STRENGTHENING BENEFIT COST ANALYSIS FOR EARLY CHILDHOOD INTERVENTIONS WORKSHOP SUMMARY

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Strengthening Benefit Cost Analysis For Early Childhood Interventions

Author : Board on Children, Youth and Families
ISBN : 9780309145633
Genre : Education
File Size : 50.64 MB
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The deficiencies that many children experience from birth to school age--in health care, nutrition, emotional support, and intellectual stimulation, for example--play a major role in academic achievement gaps that persist for years, as well as in behavior and other problems. There are many intervention programs designed to strengthen families, provide disadvantaged children with the critical elements of healthy development, and prevent adverse experiences that can have lasting negative effects. In a climate of economic uncertainty and tight budgets, hard evidence not only that such interventions provide lasting benefits for children, their families, and society, but also that the benefits translate into savings that outweigh the costs is an extremely important asset in policy discussions. Convincing analysis of benefits and costs would provide a guide to the best ways to spend scarce resources for early childhood programs. Benefit-Cost Analysis for Early Childhood Interventions summarizes a workshop that was held to explore ways to strengthen benefit-cost analysis so it can be used to support effective policy decisions. This book describes the information and analysis that were presented at the workshop and the discussions that ensued.
Category: Education

Early Childhood Intervention

Author : Christina J. Groark
ISBN : 9780313377938
Genre : Education
File Size : 63.76 MB
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The three-volume Early Childhood Intervention: Shaping the Future for Children with Special Needs and Their Families is a unique, comprehensive, and much-needed examination of a critically important issue. In its pages, a diverse array of experts discuss key aspects of policies, laws, rights, programs, and services available to children today. Examinations range from historical roots to present-day considerations, such as culturally and linguistically diverse children, use of technology, and contemporary testing and teaching methods. Throughout, the most current and best available research is combined with professional and clinical experience, wisdom, values, and family perspectives. The work explores issues affecting both children with psychological disorders and those with physical challenges, such as children who are blind or hearing impaired. Coverage includes all aspects of life-skills, medicine, health sciences, education, and child welfare. Although it is focused on programs in the United States, this comprehensive set offers additional insights by including comparisons of U.S. programs and services with their international counterparts.
Category: Education

The Sage Encyclopedia Of Educational Research Measurement And Evaluation

Author : Bruce B. Frey
ISBN : 9781506326146
Genre : Education
File Size : 36.95 MB
Format : PDF
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In an era of curricular changes and experiments and high-stakes testing, educational measurement and evaluation is more important than ever. In addition to expected entries covering the basics of traditional theories and methods, other entries discuss important sociopolitical issues and trends influencing the future of that research and practice. Textbooks, handbooks, monographs and other publications focus on various aspects of educational research, measurement and evaluation, but to date, there exists no major reference guide for students new to the field. This comprehensive work fills that gap, covering traditional areas while pointing the way to future developments. Features: Nearly 700 signed entries are contained in an authoritative work spanning four volumes and available in choice of electronic and/or print formats. Although organized A-to-Z, front matter includes a Reader’s Guide grouping entries thematically to help students interested in a specific aspect of education research, measurement, and evaluation to more easily locate directly related entries. (For instance, sample themes include Data, Evaluation, Measurement Concepts & Issues, Research, Sociopolitical Issues, Standards.) Back matter includes a Chronology of the development of the field; a Resource Guide to classic books, journals, and associations; and a detailed Index. Entries conclude with References/Further Readings and Cross References to related entries. The Index, Reader’s Guide themes, and Cross References will combine to provide robust search-and-browse in the e-version.
Category: Education

Social And Economic Costs Of Violence

Author : National Research Council
ISBN : 9780309220279
Genre : Medical
File Size : 43.41 MB
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Measuring the social and economic costs of violence can be difficult, and most estimates only consider direct economic effects, such as productivity loss or the use of health care services. Communities and societies feel the effects of violence through loss of social cohesion, financial divestment, and the increased burden on the healthcare and justice systems. Initial estimates show that early violence prevention intervention has economic benefits. The IOM Forum on Global Violence Prevention held a workshop to examine the successes and challenges of calculating direct and indirect costs of violence, as well as the potential cost-effectiveness of intervention.
Category: Medical

Considerations In Applying Benefit Cost Analysis To Preventive Interventions For Children Youth And Families

Author : Steve Olson
ISBN : 030930105X
Genre : Medical
File Size : 64.59 MB
Format : PDF
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"Benefit-cost analyses hold great promise for influencing policies related to children, youth, and families. By comparing the costs of preventive interventions with the long-term benefits of those interventions, benefit-cost analysis provides a tool for determining what kinds of investments have the greatest potential to reduce the physical, mental, and behavioral health problems of young people. More generally, the growth of benefit-cost analysis as a field of research and practice represents an exciting and promising trend in the development and implementation of public policies. [...] This report discusses a wide range of issues about benefit-cost analysis, including the level of research rigor that should be met before results from an evaluation are used to estimate or predict outcomes in a cost-benefit analysis; best practices and methodologies for costing prevention interventions; prevention outcomes that currently lend themselves to monetization; processes and methodologies that should be used when linking prevention outcomes to avoided costs or increased revenues; and best methods for handling risk and uncertainty in estimates."--Publisher's description
Category: Medical

