University of Göttingen, Germany, during the summer term of 2007. The volume presents a synthesis of current ecological research in Germany on the tropical mountain forest, from an interdisciplinary perspective.
Category: Science

Global Biodiversity In A Changing Environment

Author : F.Stuart Chapin
ISBN : 9781461301578
Genre : Science
File Size : 26.2 MB
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The scientific community has voiced two general concerns about the future of the earth. Firstly, climatologists and oceanographers have focused on the changes in our physical environment, ie climate, oceans, and air. And secondly, environmental biologists have addressed issues of conservation and the extinction of species. There is increasing evidence that these two broad concerns are intertwined and mutually dependent. Past changes in biodiversity have both responded to and caused changes in the earths environment. In its discussions of ten key terrestrial biomes and freshwater ecosystems, this volume uses our broad understanding of global environmental change to present the first comprehensive scenarios of biodiversity for the twenty-first century. Combining physical earth science with conservation biology, the book provides a starting-point for regional assessments on all scales. The book will be of interest to those concerned with guiding research on the changing environment of the earth and with planning future policy, especially in accordance with the Global Biodiversity Convention.
Category: Science

Biodiversity

Author : Takuya Abe
ISBN : 9781461219064
Genre : Science
File Size : 53.4 MB
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Despite acknowledgment that loss of living diversity is an international biological crisis, the ecological causes and consequences of extinction have not yet been widely addressed. In honor of Edward O. Wilson, winner of the 1993 International Prize for Biology, an international group of distinguished biologists bring ecological, evolutionary, and management perspectives to the issue of biodiversity. The roles of ecosystem processes, community structure and population dynamics are considered in this book. The goal, as Wilson writes in his introduction, is "to assemble concepts that unite the disciplines of systematics and ecology, and in so doing to create a sound scientific basis for the future management of biodiversity."
Category: Science

Key Issues For Mountain Areas

Author : Martin F. Price
ISBN : 9789280811025
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 82.4 MB
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Mountain areas cover a quarter of the Earth's land surface, with 26 percent of the global population living in them or very close by.Mountain people and mountain environments are particularly threatened by global environmental change and economic and political forces. A disproportionate number of conflicts occur in mountain regions, and their inhabitants include many of the poorest and most vulnerable in the world.How can we preserve fragile mountain ecosystems that provide critical goods and services, while improving the conditions of those who live there? This book explores these issues, with particular emphasis on appropriate institutions and policies for sustainable mountain development. The book includes information from the Bishkek Global Mountain Summit, the concluding global event of the International Year of Mountains 2002.
Category: Business & Economics

Aquatic Biodiversity Conservation And Ecosystem Services

Author : Shin-ichi Nakano
ISBN : 9789811007804
Genre : Science
File Size : 58.67 MB
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This volume examines the topic of local biodiversity conservation in the Asia-Pacific region, one of the most rapidly changing areas in the world. With a focus on aquatic systems, this book offers insight on the state of local biodiversity, challenges in management and conservation of biodiversity, and newly developed methods for monitoring biodiversity. In addition, because the service provided by an ecosystem for humans is interlinked with conservation, the final part is dedicated to evaluating the socioeconomic aspect of ecosystem services, with special reference to local biodiversity. In effect, all contributions provide information that is invaluable for effective conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity. This work will interest all stakeholders in biodiversity conservation, including policy makers, NPOs, NGOs, environment-related industries, and biodiversity researchers, not only in the Asia-Pacific region, but also across the entire globe.
Category: Science

Co2 Temperature And Trees

Author : Dieter Overdieck
ISBN : 9789811018602
Genre : Science
File Size : 35.55 MB
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This comprehensive book discusses the ecophysiological features of trees affected by the two most prominent factors of climate change: atmospheric CO2 concentration and temperature. It starts with the introduction of experimental methods at the leaf, branch, the whole-tree, and tree group scales, and in the following chapters elaborates on specific topics including photosynthesis of leaves, respiration of plant organs, water use efficiency, the production of and/or distribution patterns of carbohydrates, secondary metabolites, and nutrients, anatomy of cells and tissues, height and stem-diameter growth, biomass accumulation, leaf phenology and longevity, and model ecosystems (soil-litter-plant enclosures). The current knowledge is neatly summarized, and the author presents valuable data derived from his 30 years of experimental research, some of which is published here for the first time. Using numerous examples the book answers the fundamental questions such as: What are the interactions of elevated CO2 concentration and temperature on tree growth and matter partitioning? How do different tree groups react? Are there any effects on organisms living together with trees? What kinds of models can be used to interpret the results from experiments on trees? This volume is highly recommended for researchers, postdocs, and graduate students in the relevant fields. It is also a valuable resource for undergraduate students, decision-makers in the fields of forest management and environmental protection, and any other scientists who are interested in the effect of global change on ecosystems.
Category: Science

Birds And Climate Change

Author : James W. Pearce-Higgins
ISBN : 9780521114288
Genre : Nature
File Size : 88.64 MB
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A critical synthesis of the impacts of climate change on birds, examining potential future effects and conservation responses.
Category: Nature