The Healthcare Imperative

Author : Roundtable on Evidence-Based Medicine
ISBN : 9780309144339
Genre : Medical
File Size : 60.56 MB
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The United States has the highest per capita spending on health care of any industrialized nation but continually lags behind other nations in health care outcomes including life expectancy and infant mortality. National health expenditures are projected to exceed $2.5 trillion in 2009. Given healthcare's direct impact on the economy, there is a critical need to control health care spending. According to The Health Imperative: Lowering Costs and Improving Outcomes, the costs of health care have strained the federal budget, and negatively affected state governments, the private sector and individuals. Healthcare expenditures have restricted the ability of state and local governments to fund other priorities and have contributed to slowing growth in wages and jobs in the private sector. Moreover, the number of uninsured has risen from 45.7 million in 2007 to 46.3 million in 2008. The Health Imperative: Lowering Costs and Improving Outcomes identifies a number of factors driving expenditure growth including scientific uncertainty, perverse economic and practice incentives, system fragmentation, lack of patient involvement, and under-investment in population health. Experts discussed key levers for catalyzing transformation of the delivery system. A few included streamlined health insurance regulation, administrative simplification and clarification and quality and consistency in treatment. The book is an excellent guide for policymakers at all levels of government, as well as private sector healthcare workers.
Category: Medical

The Early Childhood Care And Education Workforce

Author : Board on Children, Youth and Families
ISBN : 9780309219341
Genre : Medical
File Size : 65.12 MB
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Early childhood care and education (ECCE) settings offer an opportunity to provide children with a solid beginning in all areas of their development. The quality and efficacy of these settings depend largely on the individuals within the ECCE workforce. Policy makers need a complete picture of ECCE teachers and caregivers in order to tackle the persistent challenges facing this workforce. The IOM and the National Research Council hosted a workshop to describe the ECCE workforce and outline its parameters. Speakers explored issues in defining and describing the workforce, the marketplace of ECCE, the effects of the workforce on children, the contextual factors that shape the workforce, and opportunities for strengthening ECCE as a profession.
Category: Medical

From Neurons To Neighborhoods

Author : Committee on Integrating the Science of Early Childhood Development
ISBN : 9780309069885
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 57.73 MB
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How we raise young children is one of today's most highly personalized and sharply politicized issues, in part because each of us can claim some level of "expertise." The debate has intensified as discoveries about our development-in the womb and in the first months and years-have reached the popular media. How can we use our burgeoning knowledge to assure the well-being of all young children, for their own sake as well as for the sake of our nation? Drawing from new findings, this book presents important conclusions about nature-versus-nurture, the impact of being born into a working family, the effect of politics on programs for children, the costs and benefits of intervention, and other issues. The committee issues a series of challenges to decision makers regarding the quality of child care, issues of racial and ethnic diversity, the integration of children's cognitive and emotional development, and more. Authoritative yet accessible, From Neurons to Neighborhoods presents the evidence about "brain wiring" and how kids learn to speak, think, and regulate their behavior. It examines the effect of the climate-family, child care, community-within which the child grows.
Category: Social Science

Parenting Matters

Author : National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine
ISBN : 9780309388573
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 67.1 MB
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Decades of research have demonstrated that the parent-child dyad and the environment of the familyâ€"which includes all primary caregiversâ€"are at the foundation of children’s well- being and healthy development. From birth, children are learning and rely on parents and the other caregivers in their lives to protect and care for them. The impact of parents may never be greater than during the earliest years of life, when a child’s brain is rapidly developing and when nearly all of her or his experiences are created and shaped by parents and the family environment. Parents help children build and refine their knowledge and skills, charting a trajectory for their health and well-being during childhood and beyond. The experience of parenting also impacts parents themselves. For instance, parenting can enrich and give focus to parents’ lives; generate stress or calm; and create any number of emotions, including feelings of happiness, sadness, fulfillment, and anger. Parenting of young children today takes place in the context of significant ongoing developments. These include: a rapidly growing body of science on early childhood, increases in funding for programs and services for families, changing demographics of the U.S. population, and greater diversity of family structure. Additionally, parenting is increasingly being shaped by technology and increased access to information about parenting. Parenting Matters identifies parenting knowledge, attitudes, and practices associated with positive developmental outcomes in children ages 0-8; universal/preventive and targeted strategies used in a variety of settings that have been effective with parents of young children and that support the identified knowledge, attitudes, and practices; and barriers to and facilitators for parents’ use of practices that lead to healthy child outcomes as well as their participation in effective programs and services. This report makes recommendations directed at an array of stakeholders, for promoting the wide-scale adoption of effective programs and services for parents and on areas that warrant further research to inform policy and practice. It is meant to serve as a roadmap for the future of parenting policy, research, and practice in the United States.
Category: Social Science

Key National Education Indicators

Author : National Research Council
ISBN : 9780309261241
Genre : Education
File Size : 66.3 MB
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The education system in the United States is continually challenged to adapt and improve, in part because its mission has become far more ambitious than it once was. At the turn of the 20th century, less than one-tenth of students enrolled were expected to graduate from high school. Today, most people expect schools to prepare all students to succeed in postsecondary education and to prosper in a complex, fast-changing global economy. Goals have broadened to include not only rigorous benchmarks in core academic subjects, but also technological literacy and the subtler capacities known as 21st-century skills. To identify the most important measures for education and other issues and provide quality data on them to the American people, Congress authorized the creation of a Key National Indicators System (KNIS). This system will be a single Web-based information source designed to help policy makers and the public better assess the position and progress of the nation across a wide range of areas. Identifying the right set of indicators for each area is not a small challenge. To serve their purpose of providing objective information that can encourage improvement and innovation, the indicators need to be valid and reliable but they also need to capture the report committee's aspirations for education. This report describes a workshop, planned under the aegis of the Board on Testing and Assessment and the Committee on National Statistics of the National Research Council. Key National Education Indicators is a summary of the meeting of a group with extensive experience in research, public policy, and practice. The goal of the workshop was not to make a final selection of indicators, but to take an important first step by clearly identifying the parameters of the challenge.
Category: Education